Tag Archives: Insect pests

Efficacy of Combining Varietal Resistance with Organic Fertilizer Application in Reducing Infestation of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) By Insect Pests in the Niger Delta (Published)

Efficacy of combining varietal resistance with organic fertilizer application in reducing infestation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) by insect pests was studied during the early cropping season of 2013 at the Teaching and Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three varieties of C. sativus (Starke ayres, Bakker brother and Griffaton) were used for the experiment. Poultry manure (PM) was applied at four rates (4.2t/ha, 8.3t/ha, 16.7t//ha and 33.3t/ha); an inorganic fertilizer NPK 15:15:15 was applied at the recommended rate (0.3t/ha) and a control plot was also included. The fertilizers were broadcast and mixed thoroughly with soil to ensure even distribution as soon as the beds were ready and PM was allowed to cure for 14 days before sowing the cucumber seeds. Plant spacing of 50cm x 50cm and planting depth of 2-3cm were adopted with 20 plants sown per plot. The experiential land area was 18m x 14m and each treatment plot measured 2.0m x 1.5m. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and each treatment was replicated three times. Parameters studied included days to 50% germination and flowering, number of undamaged and damaged fruits and their corresponding weights and insects which were collected each week for three consecutive weeks (HVT 1, HVT 2 and HVT 3, respectively). The insect species were mainly in the order Coleoptera followed by Diptera, Homoptera and Orthoptera in a decreasing order. The major species collected were Epilachna chrysomellina F., Cheilomenes sulphurea Oliv., Kanahiiphaga aeneipenni Lab., Aulacopora vinula Eric., Aulacophora africana Weise, and Dinorettix africana Bol. Others included Lagria villosa F., Diopsis sp., Locris erythromela Walker, Chrysolagria sp., Lema calcrata Dalm., Planiseta sp., Coenochilus nr ventricosus Gyril, and Monolepta nigeriae Bryant. Organic manure (PM) or inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) had no significant effect on days to 50% germination and flowering. Poultry manure applied at the rate of 33.3t/ha increased the number both of the undamaged and damaged fruits and their corresponding weights followed by plots treated with 16.7t/ha PM and the least number of fruits and weights were recorded in untreated plots (control). Higher numbers of insect pests were collected from C. sativus treated with 33.3t/ha PM and NPK. Stark ayres variety treated with 33.3t/ha PM had the highest number of fruits (155.85g) followed by Bakker brother treated with 16.7t/ha PM (142.89g) and the least was recorded in Griffaton variety that received no treatment (control). Fruit weight and number were in the order harvest 2> harvest 1> harvest 3 (HVT2>HVT1>HVT3). The study suggests that fertilizer application may lead to increased crop productivity but it may also intensify pest infestation in cultivated cucumber.

Keywords: Cucumber, Cucumis Sativus, Infestation, Insect pests, Poultry manure

Efficacy of combining varietal resistance with organic fertilizer application in reducing infestation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) by insect pests in the Niger Delta (Published)

Efficacy of combining varietal resistance with organic fertilizer application in reducing infestation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) by insect pests was studied during the early cropping season of 2013 at the Teaching and Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three varieties of C. sativus (Starke ayres, Bakker brother and Griffaton) were used for the experiment. Poultry manure (PM) was applied at four rates (4.2t/ha, 8.3t/ha, 16.7t//ha and 33.3t/ha); an inorganic fertilizer NPK 15:15:15 was applied at the recommended rate (0.3t/ha) and a control plot was also included. The fertilizers were broadcast and mixed thoroughly with soil to ensure even distribution as soon as the beds were ready and PM was allowed to cure for 14 days before sowing the cucumber seeds. Plant spacing of 50cm x 50cm and planting depth of 2-3cm were adopted with 20 plants sown per plot. The experiential land area was 18m x 14m and each treatment plot measured 2.0m x 1.5m. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and each treatment was replicated three times. Parameters studied included days to 50% germination and flowering, number of undamaged and damaged fruits and their corresponding weights and insects which were collected each week for three consecutive weeks (HVT 1, HVT 2 and HVT 3, respectively). The insect species were mainly in the order Coleoptera followed by Diptera, Homoptera and Orthoptera in a decreasing order. The major species collected were Epilachna chrysomellina F., Cheilomenes sulphurea Oliv., Kanahiiphaga aeneipenni Lab., Aulacopora vinula Eric., Aulacophora africana Weise, and Dinorettix africana Bol. Others included Lagria villosa F., Diopsis sp., Locris erythromela Walker, Chrysolagria sp., Lema calcrata Dalm., Planiseta sp., Coenochilus nr ventricosus Gyril, and Monolepta nigeriae Bryant. Organic manure (PM) or inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) had no significant effect on days to 50% germination and flowering. Poultry manure applied at the rate of 33.3t/ha increased the number both of the undamaged and damaged fruits and their corresponding weights followed by plots treated with 16.7t/ha PM and the least number of fruits and weights were recorded in untreated plots (control). Higher numbers of insect pests were collected from C. sativus treated with 33.3t/ha PM and NPK. Stark ayres variety treated with 33.3t/ha PM had the highest number of fruits (155.85g) followed by Bakker brother treated with 16.7t/ha PM (142.89g) and the least was recorded in Griffaton variety that received no treatment (control). Fruit weight and number were in the order harvest 2> harvest 1> harvest 3 (HVT2>HVT1>HVT3). The study suggests that fertilizer application may lead to increased crop productivity but it may also intensify pest infestation in cultivated cucumber.

Keywords: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Insect pests, infestation and poultry manure

Holistic Survey on Damselfly (Anisoptera : Odonata)Diversity in Rice Ecosystem of Eastern India (Published)

This study highlights the richness of Damselfly (Anisoptera: Odonata) fauna associated with rice ecosystems in Eastern India.. Sampling of the Damselfly community was conducted during 2010-14 to determine species composition, abundance and distribution in 3 different habitats of rice fields which were selected at 60 m (Chakdaha), 600 m (Cooch Behar) and 1250 m (Kalimpong) respectively. Each location was surveyed at a biweekly interval after transplanting of rice plants and about 10 species of Damselfly were recorded as insect predators in rice crops of Eastern India. General morphology, biology, ecology, behavior of the Damselfly are being highlighted in the present investigation. After comparing different body parts, double branching keys are prepared for their easy identification. The studies of their diversity showed that maximum and minimum value of both Simpson and Shannon-Weiner index were at the  flowering and the vegetative stage of crop respectively. The value of Margalef index and Menhinck index  also indicated that the highest value in reproductive stage of rice crop. The studies on   Evenness index   designated that the value of E1, E2 and E3 were influenced by species richness and not evenness.  Consequently the influence of fertilizer on the incidence of  Damselfly in rice ecosystem showed that there was  a remarkable increase  of population where high doses of nitrogen (120 kg/ha) were applied followed by the use of  mix fertilizer(120:60:60 N:P:K). Although the plot receiving high doses of phosphate @ 60 kg/ha exhibited increase in the level of Damselfly population but the distribution  was least in the field where potassium fertilizer was used in both kharif (rainy) and rabi (winter) season during 2010 to 2014.The sampling of Damselfly population on weed, ratoon rice, rice fallow land exhibited  that the bund weed provided resting site for damselfly. The colonization and succession of Damselfly species in the rice field habitat showed a uniform pattern in relation to the growth stage of rice crop. At the end of study, the relevance of  Damselfly biosystematics in the context on bio diversities has  been given in its legitimate status as bio control agent of rice insect pests  in  Eastern India.

Keywords: Damselfly, Diversity, Insect pests, Predator, Rice, naiad