Tag Archives: Independence

The Effect of Internal Audit Characteristics on the Effectiveness of Internal Auditors (Published)

The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of internal audit independence and objectivity on internal audit effectiveness in the Malaysian context. A quantitative method was applied based on a questionnaire which has been distributed to the internal auditors who are members of the Institute of Internal Auditors Malaysia (IIAM). A valid 119 responses have been collected. A Structural Equation Modeling technique (SEM) was employed using SmartPLS 3 to analyze and interpret the data. The findings revealed that internal audit independence was positively affecting internal audit effectiveness. However, the effect of internal audit objectivity does not appear in the relationship with internal audit effectiveness. This study provides useful information to both academics and practitioners of internal auditing in highlighting the importance and the effect of internal audit characteristics in improving the effectiveness of internal auditors.

Keywords: Independence, Internal Audit Effectiveness, Internal Auditing, Objectivity

Do Drivers of Corporate Governance Influence shareholder Value (Published)

This study examines effect of drivers of corporate governance on shareholder value. Data from annual financial reports of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria were analysed and tested using panel dynamic ordinary least square model and panel unit root tests. Most variables used as proxies for shareholder value responded positively to variations in audit independence while there is a non-significant effect of audit independence on all variables used as proxies for shareholder value. Board independence has a positive and non-significant effect on shareholder value whereas board size and audit size negatively and non-significantly affect shareholder value.  The study further reveals that audit size, board size and board independence have negative and non-significant impact on the economic value added which represents the market value of shareholder assets. Only audit independence has a positive and non-significant impact on economic value added. Corporate governance drivers are efficacious but do not influence shareholder value significantly.   

 

Keywords: Audit Committee, Board size, Corporate Governance, Environment, Independence, Shareholder value

Linkage between Independence of Judiciary System and Human Rights, Albania’s Case (Published)

Principle of separation of powers is reflected in albanian constitutional system. There are intense debates among constitutionalists about recent developments of this principle. Tripartite system of separation of powers lies in the prediction of independence of judiciary system. Independence of judiciary system is a legal requirement, a core principle of rule of law, a human right guaranteed by democratic constitutions all over the world and as well as a means to enjoy other human rights. Albanian Judiciary System has made limited progress toward independence and impartiality. Regarding legal framework, Albania adopted essential set of laws, even that there are some laws passed by legislative bodies which according to Constitutional Court Verdicts are unconstitutional and violate independence of judiciary system. Another debatable issue it is the composition of High Council of Justice, membership of President of Republic and Minister of Justice. Two parallel inspectorates as Inspectorate of Ministry of Justice and Inspectorate of High Council of Justice overlap each other competences and undermine judiciary independence and intimidate judges. The main research question is about the linkage between independence and impartiality judiciary system and human rights. Dealing with laws ensuring independence, as well as with some legal provisions violating it we will reach into important conclusions

Keywords: Human Rights, Impartiality, Independence, Judiciary system

THE USE OF MOTIVATIONAL TEACHING METHODS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS MATHEMATICS IN ZIMBABWE: A CASE OF THE FIRST DECADE AFTER INDEPENDENCE. (Published)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of motivational teaching methods in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools in Zimbabwe in the first decade after independence. Motivating students during their learning of mathematics has been viewed in literature as critical to successful learning of mathematics by students. Students find the learning of mathematics too abstract, mechanical and difficult (Mwamwenda, 1996). This problem has been compounded by teachers’ obsession with teacher-centered methods like drill and practice which inhibit students to be creative and to demonstrate problem solving skills. While a great deal of research has been carried out on how to teach mathematics as well as on how to incorporate psychological principles of motivation into the teaching of mathematics, no research appears to have been conducted in the Zimbabwean context, to examine teacher use of motivational teaching methods in the teaching of primary school mathematics. This study therefore was an attempt at investigating how motivational teaching methods are applied during the teaching of primary school mathematics. It has been shown in literature and in this research that there are a number of motivational teaching methods which teachers can use to motivate their students to successfully learn mathematics. Among such teaching methods identified in this study include the learner-centered, group-collaborative, discovery, problem-solving and self-activity methods. The main finding of this study was that primary school teachers in Zimbabwean schools mostly use teacher-centered teaching methods rather than learner-centered teaching methods in their teaching of primary school mathematics and this is negatively impacting their ability to motivate students to effectively learn mathematics. A survey questionnaire was used as the main data collection instrument. Units of data were the primary school mathematics teachers teaching standard three up to standard seven classes.

Keywords: Independence, Motivational Teaching Methods, Primary Schools Mathematics, Zimbabwe

LINKAGE BETWEEN INDEPENDENCE OF JUDICIARY SYSTEM AND HUMAN RIGHTS, ALBANIA’S CASE (Published)

Principle of separation of powers is reflected in Albanian constitutional system. There are intense debates among constitutionalists about recent developments of this principle. Tripartite system of separation of powers lies in the prediction of independence of judiciary system. Independence of judiciary system is a legal requirement, a core principle of rule of law, a human right guaranteed by democratic constitutions all over the world and as well as a means to enjoy other human rights. Albanian Judiciary System has made limited progress toward independence and impartiality. Regarding legal framework, Albania adopted essential set of laws, even that there are some laws passed by legislative bodies which according to Constitutional Court Verdicts are unconstitutional and violate independence of judiciary system. Another debatable issue it is the composition of High Council of Justice, membership of President of Republic and Minister of Justice. Two parallel inspectorates as Inspectorate of Ministry of Justice and Inspectorate of High Council of Justice overlap each other competences and undermine judiciary independence and intimidate judges. The main research question is about the linkage between independence and impartiality judiciary system and human rights. Dealing with laws ensuring independence, as well as with some legal provisions violating it we will reach into important conclusions.

Keywords: Impartiality, Independence, Judiciary system Human Rights

Effects of the Proposed Removal of CBN Autonomy on the Nigerian Economy: An Informed Analysis (Published)

In Nigeria, an important issue that has engaged the attention of policy makers and the general public in recent past is the issue of appropriate autonomy for the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The issue is not whether or not the Government should oversee the CBN but rather, which arm of Government should oversee the Bank – the Executive or the Legislature and to what extent. This paper examines this seemingly controversial issue from different perspectives and from an informed opinion concludes that while the CBN autonomy is essential, the issue of transparency and accountability in the conduct of the Bank’s affairs remain imperative and CBN autonomy should not be misconstrued as latitude for frivolity and unwholesome dabbling, especially by the CBN leadership, into political matters at every turn of events.

Keywords: Accountability, Autonomy, Central Bank, Independence, Transparency