National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
Democracy has been an acceptable platform of interaction in the committee of nations. It is also the most widely acceptable system of governance. Essentially, the birth of democracy in Nigeria has endured for over a decade, but the democratization process in Nigeria suffers from several security issues, given that the citizens have been exposed to high levels of insurgency, poverty and unemployment. Social and economic insecurity has being a major setback to democratic governance in Nigeria and this has impaired the participation of the citizens in democratic governance, thereby leaving governance for a privilege few. This paper examines the linkage between social and economic insecurity and the participation of Nigeria citizens in democratic governance. The researchers adopted a public opinion questionnaire based on experts’ judgment; and using the Cronbach alpha formulae; internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. The data collected was analyzed using the one sample t-test, with hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings indicate that social and economic insecurity negatively impact on democratic participation; given that the fear of violent attack, poverty, absence of the dividend and unequal distribution wealth reduce democratic participation. Recommendations are made that politicians should be obliged by law to fulfill the promises made during campaigns or before elected into offices. Government should create an enabling environment to address issues of poverty, unemployment, corruption among governing class and insurgency, so that security for life and property will be assured.
The study focused on the influence of global warming on family living in Victoria Island in Eti-OSA Local Government Area of Lagos State. Specifically, the study was designed to find out the influence of global warming on food insecurity, family health and ways of reducing global warming in Victoria Island. The design of the study was descriptive survey. The sample size for the study was three hundred and ninety nine (399) households using random sampling techniques. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire and was validated. Reliability of the instrument was 0.75 established using Cronbach Alpha Coefficient. The research questions were answered on individual item basis using frequency and mean. The findings of the study revealed that global warming leads to huger, increases poverty, reduces food supply. It was also found that there is increase in malaria due to increase in spread of mosquitoes, heat rashes among others. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that educating people especially the younger generation about global warming through media, educational institutions and discouraging cutting of trees and encouraging large-scale tree planting because trees absorb carbon dioxide among others.
POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)
The study analyses the Poverty Alleviation Programmes as an alternative to Peace and Conflict Resolution in Northern Nigeria; it links the frequency of Conflicts (insecurity) in the region the incidence of absolute and abject poverty. The study predominantly utilized secondary data. In the final analyses, it is shown that conflicts in the region are traceable to poverty. The study concludes that, peace, stability and security is the foundation for achieving the socio-economic development; therefore, preventing conflict, resolving conflict and for peace to be built, poverty has to be alleviated or eradicate the poverty tension that breeds ground for conflict, which requires a genuine commitment for poverty alleviation programmes and involvement of constituents people at every level–design, implementation and monitoring of poverty reduction programs