Tag Archives: Integration

Integrating English Language Skills at Under-Graduation Level through Principled Eclecticism Method (Published)

According to academic research, linguists have demonstrated that there is not one single best method for everyone in all contexts, and that no single teaching method is good or bad or inherently superior to the others.  The ground reality is that it is not always possible and appropriate to apply the same pedagogy to all learners, who have different objectives, environments and learning needs like Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.  The modern teacher, in fact needs to use a variety of methodologies and approaches, choosing techniques from each method that he considers more effective and applies them according to learning context and objectives.  A professional EFL teacher follows what is described as the Principled Eclecticism approach, where students are also encouraged to be autonomous in their learning.  The teacher can integrate and develop all four skills of English, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing.  English language learners should not expect the teacher to deliver everything to them ready-made but should realize their own sense of responsibility with self-motivation, self-direction and spirit of self-learning English as a second language through the techniques that suits to their needs of learning the target language.  The present critical situation of teaching-learning English in Jazan University has been interrogated through questionnaire and opinionnaire developed for the teachers and the students for valid and reliable data.

Keywords: Integration, Needs, Pedagogy, Skills, learner, principled-eclectic-approach

Assessment of Teachers Implementation of Social Studies Curriculum Contents in Private Secondary Schools in Aguata Education Zone: A Catalyst for Achieving National Integration in Nigeria (Published)

The research work deals on the assessment of teachers’ implementation of social studies curriculum contents in private secondary schools in Aguata education zone: A catalyst for achieving national integration in Nigeria. A survey design was adopted for the study.  The population consists of fifty teachers teaching social studies in junior secondary schools in Aguata education zone.  Purposive sampling technique was used to sample forty teachers.  The questionnaire was the major instrument for data collection and it was validated by two experts in curriculum and social studies.  The mean statistics was used to analyse the data collected.  The findings of the study showed that the concepts or topics such as cross cultural studies, inter-tribal marriages, national institutions, national symbols promote national integration.  It was also discovered that teachers of social studies face difficulties in relating some of the topics in physical environment, peace education, national values to national integration.  The paper also discovered that field trip, discussion and inquiry methods are appropriate for teaching social studies for achievement of national integration but rarely used by teachers, and instructional resources for implementing social studies curriculum content are not adequately provided.  The paper concluded that adequate instructional materials, training and retraining of teachers, employment of qualified social studies teachers are necessary conditions for effective implementation of social studies curriculum content for achieving national integration in Nigeria.  Conclusion and relevant recommendations were made. 

Keywords: Curriculum, Integration, National, Social Studies

Integration and Usage of ICT by Social Studies Teachers in Teaching in Junior High Schools in the Gomoa West District of Ghana (Published)

The study focused on Social Studies teachers’ knowledge and usage of ICT in teaching Social Studies in Junior High Schools in the Gomoa West District of the Central Region of Ghana. The study was hinged on Technology Acceptance Model and used concurrent triangulation design within the mixed method approach. Census sampling was used to select all the 77 Social Studies teachers and purposive sampling was used to select 5 out of the 77 for the study. The study used questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and non-participant observations as instruments to collect the data. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages were used to analyze the quantitative data and qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The study’s findings showed that greater number of the JHS Social Studies teachers possess knowledge in ICT, have good perception about ICT integration in teaching Social Studies and are willing to use ICT in teaching.  However, only few of the teachers integrated ICT in teaching the subject. This was as a result of inadequate computers and other ICT tools, lack of electricity in schools and some of the Social Studies teachers’ wrong perception about ICT integration in teaching Social Studies.  It is recommended that Social Studies teachers be given regular in-service training; be provided with computers and other ICT tools, by the Gomoa West District Education Office. Head teachers, Circuit Supervisors should encourage, motivate and supervise Social Studies teachers to integrate ICT in teaching Social Studies. 

Keywords: ICT, Integration, Junior High Schools, Social Studies Teachers

Integration, Interdependence and Contagion of Emerging and Developed Market (Published)

International diversification decreases systematic risk that can not decrease by domestic diversification. This research is about integration, interdependence and contagion in developed markets, emerging markets and a combination of developed and emerging markets in the Mortgage Crisis. Johansen is being used for how far developed market integrated hat emerging markets are . The Contagion was signed by increasing the correlation but there is a bias in correlation so Fisher is used in this research. The results of this study indicate that developed markets are more integrated than emerging markets. Therefore, investing in emerging markets can have less country than developed markets. Contagion happened in Ireland and Qatar. As a result, investment companies need to invest in interdependence country than in contagion country.

Keywords: Contagion, Developed Market, Emerging Market, Integration, Interdependence

Integrating Rural Communities for the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (1- 3) In Nigeria (Published)

The term Sustainable Development is fast becoming a household term in the globe. The seventeen [17] Sustainable Development Goals were formed out of  vision 2030 development agenda, presented by the United Nation as a development framework for members nations. This paper therefore examines the achievement of the first three Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria via Rural integration approach. The concepts of Rural integration, and its importance to development and the achievement of the nation’s Sustainable  Development Goals were highlighted. The analysis of the concept of integrated Rural development was handled in a manner to enhance the understanding of the concept and its potency in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the nation. The features and conditions of our Rural communities were also highlighted. Some suggestion as a forward were proffered. The paper concludes that with the integration of our Rural communities, the first three Sustainable Development Goals, which directly reflects on the rural people will be achieved.

Keywords: Development Goal, Integration, Rural Community, Sustainable

Professional Updates for Language Teachers in A Digitally Infected Clime: The ICT Utilization Sensibility (Published)

The teaching profession in Nigeria is faced with a lot of problems which militate against the integrity of the profession.  This is because educators have come to realize that any meaningful improvement in the education that students receive is highly dependent on the quality of the instruction that the teacher provides.  The paper looks into the training and retraining needs of English language teachers for effective utilization of ICT in secondary schools in Ekiti State.  The research design was descriptive.  The population for the study comprised all English Language teachers (571) in the senior secondary schools in Ekiti State.  Multistage random sampling technique was utilized in selecting the sample.  In all, all (20) English Language teachers in the selected schools were used as the sample.  A research instrument titled “Teachers’ Assessment of the Need for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in English Language (TANICTENG)” was tested for both validity and reliability procedures and used for data collection.  Reliability coefficients of 0.67was obtained. Conclusion was drawn and recommendations were made among which are that teachers should engage in personal development; Teacher Training institutions should see to effective teacher education programmes; government at all levels should create an enabling environment that could help the teachers to perform optimally, among others.

Keywords: Hyper-dynamism, ICT, Integration, Pedagogy, blended learning

Reading and Writing Connection: Insights into an Integrative Approach to Developing and Teaching Reading and Writing in EFL Classrooms (Published)

This article reviews and analyses four textbooks purportedly written for teaching reading and writing integratively. It attempts to shed light on the approaches and strategies adopted to establish the connection between reading and writing. This investigation is intended to help and provide guide to language material developers, more soundly and effectively, as they embark on designing ESL/ EFL courses, specifically, reading and writing. The analysis is based on whether each textbook maintains well-balanced activities in both domains throughout its sections or units, the types of reading and writing tasks and exercises manipulated throughout these textbooks and whether these textbooks address other language aspects such as grammar, vocabulary, speaking, listening, etc. The analysis has revealed that these books maintained, to a large extent, balanced activities in reading and writing throughout their sections or units, i.e., the reading activities were set to help students to write effectively using the lexical items and sentence structures they experienced in the reading texts. Activities such as review (an activity that discusses styles and writing techniques used by the author in the reading passage), summary, paragraph and essay writing, collaborative learning activities and topics for discussion were some of the main features of these textbooks. Some of these textbooks included activities in grammar and speaking skill. Language material developers as well teachers/instructors are advised to use the outcomes of this investigation as a guide to plan and prepare connected reading and writing activities for their language classrooms. The best situation for any language context is either using these strategies and approaches to produce their own materials, adopting or adapting these published materials to suit their students’ needs, taking into account the cultural and linguistic differences between their students and learners for whom these textbooks were written.

Keywords: Integration, developing reading/writing material, reading and writing relationships, vocabulary in context.

Integrating Rural Communities for the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (1- 3) In Nigeria (Published)

The term Sustainable Development is fast becoming a household term in the globe. The seventeen [17] Sustainable Development Goals were formed out of  vision 2030 development agenda, presented by the United Nation as a development framework for members nations. This paper therefore examines the achievement of the first three Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria via Rural integration approach. The concepts of Rural integration, and its importance to development and the achievement of the nation’s Sustainable Development Goals were highlighted. The analysis of the concept of integrated Rural development was handled in a manner to enhance the understanding of the concept and its potency in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the nation. The features and conditions of our Rural communities were also highlighted. Some suggestion as a forward were proffered. The paper concludes that with the integration of our Rural communities, the first three Sustainable Development Goals, which directly reflects on the rural people will be achieved.

Keywords: Development Goal, Integration, Rural Community, Sustainable

Insights into Francophone Cameroonians’ Experiences in Active Participation in Protestant Churches and Mission in Bamenda, Cameroon (Published)

This article is an investigation into the processes behind Cameroon Francophone’s involvement in historical churches in Bamenda to ultimately analyse how these churches aid migrants’ integration into the host society. Attributing the presence of Francophone Christian communities in Bamenda to internal immigration forces, the paper shows how Francophone Cameroonians depend on religion to cope with the difficulties of living in a Bamenda society that is foreign to them. Based largely on archival and oral sources, the paper examines the issues related to migrants’ integration in churches in Bamenda as well as the development of immigrant congregations of some historical Francophone churches in the host society. The paper submits that the insensitivity of host historical churches in Bamenda to migrants’ participation difficulties occasioned the development of migrant-led churches which serve as loci for identity and as avenues for adapting into the socio-religious context of the host society.

Keywords: Bamenda, Churches, Francophone Cameroonians, Integration, Migrant-Led Churches, Migration, National Unity.

The Dynamics of Transition of Rural Migrants to Urban Society: Case Study of Igbomina Migrant Community in Lagos (Published)

Adaptation is the process of adjustment of an individual organism to environmental conditions while integration is the process of opening a group, community, place or organization to all members, regardless of race, religion gender or social class. The dynamics of the process of transition of Igbomina people from rural to urban society was gradual and spread over a long time. They initially established in town the socio-political institutions and behavioral patterns which were familiar to them to fulfill most of the needs, which they met in urban environment. Even in later migration, there was not much changes to the pattern of family life. Migrants retained their rural system of traditional values, the concept of the urban culture did not develop due to the well-established culture of circular migration. The range of relationships that ethnic groups maintained among one another within the frame work of contemporary migratory phenomena includes cases such as assimilation, pacific coexistence and animosity. It must be underlined however, that in spite of the integration process, the identity of Igbomina was not obliterated. The transition process of Igbomina into Lagos urban society could therefore be best described as acculturation rather than assimilation in that Igbomina culture in Lagos cannot be described as an extension of the northern Yoruba sub-culture from where they came to Lagos, it was rather a symbiotic relationship between the Yoruba, Hausa, Ibo etc. living together as neighbours.      

Keywords: Assimilation, Dynamics, Integration, Migration, Transition

The Effect Of Supply Chain Integration On Operational Performance: A Study On Chemical And Chemical Product Manufacturing Firms In Ethiopia (Published)

The aim of this research is to empirically examine the effect of supply chain integration on operational performance. In order to address the research objective, a quantitative survey approach is used to collect the relevant data from the target population of the study which includes Chemical and Chemical product manufacturing firms in Ethiopia. A questionnaire was administered to target respondents to collect a primary data for the study.  To analyze  the  data this study applied a descriptive  and  non  parametric  statistics including Kendall’s  correlation and Kruskal Wallis  test  to  see  the  significant  relationship between hypothesized variables as well as  to  measure the direction and strength of the relationship. The result from study shows a significant positive effect of supply chain integration construct on the operational performance of firms. However, this research investigation did not found statistically significant evidence on the effect of internal integration on external integrations

Keywords: Ethiopia, Integration, Manufacturing, Supply Chain, chemical product

Teachers’ Understanding and Use of Thematic Approach in Teaching and Learning of Social Studies in Rivers State (Published)

The purpose of the study was to determine teachers’ understanding and practice towards thematic approach in teaching and learning of social studies in Rivers State. The study was guided by three research questions. The study adopted a descriptive survey method. The population consisted of all the teachers in Obia-Akpor Local Government Area. A sample size of 56 respondents was used for the study. The instrument used for gathering data from respondents was self-constructed questionnaire titled “Teachers’ Understanding and Practice of Thematic Instructional Questionnaire (TUPTIQ)”.The data gathered were analysed with the mean and standard deviation. The following emerged as the major findings of the study: that teachers’ understanding of thematic approach in teaching social studies is not sufficient; teachers do not have adequate thematic practice approach in teaching social studies; and that teachers’ years of experience is not a determinant factor for teachers’ utilization of thematic instruction in teaching social studies. Based on the findings and conclusion of the study, the following recommendations were made: Special attention should be given to teachers’ education by all stakeholders; Government should employ competent staff as well as funded programmes to enable the teachers select and use learning activities/approaches that will provide opportunities for the learner to concretize learnt concept. Regular symposium should also be organized for teachers to update themselves of the current trends in education.

Keywords: Integration, Interdisciplinary Social Studies, Thematic Instruction

Status of Technologies in Business Education Departments of Tertiary Institutions in Ebonyi State for Effective Integration of Electronic Learning (Published)

The study was conducted to assess status of technologies in business education departments of tertiary institutions in Ebonyi state for effective integration of electronic learning. Two purposes of study and corresponding research questions provided guide for the study. Two hypotheses were tested in the study. The population was 37 business education lecturers and 748 Business Education Students in three tertiary institutions that offer Business Education programmes. All the business education lecturers and 486 Business Education students were used. This gave a sample size of 523. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire titled “Integrating e-learning into Business Education Programs (IEBEP)”, which consists of 39 literature-based items meant to elicit information from the respondents. The reliability of the instrument was ensured by using Cronbach alpha reliability computation which yielded a co-efficient index of 0.98. A total of 523 copies of the instrument were administered to the respondents but 522 were correctly filled and returned. Mean, standard deviation and t-test statistical techniques were used to analyze the data that emerged from the study and the hypotheses tested at 0.05 alpha level. Results from the data analyzed showed that most computer equipment needed for integration of e-learning are available in business education departments, most computer networks are lacking in business education department. It was recommended, among others, that government and the school management should upgrade computer resources in Business Education departments

Keywords: Business Education, Electronic Learning, Integration, Status

Labour Practices in the Informal Sector of Nigerian Economy: A Critical Analysis (Published)

The dual labour market hypothesis recognized the existence of informal labour market as part of the Nigerian labour market dichotomy. This is to the extent that informal sector represents an important part of the economy and certainly of the labour market and thus plays a major role in employment creation, production and income generation in Nigeria. Therefore, this paper examines the nature of labour practices within the Nigerian context of the informal sector and the linkages between the formal and the informal sectors with focus on ways of improving labour practices in the informal sector

Keywords: Child Labour, Informal Sector, Integration, Labour Market, Labour Practices, decent work

Traditional and Modern Medicine: A Survey of Views on Its Integration in Ghana (Published)

The contributions of Traditional and Modern Scientific Medicines to health care delivery have attracted a great deal attention in most communities worldwide. In Ghana, in spite of differences that have characterised both medicines, their existences have helped improved health care delivery services among societies. They have existed independently ensuring improvements in the restoration of healthiness and wellbeing. As its objective, the study examines perceptions with regard to the fusion of traditional and modern scientific medicines in health care delivery in Ghana. It presents and analyses views of 150 individuals in two towns in Ghana -Kumasi and Akoefe-Avenui -that practice and use both forms of medicines. Interviews and questionnaire served as the main research tools used in the collection of data among respondents. The study revealed that though traditional and modern scientific medicines are patronised by most people, they exist differently; there seems to be no formal integration existing between them in major health institutions. While some respondents (over 70%) supported the integration of both forms of medicine, others resented. The study, therefore, recommends a discourse between traditional and scientific medical practitioners so as to build trust and respect, hence, cordiality and cooperation between them. Also, proper national framework and policy should be put in place to sustain and make certain their integration so as to improve health care delivery.

Keywords: Health Care, Integration, Survey, Traditional and Modern Medicine

Integrating Reading and Writing Instruction in English Language Teaching Programme to Enhance Learners Writing Performance (Published)

This paper titled integrating reading and writing instruction in English Language teaching programme to enhance leaner’s English writing performance examined the effect of applying skills integration strategy on the performance of trainees in written English in the areas of content, organisation, expression and mechanical accuracy. The study adopted the quasi-experiment with pre-test-post-test design to study the effect on two groups of students, the experimental and the control groups. Each groups consisted of eighty eight (88) subjects. The experimental group was exposed to integration of reading and writing strategy for six weeks while the control group was not given the treatment. The two groups were tested and the result revealed that the experimental group performed better than the control group because of the treatment given. The paper recommended among others that teachers should adopt integration of skills as a teaching strategy to enhance leaner’s performance in English writing exercises.

Keywords: English language teaching, Integration, Learner’s Writing Performance., Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE), Reading and Writing Instruction


Nigerian films, under the auspices of Nollywood are becoming extremely popular among the Africans that are residing in the West African sub-region. In line with the integration agenda of ECOWAS, Nollywood films have been re-emphasising African cultural practises into the West African diasporas living in the various countries in sub-Region and in addition re- infusing the African practices and cultures into the original inhabitants of the various countries within the region. In the post-Cold War era, the Nigerian Nollywood industry has been leading a cultural shift from historical and written facts to visual images without losing the touch of Nigerian English and native dialects, which emphasises the concept of informal education of people by enticing images more that persuasion of words. It is a truism that Nollywood films has gained wide acceptance because of its accessibility among the youth and adolescence in West Africa, and are gradually gaining wider acceptance among the African diasporas within the rest of the Region in Africa and African diasporas in Europe ,America, and the Asian countries. This acceptance was made possible because of socio-cultural and educational values. It is hard to avoid Nigerian films in Africa because public buses show them, as do many restaurants and hotels. Nollywood, as the business is known, churns out about 50 full-length features a week, making it the world’s second most prolific film industry after India’s Bollywood. The streets of Lagos and the outskirts are flooded with camera crews shooting on location. West African people enjoy watching Nigerian home video films, thereby reinforcing the historical socio-cultural bond. This paper assesses the transnational roles of Nollywood films, its integration force by binging the West African nationals living in the sub-Region together socio-culturally, thereby promoting the ideals of the founding fathers of ECOWAS. These roles will be assessed and analysed through questionnaires that will be administered and interviews both structured and unstructured that will be conducted Benin Republic and Ghana representing Francophone and Anglophone countries respectively. The conclusion reached will be of benefits to the promoters of Nollywood towards positive projection and delivery of African values, norms and cultures within West Africa, to other African countries, so as to enhance the regional integration of African Union.

Keywords: Diasporas, Ecowas, Integration, Nollywood


Vision is ordinarily a very important source of information about the world, the ‘stuff’ on which cognition comes to operate. The provision of the low vision services in Kenya started in 1980s. Before then, all learners were educated as blind irrespective of their degree of vision loss. Christoffel Blinden Mission conducted a survey, which revealed that there was need to encourage children with low vision to use their sight, since they were using techniques for the blind. It was also discovered that 15-25% of the learners did not require special education services at all. This low vision services was first provided in the school for the blind students and then in the integrated schools. This paper thus sought to establish the effect on academic performance for visually impaired students brought about by this integration. To achieve this, the author considered carrying out a study in Kericho County. The study was done between September and November 2006 using a case study design. Questionnaires focus group discussion and document analysis were the main techniques used in data collection. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study and data was analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. It was found that an integrated education program has recorded better performance for students with visual impairment than in the specially designed schools for the visually impaired students as perceived by students. On average, it was observed that students with visual impairments perform better than their sighted counterparts.

Keywords: : Academic Performance, Effect, Integration, Students with visual Impairments.


Nigeria is a plural society. By this is meant the country is a melting pot of ethnic nationalities, class, regions, religions and other socio-cultural markers. Its pluralism has shaped and continued to manifest in its politics. The political class, in collaboration with their religious counterparts has exploited ethnicity and religion as symbols of mobilization and instrument of negotiation for patronages and sharing of national resources. Thus, most conflicts which ordinarily could have been seen as distribution based had assumed ethnic and religious character. These conflicts are virulent and had caused destruction of lives and property of innocent Nigerians. The conflicts have also undermined the peaceful coexistence among the Nigerian peoples, thus scuttling the integration efforts of the country. This study Is both interrogative analytical. It is interrogative to the extent that it searches for the causes of ethno-religious conflicts in the country. The study is also analytical in the sense that it explains from the frog’s eye view, the variables responsible for those interminable conflicts.The study concludes that the failure of the Nigerian political elite to establish good governance, forge national unity and promote economic development is at the base of communal, ethnic and religious conflicts in the country. The study opines that the country might suffer disintegration if this trend persists, especially with the internecine Boko-Haram insurgency and the perennial settler-indigene conflicts in the Middle-belt, that is, Plateau and Benue sections of the country

Keywords: Ethnicity, Ethno-Religious Conflict, Good Governance, Integration, Religion.


Pan Africanism was a movement founded around 1900, to secure equal rights, self-government, independence, and unity for African peoples. The term “Pan Africanism” has usually been applied to the struggle for the political unification of the continent of African. This is due to the fact that knowledge is development and investment in human capital is necessary for African development. Education is therefore a necessary instrument in Pan African movement. To achieve this, Pan African Universities has to be established as an institution of higher learning which can help and contribute to reshape the direction of education in the continent, towards a anti-neo-colonialism. For Pan African University, to have a real impact methodology and techniques for accessing, mythology and cosmology. Hopefully, the paper will discover issues in pedagogy and methodology in Pan Africanism, prospect and challenges of Pan Africanism for African development. After the introduction concepts germane to the topic will be discussed. The paper will also propose measures to make Pan African University respond to provide platform for African renaissance.

Keywords: African Universities’, Integration, Knowledge Acquisition