Tag Archives: Insurgency

Insurgency, Armed Herdsmen and Instability in Nigeria: A Search for the Way Forward (Published)

The history of modern Nigerian State between 1960 and 2020 is characterized by violent and bloody conflicts such as the political crisis of the First Republic, the Nigerian civil war, the ethno-religious violence of the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, the Niger-Delta crisis, the Boko-Haram insurgency and the armed herdsmen menace. All these antecedents have tremendous adverse effects on the nation’s social, political and economic development with attendant consequences and costs on the art of governance in the nation and on other African countries. It is against the aforementioned concerns that this article isolates and examines the consequences of the activities of Boko-Haram insurgency and armed herdsmen, not only particularly in North-Eastern and Northern region of Nigeria, but the whole country at large. The paper adopts a multi-disciplinary approach and analyzes the effects of the two phenomena on the Nigerian people and government. The paper establishes the fact that Boko-Haram insurgency and armed herdsmen attacks in North-Eastern region of Nigeria have led to social, political and economic instability, not only on the Northern region, but Nigeria as a whole. The paper concludes by suggesting among many ways, a robust security network to completely neutralize the activities of the two groups in North-Eastern Nigeria.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Instability, Insurgency, Violence, armed herdsmen

Herders Insurgency and Federalism in Nigeria (Published)

The paper is on Herders Insurgency and Federalism in Nigeria. The North Central of Nigeria has been griped with Herdsmen insurgency, the problem of insecurity that have almost affected the Federal system of government in Nigeria, were unity in diversity is no longer seen as hallmark for forming a federal state. The main objective of the study is to investigate causes and effects of Herders insurgency and its implication on Federalism in Nigeria. The Study employed secondary sources of data collection, using theoretical framework of conflict theory as an analytical tool. One major finding is that, Herders insurgency is due to the influence of Boko Haram, which has it negative implication for the Co-ordinate existence of Nigeria Federalism. We therefore, recommend restructuring of the Federal System and a transparent conflict resolution means by the state, to encourage trust and confidence among the federating units, for national integration and unity.

Keywords: Federalism, Insurgency, Nigeria, headers

The State and Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: The Challenge of National Security (2009-2015) (Published)

In the checklist of Nigeria’s security challenges, the Boko Haram insurgency stands out as the most disturbing and unsettling experience. Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, an Orthodox Islamist proselyte, the Boko Haram sect has waged a relentless war of attrition against the Nigerian State. The group deployed improvised explosive devices, guerrilla warfare, suicide bombings, hostage taking, rape, and other heinous atrocities to undermine Nigeria’s sovereignty and national security. As a corollary to this pursuit, the paper is poised to unravel and expose the underlying factors through the context of the theory of post colonial state. The overriding tendency to cease and manipulate the state apparatus by the dominant power elite structurally disarticulates and weakens the state on the one hand and sustains the Boko Haram vicious campaigns of terror on the other hand. The paper therefore recommends a total reappraisal of the nature and character of the Nigerian state on the basis of entrenching a veritable democratic culture and de-emphasizing the frantic quest for political power by competing factions of the ruling class.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Security, State, ruling class and sovereignty.

Anatomy of Rebellion: Insurgency, Insurrection, and Militancy in Nigeria (Published)

Transitional societies face a myriad of problems which include incessant conflicts. Some scholars and international financial institutions believed that neoliberal economic growth and policies in support of them would reduce poverty and end conflicts. While not disputing the role of economic growth in a country’s development, this paper takes the view that a holistic approach that recognizes good governance can do more to promote sustainable peace and development. The methodology for this paper was content analysis of official documents, articles and other written sources. The paper observes that the absence of good governance has provided a fertile ground for some of these conflicts to emerge such as insurrections, insurgencies, and general insecurity of lives and property. It concludes that a developmental model that takes cognizance of this can provide the best option for emerging societies in need of lasting peace.

Keywords: Al Qaeda, Boko Haram, Colonialism, Development, Governance, Insurgency, Insurrection, Militancy, Rebellion

Boko Haram Insurgency: Perceived Stress, Type of Stressors and Coping Techniques amongst Internally Displaced Persons at the Selected Camps in Nigeria Federal Capital Territory Abuja (Published)

Nigerian has had a long and unfortunate history of communal conflicts and ethno-religious violence, the recent of which is the escalation of Boko Haram activities and attacks in 2013. Many people were maimed, killed and rendered homeless leading to looking for succor in the camps. The research adopted cross-sectional descriptive design, multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the camps and samples having used Taro Yamane sample size determination formula. Three hundred and eighty seven (387) respondents were selected out of which only three hundred and fifty six (356) returned their administered questionnaire. Five (5) research questions were answered and five (5) null hpothesses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instruments for the study were generated from three standardized inventory which are stress inventory, family systems stressor-strength inventory and life event inventory. The face validity and reliability of instruments were determined. Percentages, means scores and chi-square were used to analyze. The results on the demographic characteristics of respondents showed that 153 (43%) were males while 203 (57%) were female; there mean age was 31.3. 62.6% were Christians and 55.3 were marred 40.7% were employed while only 10.2% were not educated. All respondents showed various degrees of stress ranging from mild to severe. The highest psychosocial stressor was financial strain and accommodation away from home while the health related stressor was sleeping difficulties. More than half of respondents (56.2%) adopted emotion focused coping while 43.8% adopted problems focused coping. Religion was found to be significantly associated with the level of stress. Gender was significantly associated with the coping styles, It was concluded that youth radicalization should be addressed. The health of the people in the camps should be given a priority by establishing health centers in the various camps and should be managed by qualified health personnel.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Stress, Stressors, refugees

Communication Audit of Cable News Network (Cnn) Online Reports on Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria (2012-2016) (Published)

Previous studies on conflict reportage in Nigeria had accused Western media of inclinations for feeding the people with inaccurate and contradictory reports. This study was predicated on the need to investigate the patterns and trends of the Cable News Network (CNN’s) online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria over a period of five years, 2012-2016. The study adopted the content analysis method of research and conducted a census of 58 online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria as obtained from Cable News Network website (http://edition.cnn.com/text=boko+haram). While direction of reports, sources of report, prominence, balance and report genre provided content categories for the study, the Cronbach Alpha test was adopted for inter-coder reliability. The study found high prominence on CNN’s online reports of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. There was high level imbalance in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found low level of objectivity in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. It was also established that CNN made use of only one source of information in her reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found out that the straight news genre dominated CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Finally, the study showed that CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria did conform to the allegation of information distortion leveled against Western Media. The researchers then recommended diversification of information sources, combination of report genres and fortification of conflict reporters as measures that would enhance accuracy, objectivity and fairness in conflict reportage.

Keywords: Audit, Boko Haram, Cable News Network, Insurgency, Nigeria, Online Reports, communication

Amnesty as a Tool in the Negotiation to end Insurgency in the Niger Delta (Published)


The period between 2003 and 2009 witnessed an intensification of military insurgency and a dangerous degeneration of the conflict in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.  The attacks on the oil production facilities by insurgent groups, sabotage by criminal syndicates and a flourishing kidnapping industry had transformed the Niger Delta from a region of political and social instability into a virtual war zone. Oil production had declined by over a million barrels, to about 1.6 million barrels per day. Major oil companies started relocating or shutting down their facilities from the region as the violence, which eventually spread to the other parts of the country could not be repressed by the heavily armed Joint Task Force (JTF) of the Nigerian Military. The implication of the crisis for the political and economic survival of Nigeria is believed to have propelled the Yar’adua administration in mid-2009 to offer ‘amnesty’ to the militants as part of a negotiated process of ending the insurgency in the region, while the issues in the conflict were being addressed by the government. This novel and unprecedented strategy was and still remains controversial but many agree that the problem of insurgency in the region was reasonably contained for several years following the offer of amnesty. This paper is an attempt to analyze the relevance of this policy as a negotiation strategy and a conflict management tool that can be used for future interventions in similar conflicts within the country and across the continent.

Keywords: Amnesty, Insurgency, Negotiation., conflict management

Weaker Sex’ As Aggressor: Suicide Bombings and Strategic Logic of Gender Mainstreaming in Nigeria’s Boko Haram Terrorism (Published)

This essay is about the current wave of suicide bombings in Nigeria; a phenomenon hitherto alien to the country. The increasing rate of female suicide terrorists raises more curiosity among gender/security scholars and the womenfolk in general. Though a noble concept in its original context and application, gender mainstreaming has become a useful policy option for the terrorist organisation to pursue their objectives in Northern Nigeria. Thus, the popular idea of propagating women as a weaker sex seems to have evaporated with the reality of integrating a gender perspective into all stages of terrorist organisation’s deadly activities, particularly in an African country. Why has it become more advantageous for terrorist organizations to use women to support or execute terrorist activities? This essay examines the concept of gender mainstreaming within the context of terrorist operations, focusing on mode of recruitment and indoctrination and the Boko Haram’s strategic logic behind the use of female bombers. The implication of this trend on the Nigerian state and gender stereotyping is also analysed.

Keywords: Aggressor, Insurgency, Suicide Bombing, Weaker Sex, gender mainstreaming

Examining the Boko Haram Insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the Quest for A Permanent Resolution Of The Crisis (Published)

The state of insecurity engendered by Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, especially in the North-Eastern part of the country is quiet worrisome, disheartening and alarming. Terrorist attacks of the Boko Haram sect have resulted in the killing of countless number of innocent people and wanton destruction of properties that worth billions of naira through bombings. More worrisome however, is the fact that all the efforts of the Nigerian government to curtail the activities of the sect have not yielded any meaningful positive result. Thus, the Boko Haram scourge remains intractable to the government who appears helpless in curtailing/curbing their activities. The dynamics and sophistication of the Boko Haram operations have raised fundamental questions about national security, governance issue and Nigeria’s corporate existence. The major thrust of this paper is to investigate the Boko Haram insurgency in Northern Nigeria and to underscore the urgent need for a permanent resolution of the crisis. The paper argues that most of the circumstances that led to this insurgency are not unconnected with frustration caused by high rate of poverty, unemployment, weak governance, religious fanaticism among others. It also addresses the effects of the insurgency which among others include serious threat to national interest, peace and security, internal population displacement, violation of fundamental human rights, debilitating effects on the entrenchment of democratic principles in Nigeria among others. The paper recommends among others, the necessity to address poverty reduction, religious secularism and political re-orientation. The need for adequate collaboration and partnership between the government, non governmental organizations, civil society organization as well as the individuals is also advocated. Finally, the need for the re-evaluation of the country’s domestic and foreign policies as a means of combating the menace of this domestic terrorism is also stressed.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Crisis, Domestic Terrorism, Insurgency, National Security, Permanent Resolution


The study investigated effects of insurgency on girls’ education in north eastern region of Nigeria. Girls’ education is paramount to the national growth and societal development in Nigeria. However, achieving education for all Nigerian girls, the north eastern region need a safe, secured teaching and learning environment. The study examined the historical perspectives of previous insurgent groups in Nigeria. The sample for the study was 180 teachers of primary and secondary schools, selected on the basis of 30 teachers from each state of the 6 states that constitute north eastern region of Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a 20 items questionnaire title: Effect of Insurgency on Girls Education Questionnaires (EIGEQ). Two research questions were formulated, data collected were converted to mean, standard deviation and used to answer the research questions. It was therefore recommended that the Nigerian government should provide free and compulsory girls education at all levels of education, show higher commitment in mobilizing the armed forces to end the insurgency in north eastern region and provide adequate security in schools. It was also recommended that the religious leaders should play active role in encouraging girls’ education in their respective communities.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Girls Education, Insurgency, Terrorism


This research deals with the Yussufiyya Boko Haram sect as a social phenomenon. The group emerged as a response to Western cultural norms and value system, and viewed western education (Boko) as sin (Haram), and toxic, considering it ‘westoxication’. The objective was an analytical survey of the genesis and developmental strength of hitherto simple students of the sect’s founder, Mohammed Yusuf and how they metamorphosed into what is known today as Boko Haram/Yusufiyya (named after Yusuf) or by its much broader name, Jama’atul Ahalul Sunna Waljama’a Lidda a’ wati Wal Jihadi (JASWAL JIHAD). Boko Haram, was once a social communal movement but gradually evolved into a full-blown destructive hydra-headed insurgency operating in some states of the north-east of Nigeria. Yusuffiya was studied from an evolutionary qualitative survey perspective and ‘interview technique’ employed to illicit data; six states in the North Eastern region of Nigeria were sampled with relevant literature cited in the context while face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions (FGD) were carried out. Data collected was validated to ensure reliability of information among the study population with good background knowledge of Yussufiya Boko Haram. The results showed Boko Haram dreamt of establishing a Marxist Utopian egalitarian society and to achieve this endeavour recruited gullible youth to stage Jihad or ‘Unholy War’ for the “Islamic Republic of Ibn Thaimiya” to replace the current democratic structure in Nigeria. The National and State assemblies would be replaced by Surah Council of Ulamas. Yusufiyya’s body of thought was a warped derivative of the 13th century early scholar, Ibn Thaimiya’s doctrine. Findings also revealed that Boko Haram appeared to be a ‘throwback’ of another Muslim sect, Izalatul bidiya waikamatul sunna, which came to limelight in the early 1990s in Nigeria, but rejected the synthesised idea of Mohammed Yusuf believing it capable of creating an anomie condition. Historically, the socio-economic and political landscape of the region had been overwhelmed by the activities of immigrants and political Islamists; the Rahbeh, a Century ago, and the early 1990’s Maitasine in the North, particularly Borno State, stronghold of the Boko Haram’s Markas. These insurgencies occasioned by deep-rooted corruption, poverty and institutional decay resulted in the erosion of norms and cultural value system as some states were thrown into an anomie condition.The survey disclosed that the root cause of the Boko Haram phenomenon is the inherently self-sustaining nature of its driving force stemming from ignorance, poverty and illiteracy. Yussufiya, in recent times, has evolved and proliferated to such a frightening point it can now engage the Nigerian military in full blown confrontations, which suggests that if the phenomenon is not contained, a number of ominous implications are imminent. It has the tendency to expand to other regions of Nigeria and as the phenomenon has been interwoven with religion, there is suspicion and attendant negative views surrounding Muslims and Islam in general in the country which could have devastating consequences for peaceful co-existence. Winning the war against Jama’atul Ahalul Sunna Waljama’a Lidda a’ wati Wal Jihadi (JASWAL JIHAD) in Nigeria, the research showed, needs strong political and diplomatic will by building global consensus with countries interested in combating insurgency within and outside the region, ameliorating or eradicating poverty and illiteracy and empowering the youth to improve quality of lives.

Keywords: Evolutionary, Insurgency, Kanuri, Unholy War


The study presented the historical analyses of the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on educational management in Northern Nigeria. Education is the key to national development in Nigeria. However, achieving quality education for all Nigerian need a safe, secured, violent free teaching and learning environment for school leaders, teachers, students and families in northern region of Nigeria. The study examined the historical overview of previous insurgent groups in Nigeria, The origin of Boko Haram insurgent group, the historical analysis of Boko Haram attacks on schools in other cities in Northern Nigeria, the effect on educational management. An important aspect of this article posited on the challenges facing school administrator, teachers and students in the region .It was therefore recommended that the federal government should show higher commitment in mobilizing the armed forces to the northern region and provide security in schools with bomb detectives’ equipment. It was also recommended that the religious leaders should play active role in preaching against the killings perpetrated by Boko Haram insurgent group and a special orientation to sensitize the people on security matters in all schools and their communities.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Educational Management, Insurgency, Militant, Terrorism


An attack on education is a grave and rising concern in the world and Nigeria in particular. It includes violations of multiple provisions of international humanitarian and human right law, including the rights to life and liberty, the right to education, the protection of civilian and properties during conflict, and the rights to freedom of expression and association, among others. This study focuses on Boko Haram insurgency: a peril to the achievement of Education for All in Nigeria. The study concentrates on the Northeast Nigeria with primary focus on Borno state. The study also x-rays the Boko Haram’s attack on education since 2012 till date and the effects of this attack on education and the possible solutions to halt further attacks.

Keywords: Achievement, Boko Haram, Education, Insurgency

Effect of Boko Haram On School Attendance in Northern Nigeria (Published)

The study is aimed at assessing the effect of Boko Haram on school attendance in Northern Nigeria. Three hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. A questionnaire containing 20 items was designed by the researcher. This was validated by experts and tested for reliability using the test – re – test method and data analyzed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient statistics. The instrument was administered to 126 schools randomly selected from schools in states with high rate of Boko Haram insurgency – Yobe, Bauchi and Borno states. The data collected was analysed using the t-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics. It was revealed from the results that there is no significant difference in school attendance among male and female pupils / students. There is a significant difference in school attendance among rural and urban schools. There is also a significant difference in school attendance among primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in areas prone to Boko Haram attacks. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include improved federal government commitment to beef-up security in schools in Northern Nigeria and a special orientation to sensitize the people on security matters in schools

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Militancy, School Attendance