Financial Gap and Sustainable Government Financial Interventions to Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: Developing a Sustainable Framework (Published)
Citation: J. F. Adegoke , N.N. Nwankpa, L. A. Bakare, S. A. Tijani, and O. J. Zubair (2022) Financial Gap and Sustainable Government Financial Interventions to Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: Developing a Sustainable Framework, International Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.10, No.1, pp.25-43
Abstract: The Nigerian government, having considered the oil price volatility and the need to address its high reliance of its budget on oil, by diversifying the economy, has embarked on a series of programmes and reforms to boost non-oil sector of the economy, most importantly, the SME subsector. Financing interventions of government would have ordinarily been a succor to change the narrative of ugly financial accessibility of SMEs, but, the level of accessibility and its relationship to SMEs have largely been understudied. Hence, this study seeks to examine the deficiencies in the government interventions to SMEs and present a workable financial intervention framework. Both primary and secondary data were used for this study. Primary data were gathered through the administration of questionnaires. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select 100 registered SMEs in each of the six states of the Southwest Nigeria, while 100 unregistered SMEs were equally selected for inclusiveness totaling 700. The data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential analytical methods with the aid of SPSS. The study has documented the deficiencies of the previous interventions to include poor design of the programme, favoritism in the disbursement of financing facilities, low level of awareness of the facilities, difficulty in the procedures for accessing government financing support. The study thus proposed a framework where the guarantee scheme is designed into result-based financing where the designated scheme will just give guarantee to the banks to provide loan without collateral and with reduced interest, and a first-time loan which will be jointly financed by the banks and the scheme.
Interventions to Enhance Effective Use of Innovative Instructional Methods in Public Health Programmes Implementation in Kenya (Published)
Innovative instructional methods comprise a combination of approaches to teaching and learning that embrace modern technologies and are adaptable to different contexts. Since 1998, the College of Health Sciences of Moi University has embraced these innovative instructional methods to respond to 21st century challenges and trends in health professions’ training and education. Nevertheless, to date, students and lecturers’ experiences on the effectiveness of these methods have not been investigated. Therefore, the study sought the views of students and lecturers on the possible interventions in implementation of innovative instructional methods in Public Health Programme of Moi University. Mixed methods approach was used in this study involving the use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies. This was aimed at providing a comprehensive analysis of the research problem. The quantitative strategy (cross-sectional survey research) was used to gather numeric descriptions of level of knowledge of innovative instructional methods among a sample of lecturers. The qualitative strategy (phenomenological research) was used to identify students and lecturers’ experiences about determinants of use of innovative instructional methods. Pre-tested structured and unstructured sets of questionnaire were administered to students and lecturers of the school of Public Health. Structured interview was conducted among a sample of members of the management team including the Dean School of Public Health and Heads of Various Departments. An observational checklist was used to assess the adequacy of infrastructure and availability of instructional materials. From the study results, all the students and lecturers believe that there are interventions that need to be put in place to improve the use of innovative instructional methods in the implementation of the Public Health Programmes. Therefore, various interventions need to be put in place as suggested by the students and lecturers. These include training workshops to enhance capacity building for the staff and students and a closer follow-up on the implementation of innovative instructional methods. The main reason as to why the interventions were necessary was to help address shortcomings faced in using innovative instructional methods. From the study, it was emphasized that the interventions should be implemented as part of university policy on teaching and learning. It was thus recommended that the government, through the Ministry of Education, should supply schools with adequate resource materials to enable teachers and learners to play their roles satisfactorily in the curriculum implementation process. The study of interventions needed to enhance implementation, specially from the perspectives of the students and lecturers, was essential to understand the true picture of what needs to be done to improve the health education programme outcomes.
The Challenges of Community-Based Interventions for People Living With HIV in Four High HIV Prevalence Regions in Ghana: Lessons for Africa (Published)
The ‘HOPE’ programme is a major community-based care and support programme for providing care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Ghana. This paper explores the challenges confronting the ‘HOPE’ programme and discusses them in the context of wider literature to provide lessons for Ghana and Africa. The study adopted a qualitative approach in which in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with 14 stakeholders and 8 focus group discussions were held with the programme beneficiaries. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. It was identified that only a few of the beneficiaries benefited from skills training leading to employment due to inadequate funding, slow cash flow and inadequate inter-sectoral collaborations. To compound these weaknesses, most reported that they preferred petty trading to the skills offered. Also, the long-term sustainability of the food supplementation once funding is discontinued was a major concern. However, the health education component could be sustained due to peer educators trained.
The production of a storyline connecting issues of policy coherence with reference to reform initiatives designed to enhance teacher professionalism is the central purpose of this article. The storyline is synthesised from conversations with Ghana Education Service (GES) stakeholders and educational leaders about their opinions concerning the Ghana Education Service and teacher support towards policy implementation within the Sissala East District. Teacher professionalism has been taken out of a larger research work on “Implementation of Initiatives in Ghanaian Education: The effect on rural Ghanaian junior high schools” (Inkoom, 2012). The article articulates background data about demographic details of teachers in the Sissala East District; their professional development; teaching and learning, facilities and resources; and, issues of teacher deployment within GES and teacher education.