Tag Archives: Indigenous

Credit Contribution Club (ISUSU): A Veritable Indigenous Source of Capital Formation among the Igbo of Southeast Nigeria, 1900 TO 2015 (Published)

From the pre-colonial era to date (2015) the challenge of capital formation (finance) among Africans, especially those in the rural communities, cannot be overemphasized. Lack of capital adversely affected the growth of economic activities, which also negatively impacted on the standard of living of the people, leading to inequality, unemployment, and poverty, among others. In Nigeria, colonial and successive governments tried to address this issue without success. They established different types of financial institutions, which more or less served the interests of minority government officials, government employees, elite, and other such groups in the country. For the Igbo of Nigeria, credit contribution clubs were, and still are, veritable sources of capital formation, even before the emergence of colonial rule. In the face of economic challenges, especially in the area of capital formation, credit contribution clubs (Isusu) have been widely used to access funds over modern finance institutions (Banks, Stock exchange, and others).   The focus of this work is to bring to the fore the indigenous institution, Isusu, which have been source for pooling capital (funds) for the benefit of the members. The popularity of this informal institution for capital formation amongst the people, even the successful elite, in our area of study will be emphasized. The paper concludes that contribution clubs (Isusu) is one of the non-agrarian pre-colonial institutions for capital formation that contributed immensely to the development of the economic activities of Igbo people. The scope of this paper is the Igbo of Southeast Nigeria. The approach adopted and in writing this work are the descriptive and analytical method. The period covered by the paper is between 1900 and 2015. 

Keywords: Capital Formation, Fund, Indigenous, Institution, contribution clubs, pre-colonial, veritable

Indigenous Capital Formation Institutions among the Igbo: Factors for Change, 1914 2014. (Published)

For some time now, there has been a growing concern on how the ordinary man and woman in the town and rural communities of Africa can raise capital to start some micro-business and, thus, reduce poverty, and improve his or her standard of living. Within the period covered by this paper, successive governments and financial institutions have tried to address this challenge with little or no success. However, specifically for capital formation among the Igbo      of southeast Nigeria, there exist traditional institutions through which the people raised resources to attend to their community and individual needs. These include, among others, Contribution Clubs, Family and Extended Family Pools, Age Grade Associations, Title Taking/Societies, Pawning, Inheritance, Land/Economic Trees Pledging, Imachi Nkwu and other Fruit Trees, Ilu – Elulu (Keeping Custody of Domestic Animal) and Ili – Ichi (Burial of  Umbilical Cord). Consequently, this paper surveys those aspects of the traditional economic institutions that have become changed, transformed, or modified. Both internal and external forces have affected the traditional institutions for capital formation among the Igbo of southeast Nigeria, mostly by the later. This has caused the indigenous finance institutions to become altered from their original states. The paper concludes that in spite of the changes and modifications that had occurred overtime, the indigenous finance institutions have continued to exist. The descriptive and analytical methods were adopted in writing this paper. The period covered is 1914 to 2014.

Keywords: Capital Formation, Change, Igbo, Indigenous, Institutions

Indigenous Adult Education for Sustainable Community Development in Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines indigenous adult education as a vital tool for imparting skills and techniques and instructing members of any society in the accepted values, norms and practices for achieving sustainable community development.  Aims of indigenous adult education were highlighted and discussed.  Indigenous adult education programmes were identified and their imperatives in achieving sustainable community development examined.  The writers concluded that indigenous adult education has been a major source of peaceful co-existence among Nigerians but has been grossly neglected in favour of formal education system. The writers suggest that indigenous adult education should be promoted to complement the formal education system to reduce moral decadence in Nigerian society and attain sustainability in community development.

Keywords: Adult Education, Community development, Indigenous, Sustainable

Challenges in Developing Indigenous Management Theories in Africa and the Implications for Management Practice (Published)

The paper examines the challenges against developing indigenous management theories in Africa and the implications for management practice in Africa. The paper recognizes that there is a dearth of African indigenous management theories, and attributes the situation to both economic and socio-cultural factors in Africa. It notes that the inability to develop indigenous management theories has caused indiscriminate importation of western theories for adoption in Africa, and this has huge negative impact on management practice in Africa. The paper posits that the uncritical adoption of western theories is a major reason for ineffective management practice in Africa and the poor performance of industries in the continent. It therefore calls on stakeholders to look away from foreign based theories and chart a way towards developing indigenous theories that account for African peculiarities, and encourage the application of such theories. It recommends that concerted efforts be made to overcome the challenges bedeviling the development of African indigenous management theories by committing to new ways of thinking and orientation about research and theories, and overhauling African value system towards supporting research leading to development of theories.

Keywords: Africa, Challenges, Implications, Indigenous, Management Practice, Management Theory

Representation Of Changing Indegenous Values In Pakistani Society: An Analysis of Raffat’s Poetry (Published)

This study deals with the post colonial analysis of Raffat’s poetry and it shows how he used hyberditity, mimicry, of colonialism, imperialism and effect of colonial era and colonizers on the native culture, education and their historical roots. His poems show deep glimpse of colonial effects and he highlights them through symbols and similes and other literary forms. This study aims to analyze Raffat’s portrayal of the colonial experience touching upon the issues of colonial ideology and the link between culture and imperialism, mimicry, hybridity and the representation of changing indigenous values of Pakistani society. The study aims to establish its intention that Raffat’s poetry plays an integral role to unveil the condition of Pakistani people after colonization.

Keywords: Colonialism, Culture, Eastern Images, Hybridity, Indigenous, Mimicry, postcolonial

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIGENOUS MUSICAL STYLE IN THE METHODIST CHURCH-GHANA (1835-PRESENT) (Published)

The paper defines the primary influences on the body of music used in the Methodist Church-Ghana currently. This definition traces the historical and musical developments of a number of musical styles that have become indigenous to the church. These styles include the vernacular translations of the Western hymns used by missionaries as early as 1835, the Ebibindwom (Akan Sacred lyrics), the body of music that allowed hand clapping and the use of traditional music instruments, as well as the highlife-influenced praise and worship songs. Other styles are the choir and singing band music, which have emerged from many sources. The writer draws his conclusions based on visits to various cathedrals and his own experience as a born and bred Methodist chorister. Inferences are drawn from the major influences on the music of the church and the developments that have culminated in the different musical styles that currently constitute the musical picture of the Ghanaian Methodist Church.

Keywords: Development, Ebibindwom (Akan Sacred Lyrics), Ghana, Indigenous, Methodist Church, Musical Style

The Development of an Indigenous Musical Style in the Methodist Church-Ghana (1835-Present) (Review Completed - Accepted)

The paper defines the primary influences on the body of music used in the Methodist Church-Ghana currently. This definition traces the historical and musical developments of a number of musical styles that have become indigenous to the church. These styles include the vernacular translations of the Western hymns used by missionaries as early as 1835, the Ebibindwom (Akan Sacred lyrics), the body of music that allowed hand clapping and the use of traditional music instruments, as well as the highlife-influenced praise and worship songs. Other styles are the choir and singing band music, which have emerged from many sources. The writer draws his conclusions based on visits to various cathedrals and his own experience as a born and bred Methodist chorister. Inferences are drawn from the major influences on the music of the church and the developments that have culminated in the different musical styles that currently constitute the musical picture of the Ghanaian Methodist Church.

Keywords: Development, Ebibindwom (Akan Sacred Lyrics), Ghana, Indigenous, Methodist Church, Musical Style

Evaluation of Pumpkin Varieties Grown In the Lake Victoria Basin and Determination of Micronutrients in Their Leaves (Review Completed - Accepted)

Malnutrition continues to be a challenge to the already food insecure populations in developing countries. Utilization of indigenous crops or vegetables is one of the solutions. They are not only available and acceptable but are also rich nutritionally. This study focused on one such ignored crop within the Lake Victoria basin, the pumpkin. The study was to establish the pumpkin species, varieties and evaluate levels of micronutrients in their leaves. Three species of pumpkins C. maxima, C. moschata, C. pepo and a gourd Lageneria siceraria in ten different varieties are grown within the region. HPLC and AAS analysis of the leaves for micronutrients showed that the levels of B- complex, vitamin C and iron differed significantly (p<0.05). The banana variety leaves were superior as compared to others in most of the micronutrients analyzed.

Keywords: Indigenous, Lake Victoria Basin, Malnutrition, Pumpkin, Variety And Micronutrients