Tag Archives: Innovation

Impact of innovation on the supply chain performance: Case of the automotive industry in Morocco (Published)

In Through the Looking-Glass famous incident from the book of Alice in Wonderland, known as the Red Queen’s race, it involves the Red Queen and where Alice is constantly running, but remaining in the same point.  The Red Queen said: “Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!”This story is used in real life to illustrate the idea of running after capital and market share accumulation in order to maintain relative economic position. This idea cannot represent better the main purpose of our study: “The innovation and its impact on supply chain performance and competitiveness”.In this paper, we attempt to corroborate, based on an empirical study of Moroccan multinational firms specifically in the automotive industry, the relationship between the supply chain innovation and performance through the Supply Chain Integration.

Keywords: Competitiveness, Innovation, Supply Chain Integration, Supply chain performance

Innovation Practices and obstacles in the Algerian Small and Medium Enterprises (Published)

This study aims to identify the innovation practices and obstacles in a sample of small and medium enterprises at the province of “Batna”, Algeria. The researcher has distributed 88 questionnaires to the individuals of the study’s sample: managers and their assistants, heads of departments. Eighty-two (82) questionnaires were restored, and after sorting them, it was observed that they are all valid for analysis. The researcher relied on the statistical software (SPSS) for data processing using percentages, arithmetic averages, standard deviations, one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and simple regression. After a descriptive analysis of the study and testing hypotheses, and based on the obtained results, a set of recommendations were provided including:

  • There is an important statistically significant effect of the dimensions of the supporting factors for innovation (the entrepreneur’s personal characteristics, information technology, human resources management and financing source) in the innovation types (product and production process).
  • There is a statistically significant positive relationship between innovation obstacles and the types of achieved innovation.
  • The respondents’ perceptions of the innovation outputs level moderately  
  • There is a low correlation between chronological age, the number of the products of the enterprises under study and the types of innovation, while the correlation was high with the industrial sector.

Keywords: Algerian small and medium enterprises, Innovation, Product, production process

Marketing Strategy and Innovation at Michelin (Published)

The great management guru, Peter F. Drucker, once made a very profound observation that, “Because the purpose of business is to create customers, a business enterprise has two and only two basic functions – marketing and innovation. Marketing and innovation produce results; all the rest are costs” (Drucker, 1995). In this paper, we focus on the marketing strategies and innovation strengths at the France based company, Michelin. The company simply produces tires made of rubber, but still has a multi-billion dollar empire and is a leader in the tire industry, and continues to generate new plans for advancing its business. Indeed, Michelin has one of the most recognizable logo in the world (see above). We delve into the history of Michelin, its association with French culture, and seek to deduce what are the factors resulting in its marketing and innovation models that contribute to its huge success over the last 125+ years. The central scope of the paper is to understand the marketing strategy of Michelin in the global marketplace, and, at the same time, to analyze how Michelin has been successful in being able to innovate and maintain a stronghold in this sector in terms of market share. With respect to innovation, we note key disruptions that Michelin has been producing in its research labs and with respect to its marketing. We dig deeply into the strategic-branding approach at Michelin and analyze topics such as brand positioning, brand image and equity, advertising, market segmentation, and targeting, all in the aforementioned global setting.

Keywords: Advertising, Brand Image, Innovation, Marketing, Michelin, Strategy

Social Innovation Strategies and the Performance of Social Enterprises in Nairobi City County, Kenya (Published)

Current trends have shown that social entrepreneurship is identified as the Key driver of the third sector as well as the public and private sector. Social enterprises play a critical role in social-economic development. Social innovation is one of the most important aspects of social entrepreneurship as it enhances the degree to which an enterprise effectively responds to emerging opportunities and challenges in the market. The field of social innovation turns critical societal problems into opportunities by actively involving the community actors. This paper is an analysis of how social innovations influence social enterprises in Nairobi County of Kenya. Cross -sectional design is used. The target population comprises all the registered social enterprises in Nairobi County. A simple random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 107 registered social enterprises in the County. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the main data collection instruments. A pilot study was conducted to test validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Data was then analyzed both descriptively and using inferential statistics. One-way analysis of variance was used to test the hypotheses. Both Pearson’s product moment correlation and Chi-square were also used to test for significant associations between social innovations and performance of Social enterprises.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Performance, Social Enterprise, Social Innovation

Public Service Innovation and Reform Towards Good Local Governance (Published)

At this moment, good governance, qualified public service are the concepts that required for good local governance implementation. So, at Central Tapanuli Regency – North Sumatera (Indonesia) for increasing institutional capacity of Local Government Working Unit from 2009 up to 2011 had been implemented 5 institutional empowering system which occured by SCBD (Sustainable Capacity Building for Decentralization) Project. Yet, on its implementation, all system got a less responsive actions from local goverment leaders, so project’s result less successfully.This research used qualitative approach with using Alberti and Bertucci theory which explains that innovation and reform on public sector can well succeeded incessanty determined by effective leadership factor. Thereby, on occasion of public service increasing towards good local governance, policies which decided by leaders should be the ones that support innovation and reform implementation in bureaucracy.

Keywords: Good Local Governance, Innovation, Public Service, Reform

The Role of University Managerial Staff In The Process Of Implementing the Concept of Entrepreneurship and Innovation by Jordanian Universities (Published)

The purpose of this paper is to explore the dimensions of the university managerial staff role in the process of implementing the concept of entrepreneurship and innovation by Jordanian universities. A questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection where 320 questionnaires were distributed to a random sample from seven Jordanian universities managerial staff. The collected data were refined and statistically analyzed. The obtained results clearly denote that the three independent variables (university managerial staff capacities, the university supporting policy and the nature of the general environment) all together have positive impacts on both dependent variables (the university general performance and the expansion of education and professional opportunity for university entrepreneurship graduates, with a correlation coefficient values of 0.908 and 0.890 respectively at 0.01 level of significant.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Managerial Staff, entrepreneur graduate and general performance.

Capacity Building Needs of Emotional Intelligence of Self- Management Skill for Highly Innovative School Principals for Nigerian Education System (Published)

The problem of quality education and sustainable development, especially in Nigeria has attracted much attention in all academic discussion, whereby scholars have blamed it on several factors, without recourse to the emotional state of the school principals. Self-management is an important construct of emotional intelligence that has impacted positively on other disciplines such as psychology, medicine, business and others, other than education as seen from the review. This has created a gap in knowledge which necessitated this discussion. This paper therefore addressed capacity building needs of emotional intelligence of self-management, towards highly innovative principals for Nigerian secondary schools. The paper considered only three of its characteristics of conscientiousness, achievement orientation and trustworthiness. It is concluded that, emotional intelligence of self-management be included in educational management and teacher training programmes, to equip this group of learners with the skill, to become highly innovative and creative in managing Nigerian secondary schools, which will certainly lead to quality education

Keywords: Capacity building, Education System, Innovation, Principal, School, Skill

Building Sustainable Organizational Capabilities through Supply Chain Innovation (Published)

Organizational performance directly affecting supply chain management practices. A continuous innovation in supply chain is important for corporations to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, to differentiate from competitors. Contemporary supply chain management stresses coordinating supply chain stakeholders into seamless unit in meeting customers demand and enhancing competitive advantage. Although companies concentrate on innovating independently for developing capabilities, companies however demonstrate reliance on creating their supply chain innovation capability. As markets became global, competition intensified. This forced the companies to innovate to be competitive and carryout holistic, fully integrated approach to their supply chain designs. This can replace traditional thinking in pursuit of effective and responsiveness supply chain. The research addresses gap in the literature between supply chain innovation and organizational capabilities. The study explore how organizations expand their efforts in improving relationships for developing capabilities of supply chain and what capabilities do firms develop to create innovation capacity within a supply chain. Companies in Karnataka, India surveyed to examine the inter relationship beteen organizational capability and supply chain innovation. The results showed that supply chain innovation has positive relationship with organizational capabilities and supply chain integration mechanisms do impact supply chain innovation.

Keywords: Capabilities, Competitive Advantage, Innovation, Performance, Supply Chain

AN ANALYSIS OF MANUFACTURING EXPORT FIRMS’ SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR INDUSTRIAL EMERGENCE IN CAMEROON BY 2035 (Published)

The Asian Tigers form a new niche of Developed Economies in the world today. In the phase of globalisation export led growth is cardinal, especially with a high level of industrial specialisation. The question is what specific industrial characteristics account for the emergence of Asian Tiger’s that developing economies like Cameroon can emulate? With a survey of 116 firms and using the Tobit analysis, Manufacturing Firm’s Specific Characteristics of (size, age and Ownership) are important for rapid economic growth in Cameroon. In synthesis with the Asian miracle Firm Specific Characteristics of size, age and ownership are accentuated to boost Export led growth today. This emphasises the fact that Cameroonian firms must have an elite class of entrepreneurs who are innovative and can establish large firm which can thrive in a liberalised market or establish business procedures that are less clumsy and for business partnership.

Keywords: Economic Growth and Emergence, Export Led Growth, Firm’s Specific Characteristics, Innovation, Schumpeterian Entrepreneur

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NIELSEN AS A RESEARCH FIRM USING EDITORIAL ONLINE MEDIA (Published)

Online media is revolutionising the world through it new creative outputs and thus condensing entire world into a global village. Users of online media are increasing many folds every year. Online media mainly consist of Editorial media (online newspaper editions, journals, publication house, magazines) and Social media (Facebook, Twitter, Reviews and Forums, Youtube, Pininterest etc.). Online media is not only the source of branding and advertising but also a major source to create an impact and impression in minds of Readers/users. Nielsen is leading marketing research and information firm with nearly 34,000 employees in 100+ countries around the world. Nielsen is aggressively using online media to create a positive impact on the masses about their surveys, researches and other services. 5 major keywords performance (KPI’S) indicators namely Innovation, Consumer Study (what consumer buy and watch), Global provider, Insights and Spokesperson were being used for impact assessment. Entire data bulk was being divided in 4 tiers (levels) based on impact factor of the journal/publications. A modified Harvard tool called “Popping impressions” was being used to assess the effectiveness of KPI’S. Impact was assesed on basis of presence of keywords in articles which refers to exact or similar meaning of that particular KPI. 714 articles from different newspaper editions, journals, publication house, and magazines were being assessed. Studies showed that performance of KPI’S differed at each Tier. At Tier 1 and 4 Insights has made maximum impact of 12.7% and 7.6% respectively as major KPI. Consumer study ruled as major KPI with values of 13% and 19.2% respectively for Tier 3 and 4.

Keywords: Innovation, Nielsen impact assessment, Popping impression, consumer study (what consumer buy and watch), global provider, insights, spokesperson

OPPORTUNITY FOR INNOVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN THE NIGERIAN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY (Published)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between opportunity for innovation and organizational citizenship behaviour in the Nigerian hospitality industry. The cross sectional survey was conducted with a sample size of 1450 workers drawn from a population of 3768 workers in the South-South geopolitical region of Nigeria. The scales used were within the acceptable Cronbach Alpha values of 0.7, which was interpreted to be reliable. A total of 1,093 copies of completed and usable questionnaire were used for data analysis. Furthermore, the data obtained were analysed using the Spearman Rank Order Coefficient. The results reveal that opportunity for innovation is strongly related to altruism, conscientiousness, civic virtue, courtesy and sportsmanship. The findings suggest that organizations conducive for innovation tends to promote extra discretionary employee behaviour. The study concluded that in the presence of opportunity for innovation of the worker, organizational citizenship behaviour is activated.

Keywords: Altruism, Civic Virtue, Conscientiousness, Courtesy And Sportsmanship, Hospitality industry, Innovation, Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

DIAGNOSIS PATTERNS OF INNOVATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE LEADERS AND THEIR ROLE IN ACHIEVING STRATEGIC SUCCESS / FIELD STUDY (Published)

Is a creative tool and basic actors for the growth of organizations and survival, as organizations seek to enhance the creative capabilities of employees and development to become a creative behavior fundamental value in culture, from here, the research focuses on the diagnosis patterns of the eight Innovation (Diligent, strategic thinker, thinker, analyst, owner of harmony, who cares, thinker critic, sensitive, Navigator) and their role in achieving strategic success and its dimensions (strategic vision, effective implementation, Culture motivational, Horizontal organizing) through a sample survey of officials in modern Painting Industries Co., which amounted to the views of (28) individuals adoption questionnaire as a tool for data collection and information and their responses were analyzed using statistical methods (mean, standard deviation, Cronbach’s coefficient alpha -, the correlation coefficient, test, test, Kay Square) and was the most prominent conclusions: 1. There is a positive and strong relationship between the modes of creativity and strategic success. 2. Creativity patterns affect the achievement of strategic success and influence is the percentage of 50%.

Keywords: Innovation, Patterns of Innovation, Strategic Success.

IMPACT OF INNOVATIONS ON CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR: A CASE STUDY OF PAK ELECTRON LIMITED (Published)

Innovations play a key role in changing behavior, purchasing habits and improving living standard of customers. In this era of stiff competition, innovation is the only toil through which business firms do not only fight a war of survival but also obtain competitive advantage. This is the reason that business firms particularly high-tech companies spend billions of dollars every years on research and development (R&D) and development of new products and services keeping in view the changing needs and demand of the customers. The objective of this study is to investigate how innovation affects the behavior of customers and which factors motivate the customers to adapt innovation. Main research question of this study is to measure the impact of innovation on consumer behavior with special reference to electronic industry. We have taken Pak Electron Company Ltd, which is a market leader in Pakistan and manufacturing different electronic products and marketing them since 1956. In order to measure the behavior of consumer towards innovation products we have taken a sample of 200 male & female customers between the ages of 18-65 years. The data which was primary in nature, was collected through field survey and a questionnaire was structured for this purpose. Face to face interviews were conducted. A standard likert scale was used to analyze data. This scale is commonly used for analysis in qualitative studies. S-Curve model was used to measure the innovations made or introduced by Pak Electronics Ltd in collaboration with other leading electronic companies of the world. Our study evidence prove that the effect of innovations are significant on the behavior of customers and 75% of respondents endorsed that innovative electronic products attracted and have brought positive change in their behavior and living standards.

Keywords: Customer behavior, Innovation, R&D, S-curve, purchasing intention

THE MEDIATOR ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATIVENESS BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS (Published)

Organizational culture and organizational innovativeness are viewed as important factors for improving the organizational effectiveness in institutions of higher education. The aim of this study was to examine the correlations among organizational culture, organizational innovativeness and organizational effectiveness. Moreover, the mediating role of organizational innovativeness between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness was studied.The method used in the study was survey research. Based on the cluster sampling method, all full time faculty members from five branches of Islamic Azad University (IAU), Pars Province, Iran, were included in the sample of the study. The number of respondents was 369 participants. For measuring variables, three questionnaires were employed. The findings indicated that the adhocracy culture, market culture and clan culture were found to have significant positive correlations with organizational innovativeness and organizational effectiveness. However, hierarchy culture showed no significant relationship with either organizational innovativeness or organizational effectiveness. Additionally, organizational innovativeness partially mediated the relationships among clan, adhocracy and market cultures with organizational effectiveness.Therefore, organizational culture not only directly influences both innovativeness and effectiveness but also influences effectiveness through innovation. The university administrators should be aware of the benefits from the implementation of a culture that supports innovation in order to assure the effectiveness of universities.

Keywords: Adhocracy culture, Clan culture, Hierarchy Culture, Innovation, Iran, Market culture

MARKETING PRACTICES OF SMALL & MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISES: A CASE STUDY OF SME’S IN MULTAN DISTRICT (Published)

Small and Medium Size Enterprises are the backbone of every major economy and empirical studies prove that small firms are more efficient and innovative in their operation, product development and marketing strategies. The objective of this research study is to analyze marketing practices (strategies) of Small and Medium Size Enterprises running entrepreneurs in Multan.This study is qualitative in nature in which we have studied the major characteristics of selected Small and Medium Size Enterprises. Primary Data was collected through a structured questionnaire by having interviews with the entrepreneurs. At least thirteen Small Medium Size Enterprises operating in Multan District were selected as a sample of study and a formal questionnaire was prepared. A field survey method was applied and faced to faced interviews were recorded to analyze the marketing strategies of SME’s. The evidences show that SME’s under study achieved success and established their names and brands through innovations. Their innovations were in the shape of unique designs that not only meet the need of customers. Their services are innovative in a sense that they satisfy the customers. Thus our consistent with previous studies which pinpoint that small medium enterprise are innovative and more efficient than large firms.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Innovation, Marketing, SMEs

ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND MARKETING INNOVATIONS ON MEDIUM SCALE FOOD WHOLESALE MARKETING FIRM ABIA STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

The study assessed the effect of organizational and marketing innovations on selected medium scale food wholesale marketing firms in Abia State, Nigeria. The study focused on medium scale flour food wholesale marketing firms. The study employed a Yaro Yamen sample size estimation method to cull out 50 firms from the entire sample frame. These firms were randomly selected for the studies of various variables of interest. Data were gotten from respondents via questionnaire. The data analyses were carried out with descriptive statistics, income statement analysis, probit and multiple regression analyses. The study showed that the majority of flour food wholesale marketing firms in the study area were established between the periods of 6-10 years ago. The highest number of employee of the food wholesale marketing firms fall within the period of 11-20. The result also indicates that sole proprietorship were the highest ownership structure evidenced from the study. The greater number of the firms’ employee skills were semi-skilled. The firm’s major source of capital was gotten through equity source of finance. The dominant organization’s innovation strategies most adopted by the food wholesale firms were price strategy, product approaches, continuous and improvement aspect of innovation. The study however ensured a high quality management which confirmed a positive relationship between profitability and firms’ growth. This attests to a signal of efficiency in the firms’ management. The factors affecting organizational and marketing innovation strategies had significant relationships among the models respectively. Further, the effect of organizational and marketing innovation on medium scale flour food wholesale marketing firms performance and efficiency plausible as firm gross margin indicated sound profitability. Thus, there is the need for medium scale flour food wholesale marketing firms to employ the employ organizational and marketing innovation strategies complementarily in responding to the ever changing market needs of the food industry.

Keywords: Firm, Food, Innovation, Marketing, Medium, Organizational, Wholesale

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE IMAGINATIVE AND CREATIVE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (Published)

Recognizing the several roles that education can play in turning a country around had prompted the Nigerian nation to change from the system of education that was bequeathed to her by the British colonialist into an education system that was believed, could move the country forward and accelerate a rapid growth and development. The Nigerian nation needed a system of education that could favorably compete with its developing counterparts in the area of science and technology, good governance and in socio-economic advancement; a system that could create a national consciousness in the citizens and a holistic development in all spheres of life. There was the need to have an education system that is result-focused and development-driven.With this challenge, it became binding and fundamental to design an education system that could transform the Nigerian nation in all respects and a system of education that is capable of building a sound and virile society for the Nigerian nation state. It was the general belief therefore, that the 6-3-3-4 system of education could make a dramatic and the desired change that the nation had long aspired to have. The system has taken more than a period of three decades now in practice, it is not too early nor out of purview to assess the product or take stock of its successes, failures, strengths and weaknesses. It is with this in view, that this paper has tried to look at one of the cardinal components of the New National Policy on Education, its functionality, how much it has impacted or challenged the imaginative and the creative competence of the Nigerian child especially at the secondary school level and how much it has transformed the beneficiaries of the system and the entire sectorial life of the Nigerian nation. In doing this, the paper has tried to look at few of the core techniques of teaching that are used often by teachers and how the traditional teaching techniques could be assisted to provoke the latent imaginative and the creative ability of the child by teachers in our secondary schools so as to achieve the goals that were set for the 6-3-3-4 system of education. To address this impasse, the study has stressed how the traditional teaching techniques could be fostered and be better strengthened through the use of strategies that could help to transform theories and practices learnt by students in the classroom to functional assets. In addition, how the strategies could synchronize with the existing teaching techniques to make a change in secondary school teaching and make learning easier was given a pertinent consideration. Recognizing the preponderance of the challenges foisted on our education system, some recommendations were made to the relevant bodies that oversee the running of education in Nigeria and, to those who are suppose to complement the efforts of those vested with the responsibility of managing the education industry in Nigeria

Keywords: Creativity, Imaginative competence, Innovation, Self-actualization, Self-improvement, Self-realization

INNOVATIVE ADAPTATION AND OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY ON SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE FIRMS IN KENYA (Published)

The idea that an organization’s members are the real source of its competitive advantage has long been acknowledged. The significance of human capital as a determinant of firm performance is gaining recognition in the strategic management literature, and the need for relating employee talent to a firm’s competitive advantage is continuing to develop in the human resource management arena hence the drive to establish superior human capital to generate competitive advantage Many firms have explicitly embraced competitive strategies to gain and maintain a lead in their industries. In all the competitive strategies firms have engaged in, human capital has been the driver of competition. This study endeavoured to empirically test the effects of human capital and especially in innovation and operational efficiency in according food and beverage firms the requisite competitive advantage in the very dynamic industry. the study sought to answer the following research question: What are the effects of human capital (in innovative adaptation and dynamic operational efficiency) on firms’ ability to attain sustainable competitive advantage within the F & B companies in Kenya? This research entailed a descriptive study design. This study sought to do that among the F & B firms in Kenya. The study was concerned with describing the characteristics of a unique group of food and beverage firms and their competitiveness. From the study, 87 percent of respondents indicated concurrence on usefulness of human resources for SCA. Kenyan firms in the food and beverage industry therefore highly regard human capital as a major contributor to sustainable competitive advantage. The study established that internal processes largely rely on how capabilities are harnessed for competitive advantage.

 

 

Keywords: : Human Capital, Innovation, Sustained Competitive Advantage

Firm Level Innovation: The Case of Ghanaian Firms (Published)

Firm level innovation brings about new ideas, new products development, pioneering of new technologies and processes as well as the promotion of entrepreneurship. It is the major driver of economic growth and competitiveness in the global market economy. This study assessed the status of innovation among small, medium and large firms in Ghana. From the up-dated list of the Association of Ghana Industries (AGI) a sample of 500 manufacturing and service sector firms employing more than 10 people were purposively selected across the country. The primary data were collected through questionnaire, and then analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The individual entrepreneur or owner of the firm was the unit of analysis. The result showed that innovation in Ghana is more prevalent in the small firms compared to medium and large firms. The study noted that most of the employees with university degrees were employed by large multinational firms and medium firms that are part of large groups. It also emerged that more than half (59%) of the processed innovations were developed within the firms themselves and 21% of the innovative firms collaborated with other firms and institutions for their innovative activities. The paper argues that drawing lessons from the experience of the Asian Tigers, firm level innovation could aspire Ghana achieve higher economic growth for favourable competition in the global economy.

Keywords: Firm Level, Ghana, Innovation, R&D, Technological, economic growth

INNOVATIVE ADAPTATION AND DYNAMIC OPERATIVE EFFICIENCY ON SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE FIRMS IN KENYA (Review Completed - Accepted)

The significance of human capital as a determinant of firm performance is gaining recognition in the strategic management literature. The need for relating employee talent to a firm’s competitive advantage is continuing to develop and to gain recognition as a driver in generating competitive advantage. Many firms have explicitly embraced competitive strategies to gain and maintain a lead in their industries. In all the competitive strategies firms have engaged in, human capital has been the driver of competition. This study endeavoured to empirically test the effects of human capital and especially innovation and operational efficiency on competitive advantage in a very dynamic industry of food and beverage. The study sought to answer the following research question: What are the effects of human capital (in innovative adaptation and dynamic operational efficiency) on firms’ ability to attain sustainable competitive advantage within the F & B companies in Kenya? This research entailed a descriptive study design. The study was concerned with describing the characteristics of a unique group of food and beverage firms and their competitiveness. The study concluded that Kenyan firms in the food and beverage industry highly regard human capital as a major contributor to sustainable competitive advantage. The study established that internal processes largely rely on how capabilities are harnessed for competitive advantage.

Keywords: : Human Capital, Competitive Advantage, Innovation, Operational Efficiency