Tag Archives: Indirect

AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MACROECONOMIC EFFECT OF A SHIFT FROM INDIRECT TO DIRECT TAXES IN COTE D’IVOIRE (Published)

This paper examines the long-run effect of a shift from indirect to direct taxes for Cote d’Ivoire using data for the period 1960 to 2006. The residual-based test of Gregory and Hansen (1996) is employed to test for cointegration and the Engle-Yoo (1987) three-step procedure is used to estimate the long-run effect of tax variables on real output. The results reveal that tax burden and tax mix are negatively associated with output, with tax burden having a much greater adverse effect on GDP than tax mix. The effect of the tax mix on GDP is contingent on the level of the tax burden and diminishes as tax burden increases. Our estimates also suggest that up to a threshold level of tax burden of 17.57%, increased direct taxation relative to indirect taxation is associated with decreased output. But beyond this threshold a move from indirect to direct taxes is likely to lead to higher levels of output.

Keywords: Cote d’Ivoire, Direct Taxes, Indirect, Macroeconomic Effect

AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MACROECONOMIC EFFECT OF A SHIFT FROM INDIRECT TO DIRECT TAXES IN COTE D’IVOIRE (Published)

This paper examines the long-run effect of a shift from indirect to direct taxes for Cote d’Ivoire using data for the period 1960 to 2006. The residual-based test of Gregory and Hansen (1996) is employed to test for cointegration and the Engle-Yoo (1987) three-step procedure is used to estimate the long-run effect of tax variables on real output. The results reveal that tax burden and tax mix are negatively associated with output, with tax burden having a much greater adverse effect on GDP than tax mix. The effect of the tax mix on GDP is contingent on the level of the tax burden and diminishes as tax burden increases. Our estimates also suggest that up to a threshold level of tax burden of 17.57%, increased direct taxation relative to indirect taxation is associated with decreased output. But beyond this threshold a move from indirect to direct taxes is likely to lead to higher levels of output.

Keywords: Cote d’Ivoire, Direct, Indirect, Macroeconomic, Taxes

THE IMPACT OF INDIRECT COMPENSATION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: AN OVERVIEW (Review Completed - Accepted)

“If you pick the right people and give them the opportunity to spread their wings and put compensation as a carrier behind it you almost don’t have to manage them.”(Jack Welch).Compensation management is one of the most important elements of personnel management. It includes economic rewards in shape of wages and salaries as well as in different forms of non-wage economic payment known as fringe benefits, indirect compensation or supplementary pay. The subject of Compensation and for that matter Indirect Compensation is of great importance because it affects the wellbeing of the individuals in the concerned organizations. According (Tsai, Yu, & Shih-Yi, 2005), Indirect compensation helps organizations to attract and retain highly competitive employees which are seen as strategic resources in getting competitive advantage. Therefore, this research work has been done to look at the impact of Indirect Compensation on the performance of employees. Organizations should pay the necessary attention to the Indirect Compensation, as this will help to boost the morale of employees which will in turn result in higher productivity

Keywords: Benefits, Compensation, Indirect, Management, Performance