Effect of Maize/Bambara Groundnut Inter-Crop on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield Parameter of the Intercrop Species (Published)
The rationale behind the intercropping system is that it is an efficient utilization of land, and other natural resources and economic production system as it increased yield per unit area. Against this back drop, a field trial was carried out at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Anambra State to evaluate the effect of maize/Bambara groundnut intercropping on soil properties, growth and yield parameters of the intercrop species. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three treatments consisting of sole maize (SM), sole bambara groundnut (SB), intercrop maize/bambara groundnut (IMB). The treatments were replicated four (4) times and data collected were subjected to an analysis of variance test and mean were separated using least significant difference. The result obtained from the study showed that among the soil parameters tested, avail. P, TN and exchangeable K showed statistically significant difference among the treatments. The value obtained for TN, OC, Mg, EA and ECEC showed 12.50%, 3.2%, 33.33%, 20% and 0.60% increase in IMB relative to SB. The data obtained from the agronomic parameters tested showed that intercropping system greatly influenced the plant height, grain yield, relative and equivalent yield of maize in the intercrop and not effective in the intercrop bambara groundnut. The result obtained also showed an intercrop advantage with land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.54. With these findings, the farmers in the locality are advised to include bambara groundnut or any other legumes in their crop production systems for efficient and adequate utilization of natural resources and land management
Comparison of Integrated Pest Management Technique used to Control the Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella on Cauliflower Brassica Oleracea (Published)
The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella L. is the most significant pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. The present research was conducted to control it on the cauliflower, Brassica oleracea L. by 5 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques compared with control (untreated) at Agricultural Research Station Baffa, Mansehra, Pakistan. The Randomize Complete Block Design was used for the experiments with 3 replications. For intercropping, the coriander, Coriandrum sativum L.; for chemicals control, the lorsban; for neem seeds extract and oil, Azadirchata indica Juss and for biological control, the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii were used. The DBM density increased with increased of temperature, therefore, it was the highest (31.0В±0.2 larvae/plant; n=6) at the maximum temperature, i.e., 35 В°C in 4th week. No parasitism was found until 2nd week, however, the highest (47%) was during 7th week, moreover, it was 5% at the end of 8th week (n=6). During parasitization, DBM population density was 23.8В±2.6, however, mummies and adult parasitoids were 3.1В±1.4, moreover, mean parasitism was 13.0В±1.7. The actual lowest DBM density was compared, obtained by application of 5 IPM techniques (n=6): A. indica seeds extract (T3): 2.1 larvae/plant in 8th week < chemicals control (T2): 3.5 larvae/plant in 1st week < biological control (T5): 4.7 larvae/plant in 5thth week = intercropping (T1): 4.7 larvae/plant in 8th week < A. indica oil (T4): 6.6 larvae/plant > control (T0): 35.6 larvae/plant both in 1st week. The lowest yield of B. oleracea was obtained in control (2.9 ton/ha), however, the highest was by A. indica seeds extract (29.1 tons/ha). Therefore, it is recommended that A. indica seeds extract can be used by farmers against DBM in order to get the highest yield and the lowest infestation.