Tag Archives: Informal

The Impact of Shadow Education on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students In Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the impact of shadow education on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. Indeed, thousands of the secondary school students in Nigeria attend shadow education , because they believed that shadow education is the only way to improve their academic performance and to support their mainstream education and similarly, their parents have optimistic on shadow education, because they always eager finding nearness centres or employ tutors for their children within their apartments.  Therefore, we have two types of shadow education formal and informal. Informal which takes place at home, while formal takes place within the school premises. Thus, students are lured to attend shadow education upon the level of socio- economic background of their parents neither upper class, middle class or lower class even a situation hardship economy of the country is not really barriers for them to attend  shadow education because they believed that there is more advantageous in  which they can benefits from shadow education rather  than mainstream education.Yet, shadow education creates room for proper interaction between  the teachers and students and make it easily for the students to express their views  freely without fear or panic. Similarly, it also allow the tutors to have additional incomes apart from main salary from the mainstream education, However, shadow education has different names  in Nigeria such as  prep, lesson, continuous education  and  coaching . Therefore, many parents like to send their children to standard formal education while informal  education  the tutors employ  to teach their  children  at  their apartments.

Citation: Adeniyi  Adewale  Ojo  (2022) The Impact of Shadow Education on Academic Performance of Secondary School   Students   In   Nigeria, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, Vol. 10, No.8, pp.1-7


Keywords: Academic, Environment, Formal, Informal, Mainstream, Performance, geographical, shadow education, socio-economic background


The aim of this work was to examine formal and informal Social Studies curriculum in Nigeria, particularly in Obanliku Local Government Area of Cross River State. The study posed three research questions. Instrument for data collection was questionnaire. Random sampling technique was used to select one hundred and seventy (170) JSS 3 students and teachers as sample for the study. The data collected were analyzed using means and standard deviation, with 3.00 as pre-determined cut-off point for each item. Formal Social Studies curriculum contents are implemented in uniformity in Nigeria while, informal contents and its implementation varies from society to society, but all geared towards inculcating in the learner positive attitudes, skills for national development and integration.

Keywords: Curriculum, Formal, Implementation and Social Studies, Informal, Skills, Society