Tag Archives: International

PFAS and International Water Law: Implications for the Prevention, Reduction, and Control of Pollution under Art. 21 of the 1997 UN Watercourses Convention (Published)

Discovered in the 1930s, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a family of thousands of human-made chemicals that are attractive for many applications. The persistence of PFAS in the environment has led to PFAS to bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify in human beings and the environment. Recent studies have determined potential and actual adverse impacts on human health and the environment as a result of such exposure to PFAS. Water is believed to be the main pathway by which PFAS is transferred and diffused into the environment and ultimately entering into contact with human beings. Where these waters are a watercourse and shared by more than one State, there exists an international watercourse and international obligations. This article explores the implications of pollution from PFAS in the use of international watercourses under Art. 21 of the 1997 UN Watercourses Convention.

Citation: Andrew V. Vangh  (2022) PFAS and International Water Law: Implications for the Prevention, Reduction, and Control of Pollution under Art. 21 of the 1997 UN Watercourses Convention, Global Journal of Politics and Law Research, Vol.10, No.7, pp.13-22

Keywords: Environment, International, PFAS, watercourses

Relationship Between International Trade and Economic Growth: A Case of Ho Chi Minh City (Published)

Economic growth has been gradually reduced depending on investment capital, increasing scientific and technical factors. Commercial sector of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) continued to grow, total retail sales of goods and service revenue increased higher than the same period. However, the context of 2019, HCMC has facing many problems such as the limitations of investment resources, human resource quality… This requires HCMC must improve the quality of economic growth. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the determinants affecting the economic growth of HCMC. The researchers surveyed 400 managers related to exporting enterprise in HCMC. They answered 15 questions and 395 samples processed. The data collected from August 2018 to April 2019 in HCM. Simple random sampling technique. The data analyzed Cronbach’s Alpha and the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which used for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. Managers’ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Finally, the findings of the paper have three factors affecting the economic growth of HCMC with significance level 0.01.

Keywords: Economic, Growth, International, trade and export

International Standard for Publishing and Legal Deposit Compliance (Published)

This paper started by encouraging participants to pour creative ideas in writing and publishing, acquiring ISBN/ISSN for easy access and depositing same for posterity.  It goes on to examine the developmental stages of ISBN/ISSN and legal deposit.  It discusses the benefits of ISBN/ISSN and legal deposit to librarians and those in the publishing business, it evaluates the level of compliance and concludes that, though many publishers do comply there is still a lot to be done by the National Library and the publishers.  It recommends that National Library should organise more seminars and workshops to educate publishers and sensitise them on the importance of ISBN/ISSN and legal deposit, that legal deposit nothing should be tied to the issuance of ISBN/ISSN, to enforce compliance.

Keywords: Compliance, Deposit, International, Legal, Standard, publishing

Effects of International Public Sector Accounting Standards on Financial Accountability in Nigeria Public Sector (Published)

The study examined the effect of International Public Sector Accounting Standards on financial accountability in the Nigerian public sector. Specifically, the study investigated the effect of International public sector accounting standards on the efficient management of public fund in the Nigerian public sectors and assessed the extent to which international public sector accounting standards enhance effective budget implementation in the Nigeria public sector. The population of the study comprises of all the staff in internal audit department, accounting department and finance department of the 18 Local Governments in Ondo State. Questionnaire was used to gather information from the selected respondents in the departments. The questionnaire was ranked using five-point Likert scale. The study employed Multiple Regression Analysis and Pearson’s Correlation Matrix to identify the effect of the effect of International Public Sector Accounting Standards on financial accountability in the Nigerian public sector. The study revealed that International Public Sector Accounting Standards has positive and significant effect on the efficient management of public funds in the Nigerian Public sector. The study recommended that the federal government should release fund to power the adoption IPSAS and made fund available for training of civil servants on International Public Sector Accounting Standards software.

Keywords: Accounting Standards, Financial Accountability, International, Nigeria, Public Sector

Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Nigeria: A Conceptual Appraisal (Published)

A recent reality of globalization is the harmonization of accounting standards. Accounting is said to be the language of business; if this assertion holds true, then the move by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to harmonise accounting standards used in the preparation of financial statements across the world is a move in the right direction. This study examined the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria with particular emphasis on the prospects and challenges of IFRS adoption in Nigeria. The major objective of the study was to identify the benefits and challenges of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria. The descriptive research design was used in the investigation that led to the production of this paper. Data were initially collected through review of existing literature and thereafter through questionnaire administration and personal interviews. Tables and percentages were used in summarizing data obtained. Based on the results of the study, it was found that adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria will help Nigeria and Nigerian corporations, among other benefits, secure access to global capital markets. Thus, the study concluded that Nigeria will benefit to a significant extent from the adoption of IFRS. One of the recommendations made was that Government at all levels, financial regulatory agencies, professional accountancy bodies, private and public companies and institutions, and accountancy firms should fast-track IFRS education in order to boost the acquisition of IFRS knowledge and competences.

Keywords: Adoption, Appraisal, Financial, International, Nigeria, reporting standards

Effects of International Marketing Environments on Entrepreneurship Development (Published)

Entrepreneurs all over the world seeks ways of introducing their products to international markets, unfortunately the international marketing environment pose a lot of opportunities and threats to foreign entrants. The cultural environment and political and technological environment has a lot to do in entrepreneurial success in global markets. This study employed the descriptive research design and questionnaires were used as instruments for gathering the much needed data. Findings revealed that the technological advancement has less significant impact on business transactions of international entrepreneurs which could be traceable to the fact that not all entrepreneurs are technological inclined to transact businesses. Furthermore, the political systems and governmental regulations on business dealings have a lot to do with entrepreneurial success in the international markets. The study recommends the establishment of a supportive governmental framework to serve as a platform for the willing entrepreneurs to succeed in the international market.

Keywords: Comparative Advantage, Entrepreneurship, International, Market, Nigeria

Did Embraer Succeed in Adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Brazil (Published)

This article investigates the challenges that the Brazilian Aeronautics Company Embraer (Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica), faced to adapt its accounting system to the IFRS standards, adopted in Brazil in 2010. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) were created by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and IFRS Foundation in 2001, with the objective of unifying different business accountability standards in European Union (EU). From 1973 to 2001, the International Accounting System (IAS) was issued by the Board of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). On April 1st 2001, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) created the International Accounting Standards (IAS), through the adoption of the existing IAS and the Standing Interpretations Committee standards (SICs). The IASB, then gave birth to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), which spread very fast through European Union, and then to the rest of the world. Brazilian Federal Government adopted its standards nine years later, in 2010. Since then, the major Brazilian and multinational companies are facing challenges to harmonize their accountability system to the IFRS standards. This article investigates how Embraer, the first company in the Brazilian aeronautics segment, adapted to the IFRS standards, since its implementation in 2010. We analyzed Embraer’s IFRS demonstratives, in comparison to a European equivalent competitor, Airbus, throughout 2010-2015 periods. Finally, we brought managerial recommendations, as well as future research implications.

Keywords: Accounting Systems, Embraer, Financial Reporting, International, Standards

The Validity of International Commercial Arbitration Agreement (Published)

The Arbitration Agreement constitutes the relinquishment of an important right to have the dispute resolved judicially and creates others rights. The rights it creates are the right to establish the process for resolving the dispute. In their arbitration agreement, the parties can select the rules that will govern the procedure, the location of the arbitration, the language of the arbitration, the law governing the arbitration, and frequently, the decision-makers, whom the parties may choose because of their particular expertise in the subject matter of the parties’ dispute. The parties’ arbitration agreement gives the arbitrators the power to decide the dispute and defines the scope of that power. In essence, the parties create their own private system of justice. The parties’ arbitration agreement is frequently contained in a clause or clauses that are embedded in the parties’ commercial contract. The agreement to arbitrate is thus entered into before any dispute has arisen, and is intended to provide a method of resolution in the event that a dispute will arise. However, if there is no arbitration clause in the parties’ contract, and a dispute arises, at that time the parties can nonetheless enter into an agreement to arbitrate, if both sides agree. Such an agreement is called submission agreement. In light of the important rights that are extinguished when the parties agree to arbitration, this paper aims to examine the question of the validity of arbitration agreement. In others words what are the characteristics of a valid arbitration agreement? What does a valid arbitration agreement imply as legal effects? Arbitration is a creature of consent, and that consent should be freely, knowingly, and competently given Therefore, to establish that parties have actually consented, many national laws, as well as the New York Convention, require that an arbitration agreement be in writing

Keywords: Arbitration Agreement Validity, Commercial, Competence-Competence, International