The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organizations dealing with the rules of trade between its members. According to theory and organizational norms, in principle, only sovereign states and the separate customs territories are eligible to have the full membership of the WTO and enjoy the legal rights and have obligations. In addition to the members, the WTO also allows non-state actors, particularly nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) whose international legal personality are not recognized, to participate in international trade with diverse paths in respect of WTO activities. By analyzing two cases about the Biotech Products Dispute and the AIDS Drugs in South Africa, this paper compares the participation of NGOs and Transnational Corporations (TNCs) in the WTO. It shows that in spite of the similarity of their nature—the transnational non-state actor—between NGOs and TNCs, the formal participation of the former in the WTO has far less influence than the informal participation of the latter. In other words, TNCs seems to have much more real influence over the WTO than NGOs. This research finding demonstrates that forms of participation or pure institutional participation do not guarantee non-state actors to exert their influence on the WTO. Conversely, what kind of power used by them and the relationship they established with members’ governments are the critical factors to explain whether NGOs really can make some differences in the WTO.
The Influence of Intelligence on Lecturers’ Performance in Private Universities, Medan City, Indonesia (Published)
This study discusses about how lecturer intelligence can influence their perfomance. This research is a study that uses numerical numbers and changes feed approach to quantitative methods, with descriptive research. This research is conducted in Medan city. This study examines the performance of lecturers in private universities represented by universities that have lecturers of foundations with a long category of founding universities over 10 years, namely: (1) Islamic University of North Sumatra (UISU); (2) Muhammadiyah University of North Sumatra (UMSU); (3) Muslim Nusantara University (UMN); (4) Nomensen University; (5) Indonesian Methodist University (UMI); (6) Catholic University of Santo Thomas. The result shows that cognitive abilities tend to be “high” (53.33%). The average value of the overall cognitive abilities of lecturers in private universities in Medan is 81.92. Cognitive ability directly influences the performance of permanent lecturers in private universities in Medan.
Learning Effect Based on Socio-Scientific Issue on Students Learning Outcomes in Environmental Pollution Materials in Senior High School 1 of Meureubo, West Aceh, Indonesia (Published)
Biology is part of the natural sciences that discusses all aspects of life, both related to living things and the natural environment that supports the life of these living things. The biotic and abiotic components and their maintenance are important focus on biology learning. Students need a good understanding of their surroundings, maintaining, and controlling existing resources so they can take part as environmental preservation. Learning about the environment should have been designed and implemented with a learning model that is considered very appropriate to arouse interest as well as concern for students using learning models that synergize with efforts to preserve nature and the environment. Wrong on the environment is a learning model based on Socio-Scientific Issues. This study aims to determine the effect of Socio-Scientific Issues learning in environmental pollution learning in class X of SMAN 1 Meureubo West Aceh Regency. The approach used is a quantitative approach with the research design used is “Nonequivalent Control Group Design”. The research data is in the form of student learning outcomes data on environmental pollution material on the application of Socio scientific-based learning issues on learning environmental pollution material. Learning outcomes data are analyzed using linear regression analysis followed by T test and F test. The results showed that there were significant differences in student learning outcomes and students response to the application of a socio scientific based learning model between before and after the application of the model. Through improved learning outcomes and students response to environmental pollution material, it is hoped that this can be a trigger for the movement to protect the environment from an early age.
This study was conducted to examine the influence of Twitter on cognitive development of Nigerian youths. Conceptual and empirical literatures were reviewed and the study was anchored on Social cognitive theory. The study adopted online survey research method (Google form) and used online Nigerian youths as respondents. A sample for the study was drawn using Morgan formula to draw a representative sample size of 384 from a population of 64,000,000 youths being the population of Nigerian youth. Availability sampling technique was adopted to administer questionnaire to respondents. Two research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the proper investigation of the study. The quantitative data gathered from questionnaire were analyzed with the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) using tables and charts to further explained the result of the findings. Findings revealed that tweeters found Twitter very engaging and useful which resulted into its everyday usage; increasing their knowledge which aided their cognitive development. The researchers concluded that there is significant positive relationship between influence of Twitter and cognitive development of youths and therefore recommended that institutions of higher learning in Nigeria should use Twitter as educational and learning tool.
Professionals’ Perception of Audit Practices in Public Sector: A Case Study of Osun and Ogun States of South-Western Nigeria (Published)
The study examined perception of accounting professionals regarding public sector audit practices. Specifically, it aims at identifying generally accepted audit principles and also determine the pattern of government audit practices in Osun and Ogun states of Nigeria. Despite the introduction of 1999 Constitution as amended in Nigeria and various pronouncements on audit practice in the Nigerian Public Sector by regulatory bodies, the issue of corruption, misappropriation and embezzlement in Nigeria public sector has been on the increase. This study assessed the level of state government compliance and adherence to the Generally Accepted Auditing Practice (GAAP) of Osun and Ogun states in South Western part of Nigeria and also identified the factors that influence compliance of state audit practice to standards in the selected states. Data for the study was sourced through administration of 150 pretested structured questionnaire purposively administered to professional Accountants in the states audit service of Osun and Ogun state of Nigeria. Both descriptive and inferential statistics such as tables, graph, percentages, ANOVA and regression analysis were used to assess the level of compliance and also identify factors that influence such. The study revealed that the level of practice to audit standards compliance by Osun and Ogun states public is significantly positive while political influence was identified as one of the major factors among others that influence level of audit practice with standards in the selected states. The study concluded that state audit practice complied with standards but were highly influenced by politics with far reaching implications on the quality of financial reporting of the state public sectors. Therefore, the study recommend that state government public sector should embrace and encourage best audit practice compliance that will help in reducing the level of corruption and embezzlement in Nigeria public sectors.
Family is a smallest unit that influences children growth from baby until teenager consisting of parents and siblings. A family usually supports their education in order to reach their dream and have their best future later. Therefore, family supports are believed to be one factors that influence the students’ result in learning. In Bangladesh, positive home factors such as parents’ involvement, encouragement, and their positive attitude toward English language, in general, influence adolescent L2 learners positively (Rahman, 2015). Students not only need learning facilities but also need proper guidance to increase their study results. Communication is a more important factor in improving students’ performance. Thus, the factors that influence students’ learning results are communication, learning facilities, proper guidance and family stress that are based on statistical analysis (Mushtaq and Khan, 2012). This study aimed to find some factors of family supports that influence students’ results in learning English as their foreign language. There were 224 students that are evaluated by giving reading test and questionnaire. The results of test and questionnaire were analyzed using statistical analysis that is Anova to find out whether family supports influence students’ results in learning English. The results from the questionnaire showed most students like English subject, get motivation in learning English by communicating with foreigners, start learning English at fourth grade of elementary school, learn English from movie and internet as well as get information about the importance of English in working world from their parents. The result of regression analysis showed some factors of family supports in this study do not influence students’ results in learning English. Therefore, family supports cannot be the only criterion of someone who masters English successfully.
The Influence of the Levels of Education and Knowledge on the Performance of Community Health Workers in Soy Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
Community health workers (CHWs) the world over help to alleviate the shortages of health workers in the health sector. They are involved in the delivery of health services to the community and constitute the first point of contact on health-related issues in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The performance of CHWs is often hampered by various factors. The purpose of the study was to investigate the socio-cultural factors influencing the performance of CHWs in Soy Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of CHWs’ level of education and knowledge on their performance in Soy Sub-County. A correlation research design was used in the study with systematic sampling method being used to identify the respondents. In total, 98 respondents were given questionnaires to fill. Qualitative data was also collected from 7 heads of community health management team (CHMT) using key informant interviews. The collected data was then presented using frequency distribution tables while inferential statistics were computed using regression and correlation to determine the relationship between socio-cultural factors and performance of community health workers. Qualitative data was analysed manually to generate trends, sub-themes and themes from which conclusions were inferred regarding the performance of CHWs. The research findings showed that there was a significant (p= .000; α = 0.05) relationship that exists between education and knowledge and CHWs’ performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended that a strategy should be developed to incorporate all the stakeholders that affect the performance of community health workers in coming up with a training programme for CHWs. Moreover, there should be a policy shift in Kenya to encourage male CHW to scale up delivery of health services at community level. The findings of the study support decision-making on CHWs’ training programmes and also constitute the basis of transformation of implantation of community strategy in Soy Sub-County.
The Influence of Source of Funding on the Financial Sustainability of Non-Governmental Organizations in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)
Financial sustainability is the ability of organizations to develop a diverse resource base. In Kenya, the number of NGOs has been increasing yearly; most of them depend on foreign donations. Therefore, the study sought to establish the relationship between donor funding and financial sustainability of non-governmental organizations in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper explores the influence of sources of funding on the financial sustainability of NGOs. Correlation research design was used as the principal research methodology for the study. The target population was 146 NGOs that were actively engaged in development projects in Uasin Gishu County. The respondents were NGO management and volunteers. Stratified sampling technique was used to identify non-governmental organizations to participate in the study. A sample size of 60 respondents was selected using Nassiuma’s 2000 model. Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Test re-test was done to establish the reliability of instruments results; 95% level of significance was used to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study showed that there was a positive correlation between donor funding and financial sustainability of the NGO’s in Uasin Gishu County. Improved financial sustainability could be achieved as a result of diversifying sources of funds, retaining qualified staff and improving governance practices and organizational capacity. Therefore, it was recommended that NGOs should limit over-dependence on donor funds and indeed focus on establishing income generating activities and venture into multiple sources of funds for their projects; this would improve their financial sustainability.
Factors Influencing the Choice of Interpersonal Communication Forms Utilized In Promoting Maternal and Child Survival in West Pokot County, Kenya (Published)
Interpersonal communication is one of the most common methods used in campaigns to reduce high maternal and child mortality rate in West Pokot County, Kenya. The study sought to identify the factors that affect the choice of each form of interpersonal communication used in promoting maternal and child survival. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional survey research design. It also utilized a mixed research approach. The research sampled four hundred (400) respondents from the County. Cluster sampling, and purposive sampling techniques were used to identify respondents. Qualitative data was collected using four key informant interviews and focus group discussions and analysed thematically and then presented narratively. On the other hand, quantitative data from questionnaires were analysed using descriptive statistics, then presented using a combination of narrative explanations, tables and graphs. From the study findings, government policies, indicators, national campaigns and routine of the health workers were identified as the major factors that influenced the choice of interpersonal communication forms used. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the views of the all the stakeholders should be sought and incorporated into programmes aimed at enhancing maternal and child survival. Cultural aspects that encourage the upholding of proper upkeep of children and pregnant mothers should be identified and used during maternal and child survival campaigns.
Influence of Employee Welfare Facilities on Their Performance at the Kenya Judiciary Systems in North Rift Kenya (Published)
The study examined the relationship between motivational factors and employee performance in the judiciary systems located in the North Rift Region of Kenya. Based on the study, this paper discusses the relationship between employee welfare practices and employee performance. The study employed a correlational survey design. The target population was all the 309 employees attached to the courts located in North Rift Region. Stratified random sampling was used to select 179 employees. A pilot test was done at the neighbouring Hamisi Law Courts to assess the reliability of the research instruments. The pilot study tested the face validity of the instrument which was found to be valid. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was used to determine internal reliability of the research instruments. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the research instruments was 0.842. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data. Statistical significance of relationships among selected variables was determined using linear regression analysis. The study established that the motivational factors of employee welfare facilities influenced the performance of the judiciary employees. Evidence of improved performance included a reduction of case backlogs and expeditious determination of cases. Based on the findings from the study, it was recommended that the administration of the judiciary to design effective employee welfare facilities that are likely to stimulate employee efforts towards performance.
A Descriptive Analysis of the Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions On the Performance of SMEs in Kenya (Published)
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the world economy. They contribute substantially to income output and employment. Indeed, they dominate the world business. In spite of this, studies have failed to identify and assess the corporate entrepreneurship dimensions that lead to good performance, especially in Kenya. As such, based on a study of SMEs in Kenya, this paper examines the relationships that obtain between Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) and firm performance among SMEs. Specifically, the study sought to find out the effect of entrepreneurial innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness on firm performance. The study was guided by the resource based view (RBV), contingency theory, theories of entrepreneurship and the marketing theory. It adopted explanatory research design using a census sample with the target population being all the top 536 medium sized firms between 2006 and 2013. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s bivariate correlation, multiple regression and moderated regression analysis. Results revealed that entrepreneurial innovativeness, risk taking and proactiveness have a direct positive relationship with performance of SMEs. From the findings, the study recommended the need to intensify initiatives that encourage a better understanding of EO dimensions in boosting firms’ competitive positions and superior performance; firms should be more entrepreneurial in order to attain superior performance and survive the intensively competitive market environment. They should continuously innovate, especially through new product development, being first to enter the market with new products and in the use of creative new solutions that lead them to be recognized by competitors as leaders in innovation. SME owners/managers also need to enhance their risk-taking behaviour by encouraging staff to take risks with new ideas, make effective changes to their products and be willing to accept at least moderate levels of risk, engage in risky investments and have the courage to seize new opportunities, even if this may involve great financial risks
Influence of Agricultural Child Labour Experience On Students’ Decision to Study Agriculture in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated the effect of child labour experience in agriculture on the decision of students to study agriculture in tertiary institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. Delta State University and Delta State Polytechnic students of agriculture were purposively selected for the study. Random selection of students was done in each agriculture area of specialization in the tertiary institutions based on 10% of the population to result to a sample size of 151 students. Data for the study were elicited with the use of questionnaire and were analyzed with the application of descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). Most (52.98%) of the student were males. The students were mainly (96.02%) in the age bracket of 20-29 years. Most (76.16%) of the student had 6-10years of working experience in their childhood years in either family or others farms as many (64.90%) were residents in rural settlements, where majority (64.24%) of them did not witness extension agents’ visit to their farms. The involvement index of the children in poultry farming was 0.48; in arable crop production, 0.60; in fish farming, 0.20 and in plantation agriculture, 0.12. Some of them experienced hard labour (47.68%); no remuneration (no pay) (51.66%) and injuries (54.97%). Only 6.62% of them originally sought for admission to study agriculture. The reasons given by those who originally applied to read agriculture for doing so ranged from self employment, interest, lucrative nature of agriculture and familiarity with farming activities. Their involvement in agricultural child labour positively influenced their decision to study agriculture. It is therefore recommended that extension agents should interact with farm families in order to encourage the children on agriculture; farmers should be encouraged to simply mechanize their farming activities; farm families should be encouraged to give their children only non-hazardous activities to carry out and the children should only be involved in farming activities during the holidays in order not to compromise their schooling.
The influence of partial discharge exposure time on the thermally estimated depolarization and on the natural relaxation in polymer dielectrics is described. The polypropylene and polyethylene terephtalate foils were the object of investigations. Study of partial discharge plays an important role in the aging and the rupturing process of solid and mixed insulation systems. The PD analysis is a predictive test which indicates insulation degradation in advance, which may lead to the failure of the system, and it is performed under normal operating conditions.
The Influence of Financial Support Services on the Financial Performance of Women-Owned Enterprises in Eldoret, Kenya (Published)
Micro-credit services target low income clients who lack access to banking and related services. The study sought to establish the influence of micro-credit services on financial performance of women-owned enterprises in Eldoret. The financial performance measures were the net profit, current, inventory and times interest earned ratio. Based on the research, this paper discusses the influence of financial support services on the financial performance of women-owned enterprises which are funded through micro-credit. The study targeted a population of 1721 which constituted of women who owned enterprises and were registered with the county government of Uasin Gishu County. Study samples were drawn through purposive random sampling. A sample size of 313 was obtained using the Krejcie and Morgan formula. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present and analyse the data obtained. Data was then presented in form of tables, and explanations provided. There results showed that there was no significant influence of financial support services on financial performance of women-owned enterprise (p=0.00). From the study, it was observed that the financial performance of the women-owned enterprises in Eldoret improved due to the increase in the net profit, current, inventory turnover and times interest earned ratio. The study concluded that multiple loan products and favourable loan terms helps boost the financial performance of women owned enterprise. The study recommended that microfinance institutions should restructure the collateral and interest requirements by the women entrepreneurs by using credit scoring and business history as alternatives to asset-based security. This paper underscores the need to carry out more research on factors affecting women-owned enterprise in other areas of similar socio-economic patterns to ascertain whether or not financial support services have had a positive impact on the financial performance of women-owned enterprises. Moreover, a study should be conducted on the influence of micro-finance lending on financial performance of women-owned enterprises in Eldoret town.
The Influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio on the Financial Performance of Second-Tier Commercial Banks in Kenya (Published)
Performance of most mid-tier commercial banks in Kenya has been fluctuating over the past few years. Meanwhile, some of them continue to post impressive results as majority report losses and others merge in order to remain sustainable. This situation points to financial performance affecting the mid-tier commercial banks in Kenya. The government, through the Central Bank of Kenya, introduced prudential regulations aimed at bringing sanity in the banking industry. This move led to closure of Dubai Bank and Imperial Bank while Chase Bank went under statutory management awaiting new investors. From this, an investigation was done on how Central Bank regulations influenced financial performance of second-tier commercial banks in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper explores how capital adequacy ratio influences financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study was purely quantitative research and, therefore, correlation research design and descriptive research designs were used. The study was conducted in 14 second tier commercial banks in Kenya. It collected financial data from 2013 to 2016, considering that the regulations came into effect in 2013 from CBK and commercial banks websites. The data was sourced from Central Bank of Kenya after getting permission and approval from National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI). Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Multiple Regression Analysis was used to test the study research hypothesis. Findings were presented through tabulations and graphical illustrations. Computed correlation showed that capital adequacy ratio had significant strong positive relationship (p<0.05) with financial performance of mid-tier commercial banks. In conclusion, it was found that capital adequacy ratio is among the main predictors of mid-tier commercial banks’ financial performance. It was therefore recommended that CBK needs to regularly monitor commercial banks by ensuring that they publish their quarterly results to the public. The investment regulators in the country such as the Capital Markets Authority (CMA), Kenya Banker Association (KBA) and Central bank of Kenya can use these study findings to understand the bottom line impact of bank regulatory requirements and in understanding banks decision on to its customers.
Influence of Television Programmes on Youth Dressing Pattern in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions (Published)
This study examines the influence of Television programmes on youth dressing pattern in Taraba State University, Jalingo. The researcher employed Taro Yame’s formula to select 100 students which formed the sample frame. The study made use of focus group and quantitative survey for its methodology. 8 participants formed the focus group while 100 selected students were distributed questionnaires. All the questionnaires distributed were duly filled and retrieved by the researcher. Data gathered for the quantitative survey were coded in SPSS version 22 and presented in tables with frequency counts and simple percentages while the focus group was textually analyzed. The study revealed among other things that entertainment/musical programmes are the most preferred and watched programmes by youths. The study also revealed that youths imitate the hip hop/hippies and makeup/hairstyles shown on television programmes than any other form of dressing and imitating such dressing makes them appear indecent. The study recommends that Universities and other tertiary institutions should take the issue of dress code serious, punishing students who are found wanting. Local Television presenters should dress decently at all times and no matter their kind of programmes they should know that they are role models and whatever they do is easily copied by the young ones.
This research is focused on the influence of western films on youths dressing pattern in Taraba State University, Jalingo. The study postulated that it is possible for youths to be dissuaded from indecent dressing projected by western films. The survey design was used to gather the data for the study in which 220 questionnaires were administered among students of Taraba State University, Jalingo and 200 was retrieved and used for the analysis. Findings showed that hip hop/hippies, corporate/cocktail and make up/hairstyle are the most imitated forms/styles of dressings by youths in American films and that such forms of dressing to a large extent influences youths choice of dressing. Some of the recommendations proffered for reversing the trend are: proper parenting and counseling, uncompromising religious teaching and establishment of dress code by tertiary institutions.
Television has been a very influential medium of mass communication, due to its audio and visual potentials. Scholars of communication have always researched into the influence of the various media of communication, particularly television on the society. These efforts provide useful information to individuals, groups and organizations that employ these media on how best to use them. The debate on whether television influences youth’s attitudes and behaviour has attracted diverse views supported by different researches. It is on this basis that this study examines the influence of television on the westernization of Nigerian youths. It is noteworthy that there is a growing worry over the decline of the cultural values of Nigerian youth. This ugly situation is sometimes tied to the influence of foreign television programmes. The foreign programmes do not only undermine the cultural values of Nigerian youths, but also influence the youths’ behaviour as well as the prevalence of foreign attitudes and habits among them. The study is driven by cultivation theory which suggests that heavy television viewing “cultivates” perceptions of reality consistent with the view of the world presented in television programmes. Some youth in Nigeria, considerably perceive that what they view on foreign television programmes is a reality, and to them, there is need to cultivate the habits, attitudes, behaviour and values as demonstrated in television programmes.
This work used the causal-comparative research design to explore the relationship between peer group influence and students’ academic achievements in Social Studies. The sample comprised 160 Junior Secondary School (JSS) IIIA students randomly selected from ten out of nineteen secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used: The Peer Group Influence Assessment Questionnaire (PGIAQ) on a 4-point Likert and a 50-item multiple choice questions in Social Studies. The instruments were trial-tested and a reliability coefficient of 0.87 obtained. Data generated were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis (r) at 0.05 level of significance. The result permitted the conclusion that there was a significant positive relationship between peer group influence and students’ academic achievements in Social Studies. This underscores the need to study group dynamics from the point of view of the development of students whose needs are, in the main, related to group living. This finding instructs parents, guardians and caregivers to keep a close watch on the companies their children and wards keep as such surely impact significantly on the academic performances of the affected children.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN A MULTILINGUAL AND A MONOLINGUAL ENVIRONMET – A COMPARATIVE APPROACH” (Published)
The study focuses on the influence of English language in Macedonia, which is a multilingual, multicultural, and multiethnic country, situated in Southeast Europe. More precisely, the study investigates and compares the role of English inside and outside the classroom in two different environments. Firstly, in Tetovo as a multilingual place where quite a lot of people very easily shift from the local languages in use (Albanian, Macedonian and Turkish) and English when necessary, and secondly, in Prilep, as a mainly monolingual place, where from the local languages, mostly Macedonian is used. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data collection includes learners’ questionnaires. The qualitative data phase includes descriptive research by using interviews. Finally, the study identifies several important issues regarding the positive and negative influence of English and compares the participants’ attitudes towards the role and the influence of English in a multilingual vs. monolingual environment. The findings of the study are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and wider, the local government, educational institutions, current and future English teachers and students.