Analysis of Farmers’ Accessibility to Institutional Credit: A Case Study of Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme (Published)
The recent call for economic diversification through strengthening and consolidating the agricultural sector becomes imperative for the over dependent on the oil and gas sector. The level of agribusiness activities further reveals access to credit (finance) as serious concern to farmers in order to actualize the diversification agenda. In this light, this study analysed farmers’ accessibility to institutional credit at the Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme. For the purpose of primary data collection, a questionnaire was designed and administered to each of the selected farmers in the communities. In addition, in-depth interview (IDI) was conducted with officials of the Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme. Out of the 250 copies of the questionnaire administered to the respondents, 196 copies had valid responses and were found useful for the analysis representing a response rate of 78.4 per cent, composed of 79 (40.3%) credit beneficiaries and 117 (59.7%) non-credit beneficiaries. This study employed both descriptive, inferential statistics and logistic regression model in analysing the data that were collected. The study further indicated that the farmers had relatively adequate access to land as the majority (60.8%) of the respondents owned between 1-5 hectares of land, and about 30.2 per cent owned between 6-10 hectares of land while 1.0 per cent of the respondents had more than 10 hectares of land. Farmers with large farm sizes were more inclined to borrow as 42.3 per cent of farmers with large farm size applied for credit as against 7.1 per cent for small-scale farmers. The study also revealed that the credit accessed from the AISIFCS was adequate and majority (80.1%) of the beneficiaries stated that they did not receive the actual amount of loan requested. Also institutional credits had positive impact on agricultural productivity while age, gender, household size, membership of cooperative, and access to ICT did not significantly contribute to the likelihood of having access to credit from ASIFCS. Marital status, educational qualification, income, size of farm in hectares, distance to nearest bank in km, farming experience in years and access to extension services significantly contributed to the probability of having access to credit from the Akwa State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme (AISIFCS). Therefore, the study showed that the main constraints to local farmer’s capacity in accessing institutional credits include lack of collaterals, high interest rate, high level of bureaucracy, and the mode of repayment among others.
Institutional Impediments to International Remittance: Transmission-Cost Issues in Nigeria (Published)
This study investigates the institutional impediments of remittances with reference to the cost of transmission in Nigeria. The study is motivated by the increasing inflows of remittances through informal channels that would have been directed into the financial system to improve savings and enhance financial deepening if they were accounted for. The study therefore investigates whether the use of informal channels is caused by the increasing costs of collecting remittances that is partly induced by financial institutions. The study uses a bank exit survey data and a household survey data collected by the Center for Demographic and Allied Research (CDAR). T-test analysis and logit regressions were employed to achieve the objectives of the research. The findings show that there is no significant difference in the frequency of receipt for the formal and informal channels, transaction cost negatively and significantly determinants the use of formal channels flows, and finally there exist a significant difference between the transaction costs of using formal and informal channels of remittances. Financial institutions should therefore checkmate the charge of remittance receipt to encourage the use of formal channels and increase the frequency of flows
In Indonesia, the role of R & D (Research and Development) at the level of bureaucracy has not been considered of strategic importance. Evidently a lot of policies that are not based on deep research and comprehensive. As a result, many failed policies implemented are likely to cause new problems even more complex. The lack of involvement of R & D in the formulation of Local Regulation resulted in many problems and eventually canceled. Based on the database Research Agency Ministry of the Interior, to date only 157 the Provincial / District / City which has 548 R & D institutions of the Provincial / District / City in Indonesia (or 28.6%). And of that number only 31.8% (50 prov / districts / cities) in the form of Board and 10.2% (16 prov / districts / cities) in the form of Office, and 57.96% (91 prov / district / city) the other is a field (equivalent echelon 3) even in Bandung City is the Sub Sector (equivalent echelon 4). This indicates that the commitment of the Regional Leadership in developing R & D in the region, there still exists the view that R & D was considered not yet able to contribute significantly to the formulation of policy planning and progress of the region. This paper is to review how the institutional form of research and development of Bandung City Government should be formed in order to be actively involved in policy formulation and development planning area in terms of (a) Commitments Regional Head; (b) Institutional: (c) Resources R & D; (d) Cooperation R & D