This research set out to investigate the extent to which the language of agricultural inputs (chemicals) sold in Cameroon markets is intelligible and reliable to farmers, most especially the rural farmers. The South West, North West, West and Far North Regions were taken as case studies. Data was collected from inscriptions on inputs, farmers’ questionnaires, interviews with input sellers, agricultural experts and farmers, as well as personal observation of the researchers. The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively following Swales (1990) and Bhatia’s (1993) approaches to genre analysis. The findings from questionnaires and interviews revealed that the language of agricultural input products use in Cameroon is less intelligible to rural farmers. This is because of the scientific nature, the formulae and abbreviations used which are difficult for a non- agricultural expert to understand and the fact that most rural farmers have low educational levels. Moreover, some chemicals sold in Cameroon markets do not have labeling and the language of withdrawal period. In addition, the result from questionnaires, interviews and personal experiences revealed that the language of most inputs like fungicide and herbicide are unreliable. Those who respect the application as prescribed on the chemicals fail in their farms and those who violate succeed. This unreliability and absence of instructional language have negative impacts on agricultural output and human health.
Effects of the west Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and the National Examination Council (NECO) Oral English Syllabi on Secondary School Leavers’ Spoken English in Kogi State, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated the effects of the adequacy of WAEC and NECO Oral English Examination Syllabi on secondary school leavers’ spoken English in Kogi state, Nigeria. The research is categorically informed by the poor performance of secondary school students in WAEC and NECO Oral English Test and lack of intelligibility in their communications. A survey research design was used for the study. Five schools were sampled for the study. Oral production test was conducted in order to determine students’ oral proficiency with criterion-reference and bi-dialectal/transitional approach in view. Findings generally reveal that the two syllabi (WAEC and NECO) were adequate, but the deliberate exclusion of Alternative A Test (listening and speaking) has rendered the Ora English Test unchallenging. Based on the findings, the paper recommends, among others, that the teaching of Oral English should be practise-oriented, involving real life situation instead of only theory that is currently being practiced.
The study investigated the handling of the supra-segmental features among Erei speakers of English. A survey questionnaire was administered to 150 respondents in selected secondary schools under study. The subjects were grouped by age into three: 10-12 years, 13-15 years and 16 years and above. Two research questions were formulated to direct the course of the study. Data were analysed in five sections through the application of four gradable items: SA – strongly agree, A – agreed, D – disagreed and SD – strongly disagreed. Findings showed that the prosodic features such as stress, rhythm and intonation are the basis for intelligibility than the individual segments, but the teaching of the features received less attention in the class as well as the teachers in the study did not have a good command of the prosodic features in their spoken English. The provision of well-designed curriculum and syllabus, oral textbooks with targeted supra-segmental features, well-equipped libraries and language laboratories, the introduction of radio and television language programmes and on-the-job training and retraining of teachers in spoken English were suggested to help solve the problem of intelligibility among the Erei people as L2 users of English in Nigeria.
Nigerian English has been recognized as a distinctive variety of world Englishes. However, descriptive analyses and documentation of what constitute standard and non- standard Nigerian English have not been purposefully established. This study undertook to analyze lexical deviations in Popular Nigerian English (PNE) using Adesanoye’s (1973) Varieties One and Two exponents. The study assesses the national and international intelligibility of lexical peculiarities in Popular Nigerian English and also determines the factors responsible for the peculiarities. Data were collected from four hundred students and two hundred civil servants who have received formal education in the English language. The subjects were Primary school graduates, Junior Secondary School graduates and Senior secondary school graduates exemplifying Variety One exponents. The Second Year undergraduates and the Civil servants with OND or NCE certificate exemplified Variety Two exponents. The subjects were selected by a Stratified Random Sampling Technique (SRS) and our focus is on Varieties One and Two exponents. These are PNE writers. Four hundred essay scripts and two hundred letters written by the subjects were read. The distinctive PNE forms that have high frequency of occurrence and wide distributions in the corpus were analyzed. A quantitative approach using frequency count and simple percentages was adopted in the analysis of data. The study revealed that Popular Written Nigerian English deviates from SBE at the lexical level. The lexical deviations were found to be widespread and regular. Again, the study revealed that popular written Nigerian English is intelligible both nationally and internationally at the lexical level when examined in contexts. The forms which emerged were as a result of the socio-linguistic realities of the Nigerian environment and culture.