Tag Archives: Intervention

Why Nigeria Must Care for, Eliminate and Eradicate Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) (Published)

This paper thoroughly reviewed why Nigeria needs to care for, eliminate, and eradicate the neglected tropical disease (NTDs). The paper relied on the review of related literature to sufficiently expound on intervention, accomplishments, disadvantages, and techniques of eradication and elimination of NTDs in Nigeria. It has been documented that NTDs affect about two billion people worldwide, accounting for a quarter of the world’s population, with Africa accounting for over 40% of those affected. Although neglected tropical diseases are preventable and treatable, a significant amount of funds has been invested to eradicate and eliminate them. NTDs are diseases of the poor, according to reports, and efforts to eradicate them must address the causes of poverty as NTDs can cause a variety of problems. This paper suggested ways to eradicate NTDs in Nigeria including strengthening public health systems and supporting governments in the elimination of NTDs and limiting the transmission of disease pathogens by effective vector control among others.

Keywords: CDC, Intervention, NTDs, Nigeria, elimination, preventable diseases

Assessment of Social Capital Formation: A Case Study of Fadama III AF Project Intervention in Sokoto State, Nigeria (Published)

The major focus of this paper was to evaluate social capital formation and its implications to the achievement of Fadama III AF project among Fadama III AF beneficiaries in Sokoto state. Respondents for the study were drawn from seven local government areas of Sokoto state. The survey was conducted using structured questionnaire administered by trained enumerators. To ensure clarity and interpretability, the questionnaire were pre-tested on 40 respondents from the target population, before the main survey. Cluster/group level data via structured questionnaire was used for the study. Two hundred & sixty (260) respondents were randomly selected for the study and 242 questionnaires were used for the survey. The analytical tools used in the methodology include the descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and correlation analysis. The result on socio-economic characteristics showed that the average age of the respondents was 43.64 years while the variable for education has a value of 9.24 years, average of 6 years and maximum of 12 years. For household size, the average value was 7.23 people indicating that the respondents maintain fairly large households and the value for years of experience was 24 indicating that the respondents had long years of experience in farming with a minimum of 3 years and a maximum of 60 years. Mean for the number of skills acquired due to Fadama III AF intervention was 2.4 while the variable for the duration of Fadama III AF training was 2.35 days with a minimum of 0 and maximum of 10 days. This implied that each beneficiary received training for at least 3.3 days and some were trained for a maximum period of 10 days. Result of the study on determinants of social capital formation showed less than 1% of the respondents reported that they were discriminated against based on social status. On other variables of group cohesion, transparency and social inclusion, the respondents reported positive signs of group cohesion. A chi- square value of 90 was obtained and the results of chi-square test showed that there was a significant association (P<.001) between the status of the respondents and the intervention they received. The result of the spearman correlation showed positive and strong association between leadership trust and beneficiary performance. A spearman rho value of 0.635 was obtained. Similarly, there was a correlation between leadership trust and beneficiaries’ income. The value of the correlation coefficient was 0.328 indicating a moderate relationship. Leadership transparency and beneficiaries’ performance had a rho value of 0.607 showing a strong and positive correlation. The study recommends that the peculiarities and the role of women in our society should always be taken into account through formation of separate groups exclusively for women, more emphasis should be given to the issue of natural resource management as well as climate education/adaptation

Keywords: Fadama III AF, Intervention, Project, Social Capital, Sokoto

Attestation of Farming Communities With Regards to Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) Intervention in Damaturu (Published)

The study attests the impacts of Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) on farmers at Dikumari in Damaturu, Yobe State. That is, if the programme had alleviated poverty and increased food stuff production. A reconnaissance survey was carried out to assess their existing Farm sites. Key Informant Interview (KII) and 310 self-administered questionnaires were issued to the respondents and analysed using simple statistics. The analysis reveals that; accessibility to farm input including number of times for training by extension worker to the farmers/beneficiaries has significant effect on the level of satisfaction, and only access to improve seeds and animals has no significance. The study could be adopted and used by relevant authorities on how to train farmers/beneficiaries, monitoring and investment in farm inputs, on-time ploughing and establishment of farm centres. There are a lot of publications on ADPs, but none was conducted on the impact of intervention at the study area.

Keywords: Damaturu, Intervention, Yobe state, agricultural development programme, farming, farming communities

Quality Educators for Every Child: A Pilot Professional Development Intervention in Bangladesh (Published)

Over the past two decades, best practice teaching methods have been the subject of education reform around the world. Quality Educators for Every Child (QE4EC) was an exclusive intervention in Bangladesh aimed to deliver flexible professional development for primary school teachers, focusing on pedagogical skills in the classroom (how to teach) rather than subject skills (what to teach). The endline study focused primarily on the three National Teaching Standards (Pedagogical Knowledge, Classroom Management and Assessment) and sought to measure change and improvement against the benchmark of teacher competencies established during the baseline study. This study highlights the findings from the endline survey and presents background information on the quality of education and teaching in Bangladesh. Endline findings are organized according to the three national teaching standards of focus. Finally, presents recommendations for the teachers and head teachers of the primary schools, as well as policymakers and education administrators in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Child, Educators, Intervention, Teachers

Factors Affecting the Access of Women to Poultry Extension Services In North Western Tigray, Ethiopia (Published)

The main objective of this study was to identify factors that affecting the access of women to poultry extension services in North-Western zone, Tigray.  The necessary data were generated from primary data of selected sites.  The data were subjected to logit econometric regression analysis. The result of the logistic regression model estimate revealed that out of the 10 factors, 5 variables were found to have a significant influence on the probability of women to access of poultry extension service. These are household size, farm land size, access to information about poultry extension, number of visits by extension agent, access to poultry production training. The coefficients of access to information about poultry extension service and numbers of visits by extension agent were statistically significant at 1 percent probability level of significance where as household size and access to poultry production training were statistically significant at 5 percent probability level of significance.

Keywords: Extension Service, Intervention, Poultry, Women Household

Effects of Nutrition Education among Pregnant Women using Fruits and Vegetables for the achievement of MDG5 in Odogbolu LGA, Ogun State (Published)

Background: Nutrition education being a component of health education is propitious to create awareness on how to source, prepare, combine and use food resources for promoting good health among all groups of human beings; especially pregnant women who need adequate nutrition for their physiological needs and improve the health of both the mother and fetus.  Studies have suggested that women have low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a framework globally agreed for measuring development, progress, and poverty reduction through focusing efforts on achieving significant measureable improvement in people’s lives. One of the components of MDG5 is nutrition in pregnancy; this component is the main focus of this study. Method: a quasi-experimental study for quantitative method adopting pre-and post test control experimental analysis was used while 194 pregnant women were purposively selected from 11 randomly selected antenatal clinics in Odogbolu local government area to participate. The nutrition intervention was for 3 months. FGD together with structured-validated questionnaire administered before and after the intervention were used to collect data. ANCOVA was used to test the two hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level.Result: There were significant effects of the intervention on the knowledge (F (2.174) = 1554.466, P <.05) and attitude (F (2.134) = 19.866, P <.05) of the women on fruits and vegetables consumption. The findings revealed a positive effect of the intervention; the participants were relatively aware of the importance of fruit and vegetables consumption in pregnancy after the intervention. Conclusion: The nutrition education intervention appears to have changed the attitude of pregnant women after the post test evaluation. Pregnant women apparently consumed more fruits and vegetables than they were doing before the intervention. Therefore, intensive health education should continuously be given to pregnant women on the value of fruit and vegetable.

Keywords: Education, Intervention, Nutrition, Pregnant Women, Vegetables

The United Nations/African Union Intervention in the Darfur Conflict (2007-2010): Achievements, Challenges and Lessons for the Future (Published)

The paper examined the activities of the African Union (AU) and the United Nations aimed at resolving conflict and maintaining peace and security especially in Darfur, the secondary method of data collection and analysis was adopted. The study made use of conflict theory as the framework of analysis. The findings of the research revealed: that the conflict in Darfur was caused by the colonial heritage, ethnic rivalry, religious intolerance and ecological challenges; that AU and UN have contributed significantly in the peace process in Darfur in the areas of protection of lives and properties, provision of humanitarian assistance, provision of enabling environment for negotiation, among others. Nonetheless, these were not without challenges ranging from logistics, ecological, corruption. The following recommendations were arrived at: proper training for the AU / UN officials on peace keeping; cooperation of all the parties, especially the Sudanese government and AU /UN member states towards conflict resolution; and demonstration of political will by the international community.

Keywords: Achievements, African Union, Challenges, Darfur Conflict, Intervention, Lessons for the Future, United Nations


Intervention in terms of international law, is the term for the use of force by one country or sovereign state in the internal or external affairs of another. In most cases, intervention is considered to be an unlawful. Oppenheim (1992) defines intervention as a forcible or dictorial interference by a State in the affairs of another State calculated to impose certain conduct or consequences on that other State. The military intervention by ECOWAS has not been totally successful in quelling conflicts, crisis of regime change and political succession and military intervention into politics in the West African sub-region and the Africa generally. Intervention can be done by various means, e.g. military, subversive, economic, or diplomatic. The latest of these conflicts in the sub-region which ECOWAS has intervened are Mali and Guinea Bissau in 2012. The objective has been to restore democracy by forcing the military back to the barracks or restricting it to the constitutional role of protecting the territorial integrity from internal insurrection and external aggression. But the  root causes  of military intervention into politics and  crisis of regime change or political succession are yet to be adequately addressed by the ECOWAS, for example, issues of legitimacy crisis, poor governance, bad leadership, political leadership failure, political corruption, electoral crisis and political violence have been largely left unattended or ignored. The political conditions in most of the countries in the sub-region and indeed Africa as a whole are not democracy friendly or unsuitable for democratization and flourishing of democracy or demilitarization (Aning and Bah, 2010; Sperling, 2011). Most scholars like Nowrot and Schabacker (1998) focus on the legality of ECOWAS intervention while the likes of Olonisakan (2010) concentrates on the effectiveness of the military intervention in quelling  conflicts in the West African sub-region. Despite the fact that peacekeeping partnerships are yet to mature, the general consensus is that the world is headed towards greater integration between the UN and regional arrangements such as Ecowas. Such institutions play an important role, especially in a world with power imbalances, distrust and unrest. Cooperation among states towards peacekeeping mechanisms gives birth to opportunities for burden sharing, balancing power, pursuing self-interest and generally preventing the collapse of world order as it stands. In light of the changing security dynamics, peace operations have become both all the more complex and important. Bringing together regional arrangements allows flexibility for political manoeuvring and unity vis-à-vis mission mandate and implementation. Still in its infancy, peacekeeping alliances should be viewed as a means to an end rather than an end unto itself. It is impossible to obtain a foolproof hybrid operation. But with each step forward, finding common ground for joint preparation mechanisms becomes all the more easier.This paper titled “UN-ECOWAS intervention in Mali: Geo-Economic and Strategic Analysis” . The study is basically a qualitative research method relying mainly on secondary sources of data from internet source, official documents and country websites as the method of data collection. We made use of qualitative – descriptive analysis as our method of data analysis, that is, documentary studies of official document and other materials in analyzing the secondary data. The major purpose of embarking on this research is to examine the geo-economic and strategic implications of UN-ECOWAS intervention in Mali. Thus, we were able to make the following principal findings that, one, the delayed UN backed ECOWAS humanitarian intervention deepened the crisis in Mali. Two, that the poorly funded UN supported ECOWAS peacekeeping intervention worsened the terrorist attack in Mali. On the basis of this, we recommend, one, that UN and ECOWAS should evolve a rapid and quick deployment of humanitarian intervention forces in order to lesson crisis. Two, that UN and ECOWAS should adequately fund peacekeeping intervention forces in order to reduce terrorist attack.

Keywords: Ecowas, Geo-Economic and Strategic Analysis, Guinea Bissau, Intervention, Mali, United Nations


Economic security being an ingredient for growth and development, makes no sense if job creation is not an outcome. Hence, this study examined the interplay of entrepreneurship education and urgent social intervention in order to reduce unemployment incidence in Nigeria. This simple descriptive survey design study provided a baseline information for policy-management on education in order to enhance productivity of citizens in Nigeria. Secondary data from National Bureau of Statistics and other data sources were obtained to answer four research questions raised for the study. Data analysis was effected with sample descriptive statistics and tables. Results obtained revealed: high rate of unemployment (across education levels and age groups), low level of entrepreneurship education, high prospects of entrepreneurship education in poverty alleviation and increase employment opportunities; and a tripatriate government intervention in their policies and programmes in order to create employment opportunities for citizens. Therefore, it was recommended that policymakers should emphasize entrepreneurship education at all levels of education while government should invest more on public goods for job opportunities in Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Entrepreneurship, Intervention, Security, Unemployment


Although minimal research supports bibliotherapy in specifically reducing bullying, researchers and practitioners often recommend children’s books and stories to address this topic. The aim, of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an anti-bullying bibliotherapy intervention on primary school children’s bullying behavior and victimization, participant roles, attitudes towards bullying, intentions to intervene in bully–victim problems, perceived efficacy of intervening and actual intervening behavior. An experimental pre-test/post-test design was used. The sample consisted of 98 pupils drawn from the fifth grade classrooms of four primary schools in central Greece. Data were collected using self-report measures, before and immediately after the intervention. The results indicated that the programme contributed to a positive reduction in ‘outsider’ behaviour and enhanced students’ pro-victim attitudes and self-efficacy for intervening in bully/victim incidents. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for anti-bullying interventions.

Keywords: Bibliotherapy, Bullying, Elementary School, Intervention, Victimization