Tag Archives: Inequality

Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET): Tool for Combating Insecurity in Nigeria (Published)

In line with UNESCO’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 1 and 10 which are to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality by 2030. Inclusive Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has been observed as one of the ways to achieve participation and inclusion of most Nigerians in legal and meaningful profit-oriented activities to earn their living, eradicate poverty and combat insecurity. TVET is a training programme which equips its recipients with the required skills needed within or for a particular job for self reliance. It is an avenue that could be used to take many people out of poverty and thereby reduce social vices and insecurity in Nigeria. TVET facilitates the advancement or creation of legal business or profit oriented activities. Considering the objectives of TVET in Nigeria, the article therefore identifies and discusses different ways through which inclusive TVET could be implemented to combat insecurity in Nigeria. Inclusive TVET as discussed in this article entails taking into cognizance the unemployed youths, school drop outs, physically challenged, marginalized groups, rural dwellers and retirees and equipping them with the necessary skills needed for self reliance. The article stresses that poverty, inequality and insecurity could be reduced in Nigeria, if the suggested ways of implementing inclusive TVET in this article are adopted and consistently practiced. It recommends among others that, varying modes of TVET delivery options should be accessible to every Nigerian so as to equip them with the necessary skills needed for self reliance in order to enhance wealth creation and reduce poverty, inequality and insecurity in Nigeria.

Keywords: Inclusive TVET, Inequality, Insecurity, Poverty Reduction, Self-reliance

Gender Inequality in the Academia: Precipitate of Antimonies in the Igbo Language and Culture (Published)

In the recent past, language studies stress language and gender issues in relation to sexism – a dynamic field in Sociolinguistics. Sexism as discrimination and prejudice based on sex as a natural phenomenon is a man-made huddle created by men to exhibit power. Even when the language of a speech community is not fully sexist like Igbo language, sexism is stressed in such an environment out of a decision based on status quo bias. Thus, the decision-making model of Baron (2008) on maintaining status quo bias is found a useful anchor for this study. This paper reports a survey on sexism as a phenomenon not fully ingrained in Igbo language, yet, highly exhibited in the culture. To this end, a descriptive survey was employed on the administration of selected universities in five South-eastern Nigeria states. An in-depth interview was administered soliciting views on this practice of inequality in the academia as a model and center for equality. The findings reveal that females are less involved in the higher levels of the university administration as a result of status-quo bias. A significant use of this study is that it lays bare the unnecessary bias against women, and proves that language is not necessarily the cause of sexism, but men. By suggestion it encourages women not to be tendentious against themselves

Keywords: Gender, Igbo Language, Inequality, academia, status quo bias

Liberalism, as End and not as Mean, Destroys Liberty (Published)

Today we are facing to a anthropological crisis not economic founded on neolibelralism absolute truhe , so indeed seeing the success of a highly liberalist and capitalist sociocultural model, taken as being “indisputably true” and based entirely on a technical-rational philosophy. The result is a mainly conflictual and aggressive society that aims to maximize short-term gain for single individuals or groups of individuals. And in turn this produces an individualistic, anti-egalitarian society in terms of redistribution of wealth.  It is exactly the increase of inequalities, as we will see in the USA, which increases the level of conflict. This makes the consequent social issues and costs worse, and these then boomerang back against the system. The current model has ended up by creating a crisis in the middle class, the class that really “primes the pump” in our societies. But if a crisis exists for a significant minority of our societies, inevitably there will be a crisis for everyone else. This paper holds that the true, deep-rooted causes of the crisis we are experiencing can be found in this sociocultural model now on the point of collapse. A model incapable of providing an answer for society’s real needs. We fail to see that the origin of today’s crisis all began way back, in the history of philosophy and in the field of speculation. Instead today we are used to always linking negative or positive facts to the last event that occurs.So a single technical-rational and materialistic culture and philosophy, and its indifference to the humanistic culture that has developed over the past two centuries, prevents us from capturing the more metaphysical and spiritual as opposed to purely physical essence of the crisis under way. This has been legitimated by a culture claiming that the sole principle of truth is “what we can see, touch and measure”. In fact, while physical reality is measurable, spiritual and emotional reality is not, and so the perimeter that defines the measurement becomes clouded and irrelevant when used for decisions. But the rationale culture founded on positive science has changed this science in moral science and not instrumental science, but thed deterministic culture in human science, like economy, is ablosolutely opposite to a freedom, democracy, and creative life

Keywords: Inequality, Neoliberalism failure, deterministic culture and democracy, economy social science and not positive scienze, history repeat itself

Fuel Wood Commercialization and Households Welfare in the Northern Region of Ghana: An Implications for Rural Livelihood Improvement (Published)

Several national forestry policies in Ghana meet resistance and or failure; particularly issues of natural and environment resources use within communities. This is because of the highly dependent nature of people on the environment for sustenance and welfare improvements. This paper examined the major facts which motivate households’ decisions to engage in commercialization of fuelwood; determined the most preferred fuel wood species, and availability of income inequality among sampled districts and establish fuelwood, commercialization and households’ welfare by the travel cost method.  The study sampled six districts in the Northern Region based on poverty and rural dependence mode. The paper used the simple random sample along with a structured questionnaire to illicit information from respondents. The results showed that, increased in travel cost and cost of access to forested sites impact negatively on the number of visits for fuel wood. The study further revealed that, benefits from fuel wood commercialization in terms of reducing income inequality differ from district to district. The study recommended that, government and international organizations should facilitate the cultivation forest sites solely for fuel wood harvest to ensure environmental sustainability. In addition, fuel wood harvesters must be taught forest management and conservation strategies in the Northern Region.

Keywords: Commercialization, Fuel Wood, Inequality, Livelihood, Welfare, households

Inequality, Poverty among Nigeria Women and Youth and the Challenges of Inclusive Growth in Post 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) (Published)

By all standards, economic growth is expected to reduce poverty, rather poverty in Nigeria has remained high as 112m people representing 67 percent of the population are in abject poverty while GDP rates fell to 7.68 per cent in 2011 from 8.60 in 2010. Income inequality was 0.3594(2010) and -25.9 in 2011(BOS,2012). If Millennium Development Goals (MDG) could affect poverty level in India and China, why has Nigeria’s poverty level remained high? The study hence, examined the challenges of inequality and poverty reduction among Nigerian women and youth with focus on inclusive growth in post 2015 MDG. Content analysis of secondary literature was undertaken to address the problem of the study. Findings indicated that poverty in Nigeria is not affected due to misdirection of programmes from rural to urban areas, inadequate funding, lack of control, transparency and accountability and inadequate coverage of the poor. The study suggested that entrepreneurial training programmes and capability creation, combined with an all inclusive effort aimed at providing education and health facility, integrated growth, income distribution, and financing land ownership are highly required. Conclusively, poverty in Nigeria can be substantively reduced if an all inclusive approach is adopted covering entrepreneurial training backed with monitoring and accommodation of large coverage of the poor in the programme in post 2015 MDG plans.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Inclusive Growth, Inequality, Poverty


Theory predicts complex and multidimensional relationships between inequality and growth. Indeed, previous studies on inequality and growth using various estimation techniques, inequality measures, country samples and time frames have found conflicting results ranging from positive , negative, non-linear to insignificant and inconclusive relationships. In this study, we follow the model of Forbes (2000) to examine whether or not inequality affects growth. With the newly improved inequality data provided by the University of Texas Inequality Project (UTIP, 2013), we used the System-GMM to estimate the relationship in a panel of 65 countries over the period 1965-2005 on 5-year interval. We found a positive but statistically insignificant co-efficient of inequality on growth

Keywords: Growth, Income Distribution, Inequality, System GMM