Impacts of Verbal-visual Elements in Selected Bank Industry Advertisements on Viewers Behaviour in Nigeria (Published)
The study examined the verbal-visual elements in selected banking industry advertisements in Nigeria. Verbal-visual messages are very prominent of recent in advertising activities in our society. It presents both facts, vague, false, state of individual lives and prevalent issues in the whole world. Most industries, including banks rely on verbal-visual elements in their advertisements to pass their intended messages to target audience. This study explored the way verbal-visual elements are used to relate events and activities of various banks to the world at large on television in order to attract customers’ attention and affect their attitude positively and earn high patronage from the viewers. The study adopted a mixed method, research design, using the three meta functions of meaning as projected by M. A. K. Halliday, elements of reading images by Kress and Van Leewen and survey to determine the impact of verbal-visual elements on television advertisements of selected banks on the viewers. The data comprised of 30 purposively selected banks advertisements from 3 prominent banks. The banks selected are: First Bank, Zenith Bank and Access Bank. The study revealed that there is interplay between verbal and visual elements used in the adverts which revealed the advertisers intended messages to the viewers. It revealed the viewers’ state of mind on the banks and the effectiveness of the banks services to the general populace. The study concluded that visual and verbal elements mutually reinforce one another as used by the advertisers.
Entrepreneurship Business and Communication Ability of Female Entrepreneurs in Rivers State (Published)
The study investigated entrepreneurship business and communication ability of female entrepreneurs in Rivers State. Two research questions were posed to guide the study while one hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A total of 245 female entrepreneurs were studied as sample, out of population of 750 female entrepreneurs in Rivers State. The instrument for the study was named Entrepreneurship Business and Communication Ability of Female Entrepreneurs in Rivers State Questionnaire (EBCAFERSQ). The EBCAFERSQ was a modified four point Likert scale ranging from Very Important to Not Important. Twenty (20) female entrepreneurs other than those used for the study validated the instrument and a reliability test using test-retest method yielded a correlation of 0.87. Mean rating and standard deviation was used to analyze the research questions and t-test for large group mean was used to test the hypothesis. Findings revealed that the respondents considered communication ability important in business success. Also, the respondents considered communication ability important as it is part of what makes them succeed in entrepreneurship business. Based on the findings and conclusions, recommendations made amongst others were that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) should organize sensitization workshops and seminars in all local government areas within the State to create adequate awareness about communication ability and its’ important to entrepreneurs and female entrepreneurs should educate non female entrepreneurs on the important of communication ability in relation to entrepreneurship business growth and success. This could become possible if female entrepreneurs provide outlets for orientation.