Tag Archives: Infrastructure

The Adoption and Experience of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) During Covid 19 Enviroment: Lessons for The Future (Published)

This study aims to investigate analyse the adoption of PPPs during COVID 19 and to examine the impact of COVID 19 on adoption of such PPPs..  Drawing on systematic review, the authors investigated the COVID 19 has had a great effect on the adoption of PPP projects globally. The collected data has been analysed using the themes and content analysis. The findings have findings revealed that COVID 19 has had a great effect on the adoption of PPP projects globally. It was concluded that the adoption of PPPs can be a basis for developing better infrastructure in the era of COVID 19. It was recommended that Governments all over the world need to always use PPPs to address certain economic issues caused by COVID 19 pandemic. The results have also indicated the while PPPs have been used in normal times they have a more important role in saving lives during ahrd times like the Covid 19 times.. The contribution from findings will provide productive insights to help governements in identifying how PPPs can be deployed and utilised to save lives and how they can be affected.

Keywords: Accountability, Infrastructure, public private partnerships

Social and infrastructural factors affecting tourist choice of destination in Delta State (Published)

The study: “social and infrastructural factors affecting tourist choice of destination in Delta State” was carried out in Gordon Hotel Resort, Abraka and source of River Ethiope, Umuaja in Delta State. It investigated the social and infrastructural indicators available in the host communities. The research design was a critical survey method. For data collection, the use of a simple random sampling technique gave a sample of 144 respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was engaged to gather information from respondents. Data analyses were done by building the data into percentage, frequency tables, means standard deviation and Z-test were applied. Important findings revealed that male respondents (68%) were more than female with grater respondents (83%) who attained educational status of National Diplomat and above. Respondents majority (71%) were 30 years and above. The most significant social factors affecting tourism were friendly reception (mean = 3.32) and security and safety (mean = 3.31). While, the infrastructural factors in tourism dynamics were mostly good destination accessibility (means = 3.10) and mode of transport service (mean = 2.83). The study implied that well located tourism destination with good infrastructure and friendly environment inspires agricultural business set up. The study concluded that social and infrastructural factors contributed to tourists’ choice of desirable destination in the State. It was recommended that recreational facilities should be provided for maximum comfort.


Keywords: Choice, Infrastructure, Social, Tourist, destination

Entrepreneurship Studies Education in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: Theories and Practices (Published)

The paper examined the extent to which entrepreneurship studies education had been effectively taught and learnt in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.  It outlined the core objectives of entrepreneurship Studies education. Entrepreneurship studies education has a lot of challenges such as lack of policy implementation and inadequate funding among others.  Requirements for its effective implementation are also outlined. The paper recommends that there be provision for adequate infrastructural materials, teachers and learners awareness and adequate provision of materials if the objectives of the course must actualized. The paper concluded that entrepreneurship studies education contributes significantly towards the growth and development of any given society

Keywords: Development, Education, Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurs, Infrastructure

Human Information Infrastructure and Administrative Efficiency (HIIAE) Of Selected Enterprises in the Civil Aviation Industry in the South-South, Nigeria (Published)

This paper examined how human infrastructure impacts on administration efficiency of aviation industry in Nigeria. In line with the purpose of this paper as stated, population of this study comprises of 80 senior and junior staff of the various ICT departments of four Airports operating in the South-South of Nigeria. The Taro-Yamene sample size determination formula was used to determine the sample size. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between human infrastructure impacts on administration efficiency of aviation industry.  Questionnaires were the major instruments used in gathering primary data which were analyzed using regression analyses. The study found that aviation industry can achieve improvement along the terms of administration efficiency if the aviation industry is able to improve on their products and deliver on their service more effectively and efficiently base on the findings, we recommends that in order for firms to maintain their attractiveness in the industry, they must have be conscious what modern technology is available in the industry and apply same on their own business as this will help the in  expanding their market coverage with different products.

Keywords: Administration, Efficiency, Human, Infrastructure, Innovation, Service delivery

Factors Militating Against the Production of Local Rice in Ghana: The Mediating Role of Open Innovation (Published)

The study reports the factors militating against the production of local rice in Ghana with a mediating effect of open innovation to boost rice production. This study employs a cross-sectional survey to gather the views of 250 rice farmers. A self-administered survey questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was analyzed using AMOS 20.0 software package. Findings from the study indicate that land tenure system, inadequate infrastructure and water control system are the factors militating against the production of local rice in Ghana. Moreover, the study found a negative relationship between land tenure system and output of rice. However, the study shows that there is a direct and positive relationship between open innovation and output of rice production in Ghana. The study, therefore, recommends that, infrastructure is provided in the rice producing areas to enhance rice production by investing in the area of road networks, rice-milling equipment such as pre-cleaners, destoners that separate stones and heavy impurities from grains, hullers, polishers, paddy separators, aspirators and graders to ensure post-harvest product quality.

Keywords: Ghana, Infrastructure, land tenure system, open innovation, water control system

Economic History of Dale District since 1941 to 1991, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia (Published)

The major goal of this study is to reconstruct the economic history of Dale District, 1941-1991. To achieve this goal, an attempt was made to collect qualitative data source from local elders, officer and archives of the administration office. The written documents which have relation with the study also examined and cross checked. The Dale District practices different economic activities like Agriculture which is based on cereal crop farming and cash crop farming. Coffee is mainly grown under the shade of tree (shade or forest coffee), either within forest or forest like environments, or in farming systems that in corporate specific shade plants usually indigenous (native) trees, time fruit trees and other crop plants. The high profitability of chat has also motivated farmers to hire labor for chat production in the district.  Other economic activities like animal husbandry, hand craft technology and trade are common in the District. However agriculture was based on traditional farming system. The infrastructural development in dale District is a recent phenomenon. Un proportional service facilities and infrastructures compared with the high number of population found in the District. The main basic infrastructure like road, school, health centers, electric service, water supply has been established in the District before three decades but did not showed rapid economic development in the District.

Keywords: Dale Wereda, Development, Economy, Infrastructure, history

Impact of Disaggregated Public Expenditure on Economic Growth of Selected African Countries: A Panel VECM (Published)

The study investigated the long-run and short-run equilibrium relationship between economic growth and disaggregated public expenditure in selected West African Countries with panel data spanning 1990-2017. The study employed panel co-integration based on Pedroni and Panel Vector Error Correction Model (PVECM) with Engle and Granger´s procedure for empirical analysis. The findings revealed that expenditure on infrastructure, health and education have positive impact on economic growth at about 2%, 6% and 2% respectively, but only expenditure on infrastructure is significant. Defence expenditures and education expenditures at both lags have indirect and insignificant influence on economic growth while health expenditure has direct and insignificant impact on economic growth at all lags. The study recommends policy makers to focus on developing health, infrastructure and education sectors which has not contributed significantly enough to economic growth in the selected African countries

Keywords: Defence, Education, Health, Infrastructure, PVECM, economic growth

Design and Development of Traffic Light and IR Camera Computer Network; A Tool for Infrastructural Planning And Revenue Generation. (Published)

A traffic light is a device that gives the right of way to any road user. The device is design with three visible colours made up of the Red, Yellow and Green light. It is used to control the movement of vehicles entry or leaving a junction of a town or cities. The red colour light indicates danger or stop movement. The yellow (amber) colour indicates get ready to start or stop movement. The green light indicates crossing the intersection without danger. The infrared camera (IR) is a light emitting diode (LEDs) which can video an image in an extreme low or absence of light condition. The IR camera when installed on a traffic light will capture every vehicle image, colour and the registration number of every vehicle that is given the right of way across an intersection in various locations. The captured data can be stored in a software drive (SD-card) or the hard-disk of the computer. The traffic light and IR camera are interface with a computer network system for visible and data retrieving for further programming processing. This system when installed can be used for infrastructural planning and revenue generation for the Government. It can also be used to prevent road accident and monitor the incessant knapping of the citizen. It serves as a tool for moral discipline for road user when defaulters are persecuted and charge to pay fine. The system will eliminate manual system of controlling traffic and embarrassment caused when there is traffic jam. The system is cheap and easy to install.   

Keywords: Computer network, Infrared camera, Infrastructure, Planning, Revenue Generation, Traffic light

The Role of Sponsors in the Development of Infrastructure in Public Primary Schools in Kenya (Published)

Sponsors have a great influence in the management of public schools in Kenya. This is why they were given the mandate in the Education Act prior to the free primary education of 2003 to oversee the general management of the schools they sponsored. The study sought to establish the influence of sponsors on the management of public primary schools in Wareng Sub-County in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Informed by the study, this paper examines the influence of sponsors in the development of infrastructure in public primary schools in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and was guided by the Systems theoretical approach. The target population comprised all schools, head teachers, all chairpersons, sponsors’ representatives and one District Quality Assurance Standards Officer in the Sub-County. A sample size of 115 respondents was selected, which comprised 38 head teachers, 38 chairpersons, 38 sponsor representatives and one officer from the District Education Officer’s office. The participants were sampled using quota, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Since the research was both quantitative and qualitative questionnaires, interviews and observation schedules were used to collect data. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, specifically frequencies and percentages. The results of the study revealed that sponsors no longer participate in their initial role of developing and funding public primary schools. It emerged the introduction of free primary education has brought confusion over the role of sponsors with those of the head teacher. It was, therefore, recommended that the Ministry of Education needs to review the policy on sponsoring of schools, especially on the rules and rights of sponsors.

Keywords: Development, Infrastructure, Kenya, Public Primary Schools, Role, Sponsors

Prospectus of Bangladesh in Developing Intermodal Freight Transportation Network in South Asia (Published)

Asia is the destination of world trader because of its significance growth and sustainability after the economic downturn in 2008. In addition, South Asia is a place of development because of world giant India and renewed readymade garments manufacturer Bangladesh. Furthermore, Bangladesh is playing a vital role because of her position in the Bay of Bengal as worthwhile sea access points of the South Asia, South-East Asia and South-West part of China. Driven in particular, recent movement of business towards Asia and South Asia, Bangladesh has the opportunity to provide transport service in the region because of its lucrative maritime gateway and extensions of dry port, low cost in managing freight transport also the opportunity to build transport network of rail, road and river. Remarkably, recent development initiative by India exclusively for basically landlocked area Seven Sister or NE part of India, landlocked countries Nepal and Bhutan , additionally , development initiative by China for developing SW part  exclusively by Silk Route, overall, increased the responsibilities of Bangladesh for modeling integrated transport network. This paper is trying to discuss on port reformation, intermodal freight transportation system and related infrastructure development that are required by Bangladesh to do “Transport Business” in the region. Greatly, open access policy for neighbors and international trade and public private partnership initiative for infrastructure development that will create the opportunity for Bangladesh to act as integrated service provider of intermodal freight transportation in the region extremely. However, political openness and stable government along with role of government and attitude of businessman and investors are important to create such structure of intermodal freight transportation in Bangladesh. Lastly, this paper tried to set some future directions on the basis of literature review and discussion on intermodal freight transportation.

Keywords: Asia, Bay of Bengal, Freight, Infrastructure, Intermodal, Silk Route

Interfaces between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013 (Published)

Critical assessment on the correlation between public investment on road infrastructure and poverty was carried out, and therefore this research paper provides an in depth analyses of the linkage between road infrastructure and poverty, as well as, other relevant macro economic variables used in the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) as target indicators. Using primary and secondary data from 1994-2013, dynamic time series models were applied in elaborating the various factors with thrust on road infrastructure that may influence poverty in Malawi. Noting poverty reduction as priority of Malawi Government’s development agenda since the early 1990s, MGDS provides the country’s socioeconomic growth and development platforms. According to the latest 2010 Integrated Household Survey (IHS3), the majority of Malawians (50.7 percent) are languishing in abysmal poverty; this level is remotely far from the MDGS target of 27 percent by end 2015.  The country has a high inequality index (Gini 0.38) reflecting profound inequalities in access to assets, services and opportunities across the population. The distribution of the benefits of economic growth is also important for the alleviation of poverty. However, the distribution of income and wealth are highly skewed, with a majority of the population living in a state of absolute poverty. Based on NSO surveys (1998-2010), the poorest 20 percent of the population control only around 10 percent of national consumption implying inequality is not decreasing at all for long time. Hosts of factors explaining why poverty level continues to be rampant are: share of agricultural as a percent of GDP (proxy to agricultural production) and export as percent of GDP (proxy to exports). However, this paper findings show that there is significant (p=0.000<0.05) relationship between road network and poverty levels. Estimates from Granger Causality analysis indicate that for one percent increase in road network, a reduction of 7.2 percent in poverty level is perhaps achievable. Average inflation rate over the last 20 years stands at 22.41 percent, and this has an immense impact on poverty level since it dramatically reduces the purchasing power of the majority of the population. For a one percent increase in the inflation rate, there is a consequence of about 3.7 percent increase in the average poverty level. Average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate is 4.7 percent annually with a minimum of -4.9 percent and a maximum of 10.2 percent in the last 20 years. Poverty level appears to significantly respond to (GDP). There is a 4.27 percent reduction in poverty level if a one percent GDP increment takes place as shown in the dynamic time series analysis. In fact, the declining of agricultural production for export and the growing gap in balance of payment (average Malawi Kwacha -498.92 billions or approximately US$1.1 billion) would immensely influence GDP negatively and therefore poverty becomes abysmal as GDP growth plummets. In a nutshell, the findings confirm that in the long run economic growth is the key to alleviation of extreme poverty since it creates the resources to raise incomes. Given the importance of agriculture in contributing towards GDP in Malawi, the positive impact that this sector has on poverty is evident. For agriculture to meaningfully impact economic growth, road infrastructure plays a great role. Other pro-poor variables such as development roads and other investment on infrastructure are vital for economic growth and hence poverty alleviation. 

Keywords: Granger Causality, Infrastructure, Malawi, Poverty, Public Investment, Vector Autoregression

Records Management in Institutions of Higher Learning: Towards the Business Support Function (Published)

Records are assets as they represent accumulated intellectual capital of organizations. For an institution to have sound decision making, efficient and effective records play a vital role. This paper probes into the business functions of institutions of higher learning as supported by proper records management. A case study research design was used to establish the records management policy of Moi University, Kenya. The study population consisted of 111 respondents drawn from the main campus. The sample size Purposively selected based on the respondents’ role comprised 78 respondents including 6 Top Management representatives, 22 Action Officers, 6 Records Supervisors, 4 auditors, 30 Records staff and 10 Secretaries some of whom were interviewed while others filled questionnaires. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis approaches were applied. The study established that, the university lacked a clear records management policy, consequently; development and implementation of a records management programme and policies to establish formal records management programme with clear policies, infrastructure, staffing, guidelines and clear qualifications for records personnel is recommended.

Keywords: Business Functions., Guidelines, Infrastructure, Personnel, Records Management, policies

The Challenge of Infrastructure Development on Preservation of Perishable Horticultural Produce for Sustained Urban Food Nutrition in Metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria (Published)

Perishable horticultural crops as fruits and vegetables – rich vitamins, protein, minerals and fiber contents – contribute a lot to human diet. Though Nigeria produces enormous quantity of these produce, shortages in consumption and nutrition exists due to losses in the production value chain system. This is mainly attributed to lack of the development of an efficient management technique in the handling, transporting and storage systems; with attendant consequences on urban food and nutrition security in a rapidly urbanizing Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that this study was undertaken to identify the problems of handling technologies that would result in enhanced shelf-life of these commodities and healthier urban nutrition in metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria; in 2010. Structured questionnaires and schedule interviews were used to randomly collect primary and secondary data. This was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistical analytical tools. Results indicated that the major factors affecting the storage quality of fruits and vegetables are bad roads (40%); improper production, handling and transportation (33. 33%) system; harsh weather (20%); while insect pest infestation (6.67%) was least. Baskets and sacks are still used as the predominant means of storage of produce (35% and 32% respectively). Indeed, a lot of losses are recorded due to bad roads at harvest. Incidentally, the refrigerating system, the most efficient means of preservation is not predominantly used because of its exorbitant cost; and high tariffs on electricity. Where cost is affordable, power supply is epileptic due to an underdeveloped power sector. It is concluded that the intractable challenge of lack of infrastructure poses a major developmental setback in Nigeria. Indeed, this is a key challenge against the evolvement of a sustainable post-harvest management system; as well as a drawback on the fight against hunger, malnutrition and poverty – foremost objective of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s). Consequently, there is an imperative need for massive investment in infrastructural and human capital development. Without doubt, in Nigeria today, post-harvest and infrastructural management of the food production chain remains a major challenge.

Keywords: Development, Horticulture, Infrastructure, Nutrition, Perishables, Post-Harvest, Security, Sustainable

Economic Impact of Tourism in Jammuand Kashmir (Published)

Jammu and Kashmir State has a tremendous potential to become a major global tourist destination. Importance of tourism in J&K economy is known for decades now and its role in economic development has been an area of great interest from policy perspective. To understand the economic impact of tourism in the J&K state, present paper uses secondary sources of data and tries to examine various parameters of economic development such as tourist inflow, employment generation, State Gross Domestic Product, development of infrastructure and regional development. We found apart from agriculture sector, tourism sector is the most popular source of income and employment generation for the state economy.

Keywords: Employment, Infrastructure, Regional Development., Revenue, Tourism, Tourist Inflow


Migration of people to urban areas from the rural areas usually comes with its challenges in terms of infrastructural requirement and housing to cater for growing population. One of the challenges for the urban dwellers in Nigeria is that of adequate housing. The inability of the government to meet this demand has seen the people concerned seeking alternative solutions to housing need. The resulting settlements are usually unplanned hence becoming a challenge for government to manage in terms of providing infrastructure facilities. With the growing incidence of global warming and the attendant increase in flooding in most urban areas of Nigeria, especially between year 2000 and 2013, the safety of the people who live in slums have become a concern to the state governments due to issues of flooding and collapsed buildings. Government usually evicts such people and clear the settlement; however the people simply relocate to another area. The aim of this paper is to examine how community participation can be used to provide housing for the urban poor based on their living requirement, drawing from the experience of selected case studies from Kenya. The research method adopted for the study is a qualitative research method using case studies of selected communities in Kenya and selected communities in Nigeria. A comparative analysis is drawn with these communities. The research concludes by proposing how community participation process should be incorporated into provision of housing for the urban poor

Keywords: Community Participation, Housing, Infrastructure, Settlement, urban poor


This paper investigates the effect of urban lounge on housing and environmental quality of Moniya community in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria with a view to determine urban planning efforts at addressing the phenomenon. Using Systematic Random sampling technique, data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaires, observation and photo-snaps. Interviews were held to complement data from questionnaire survey while descriptive statistic methods were employed to resolve the objectives set for the study. Findings reveal the socio-economic characteristics of residents and its effects on physical environment of the area. It shows the level of congestion, poor state of roads and buildings, the inefficiency of infrastructure and public services and loss of available ones due to poor maintenance culture of residents. The paper recommends effective and timely regional planning through economic development and spatial integration as a way to decongest and achieve long-term environmental sustainability in the area. It advocates, essentially, for extensive urban renewal program through the provision of urban basic services in the area, which should be supported with improved sanitation strategies for sustainable management of the area

Keywords: Environmental sustainability, Housing Quality, Infrastructure, Moniya., Urban Sprawl


The study appraised the role of infrastructure on economic development in Nigeria measured by the gross domestic product while the infrastructure is measure with the capital expenditure on Transportation & communication (TRC), Education (EDU) and Health (HLT) respectively for a period of 32 years (1981-2013). Using least square (OLS), we find out that, the measure of coefficient of determination shows that about 95.11% of variation in GDP can be explained by infrastructure. The regression model explain that a unit increase in Transport &Communication(TRC) and Education(EDU) will increase GDP by 237% and 174% respectively, while the Health(HLT) will reduces the GDP by 31%. The residual of the regression model is stationary, when subjected to the unit root test and the Johansen co integration test show that two of the equation is co integrated. From this, it can be affirmed that the regression model are not spurious. The co integrating equation also suggesting that the GDP adjust to change in capital expenditure on infrastructures in the same time period and shows that short-run change in TRC and EDU have negative impact on short-run change in GDP but only HLT has positive impact on GDP in the short run.

Keywords: Co-integration, Economic Development, Infrastructure, Regression Model


At the beginning of colonial administration, the British government envisaged her Nigerian territory to play a dual role: source of agricultural raw-materials and mineral resources for British industries; as well as an assured protected market for British manufactures. Thus, the provision of modern transport infrastructure was therefore required to achieve the above economic motive for the British colonization of Nigeria. Modern transport infrastructure in Eastern Nigeria was vital as it was thought as the surest way ‘to open up the vast hinterlands of the region to civilization’. Consequently, the colonial government laid emphasis on rail, roads, and harbor development, and these boosted its desired strategy for the economic exploitation of the vast resources of the region. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the development of modern transport infrastructure and their effects on the colonial economy of Eastern Nigeria. Utilizing both primary and secondary sources of data, the paper argues hat although the colonial government had ulterior motives in the development of these infrastructure, but they no doubt boosted socio-economic activities, and as well led to the emergence of major urban centers in Eastern Nigeria. It concludes by emphasizing the need for governments at various levels in modern South-east states of Nigeria and the federal government to give priority to the development and sustenance of modern transport infrastructure as this will facilitate the actualization of the much orchestrated Vision Twenty, twenty-twenty [20, 2020] of the present civilian administration in Nigeria.

Keywords: Colonial, Eastern Nigeria, Growth, Infrastructure, Modern transport, Nexus


This project seeks to link the contribution of transport to health care delivery. The main objective of the study was to conduct a Strategic analysis on the role of transport in quality health care delivery. A variety of qualitative and quantitative instruments were employed to gather data to respond to the study research questions. The primary data for the study were collected from the respondents through questionnaire administration and interview conducted by the researcher. The study’s findings confirmed the existence of healthcare transport as a supportive service in quality health care delivery but due to the poor road network, few health facilities and high transport cost most household do not access medical treatment. It is also difficult for health workers to embark on outreach programs and be at work on time because of transport infrastructure and services. These have tended to negatively impact on the delivery of healthcare commodities and services for Ahafo-Ano residents. A strand of thought that filters through the discussion is the establishment of a good road network, increase medical outreach and mobile health clinics

Keywords: Ambulance, Emergence, Health, Hospital, Infrastructure, Transport


This paper investigates the effect of urban lounge on housing and environmental quality of Moniya community in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria with a view to determine urban planning efforts at addressing the phenomenon. Using Systematic Random sampling technique, data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaires, observation and photo-snaps. Interviews were held to complement data from questionnaire survey while descriptive statistic methods were employed to resolve the objectives set for the study. Findings reveal the socio-economic characteristics of residents and its effects on physical environment of the area. It shows the level of congestion, poor state of roads and buildings, the inefficiency of infrastructure and public services and loss of available ones due to poor maintenance culture of residents. The paper recommends effective and timely regional planning through economic development and spatial integration as a way to decongest and achieve long-term environmental sustainability in the area. It advocates, essentially, for extensive urban renewal program through the provision of urban basic services in the area, which should be supported with improved sanitation strategies for sustainable management of the area.

Keywords: Environmental sustainability, Housing Quality, Infrastructure, Moniya., Urban Sprawl