Tag Archives: Income

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing in-Patient Satisfaction With Health Care at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. (Published)

Previous studies have focused largely on waiting time, cost of treatment and not much has been documented on in-patient outcome of  health care seeking in a tertiary institutions from the point of view of the patient themselves. This study, investigates the socio-economic factors that determine in-patient satisfaction with care at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. The Sick Role Model, and Social Action theories guided the study and the research design was cross-sectional survey. A Multistage sampling technique was used to select 420 respondents from the five units of the hospital. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain relevant information from the respondents. Fifteen In-depth interviews (IDIs) were also conducted. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square while the qualitative data were content analysed. Findings show that, 61.4% were female, 70.0% were married, 42.0% had secondary school education, and 90% were Christians. Ninety-five percent indicated moderate level of satisfaction from the use of health care. Forty-seven percent indicated that economic constraint has influence on their use and satisfaction with the health care provided. Also, cultural beliefs, recipients’ age, spousal roles, access to multiple doctors, and staff-patient relationship, health education, income and occupation influenced their satisfaction. It is  recommended that socio-economic factors as they affect outcome of in-patients’ and  utilization of the available health care services be integrated into their medical services in the hospital organization providing health care services especially in teaching hospital. It is important for health care professionals to give consideration to cultural beliefs and economic issues of recipients who are seeking health care in the teaching hospital.      

Keywords: Cultural Beliefs, Health Care, In-Patient Satisfaction, Income

Comparative Analysis of System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study compared the System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives included the description of socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers in Abi L.G.A, determination of the rate and levels of adoption of SRI, etc. Data were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Two-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of 100 respondents. Descriptive statistics, t-test and Likert scale were employed for analysis. The major findings of the study shows that, majority (78%) were males and 88% of respondents has rice farm sizes ranging from 1-5ha. The rate of adoption was 50% with 4 levels of adoption of the principles of SRI. The t-test analysis revealed t-calculated value of 8.40 greater than t-tabulated. Meaning that adoption of SRI enhanced the income of the adopters. It is recommended that participation of rice farmers during SRI demonstration be encourage.

Keywords: Adoption, Income, Production

Production Performance of Mango in Dinajpur District of Bangladesh (A Case Study at Sadar Upazilla) (Published)

A study was conducted to identify the status of mango production, mango varieties produced, and problems confronted by the growers and to explore their relationship with some selected characteristics. Data were collected from randomly selected 105 mango growers from eight selected villages of sadar upazila under Dinajpur district through personal interview during March to August, 2008. Data were collected on age, education, family size, farm size, land used in mango production, annual income, experience and knowledge on mango production, varieties and number of mango trees and so on. Relationship between the selected characteristics and dependent variables was done by Pearson’s product moment co-efficient of correlation. In the study, 30 germplasm of mango were identified. Baramashi droop was found as the only year round variety. Gopalbhog holds the first position (15.90%) according to rank of recognized mango varieties based on their availability in respondents’ farm. About three fourths (77.10 %) and more than the same (70.50 %) of the respondents had medium mango production and income respectively. Majority ((75.20 %) of the growers confronted medium problems. Although respondents certified that Dinajpur district is profitable in respect of mango production but further study should be taken place with other variables and characteristics that related to farmers in mango production in different upazillas of Dinajpur district. 

 

Keywords: Bangladesh, Income, Mango Production, Respondents farm, Variety

The Convergence Analysis of the Economic Growth of Asean+3 Countries and its Influencing Factors (Published)

ASEAN  is a geo-political and economic organization which is established on August 8, 1967. The objectives of the establishment of ASEAN include accelerating the economic growth and the social progress of cultural and social in Southeast Asia area. it is known that the income of ASEAN + 3 member countries is still very unbalanced with the index rate of an average of 0.98 per year. However, when it is viewed from year to year during the estimation period, the value of the Williamson Index tends to decrease, although it is very low. This shows the tendency of the movement of economic growth is increasingly convergent with the decreasing inequality level. The results of the analysis through calculation of Williamson Index are also in accordance with the results of the analysis conducted by panel data method. The result of panel data analysis shows that there is conditional and unconditional convergence process of economic growth of ASEAN + 3 countries because the dependent variable lag coefficient of -0.1 and -0.2 is between -1 and 0.

Keywords: Developing Country, Gross Domestic Product, Income, economic growth

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing In-Patient Satisfaction With Health Care At The University Of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria (Published)

Previous studies have focused largely on waiting time, cost of treatment and not much has been documented on in-patient outcome of health care seeking in a tertiary institutions from the point of view of the patient themselves. This study, investigates the socio-economic factors that determine in-patient satisfaction with care at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. The Sick Role Model, and Social Action theories guided the study and the research design was cross-sectional survey. A Multistage sampling technique was used to select 420 respondents from the five units of the hospital. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain relevant information from the respondents. Fifteen In-depth interviews (IDIs) were also conducted. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square while the qualitative data were content analysed. Findings show that, 61.4% were female, 70.0% were married, 42.0% had secondary school education, and 90% were Christians. Ninety-five percent indicated moderate level of satisfaction from the use of health care. Forty-seven percent indicated that economic constraint has influence on their use and satisfaction with the health care provided. Also, cultural beliefs, recipients’ age, spousal roles, access to multiple doctors, and staff-patient relationship, health education, income and occupation influenced their satisfaction.  It is  recommended that socio-economic factors as they affect outcome of in-patients’ and  utilization of the available health care services be integrated into their medical services in the hospital organization providing health care services especially in teaching hospital. It is important for health care professionals to give consideration to cultural beliefs and economic issues of recipients who are seeking health care in the teaching hospital.

Keywords: Cultural Beliefs, Health Care, In-Patient Satisfaction, Income

The Influence of Cultural Factors on Consumer Buying Behaviour (A Case Study of Pork) (Published)

Cultural factors are examined to see how they affect the purchase of pork in Nigeria. Data for the study are obtained through structured questionnaire administered by the researcher and some research assistants. A total of 82 questionnaires are administered out of which 70 are duly filled and returned. Tools used for statistical analysis include Statistical Package for Social Sciences. SPSS 17, Microsoft Excel (2015), Multiple Regression Analysis and Relative Important Index (RII). Findings reveal that cultural variables exert significant influences on the purchase and consumption of pork. The study also found that aside from the cultural factors, age and income also affect the quantity of pork purchased and consumed. Based on these findings the study concludes that cultural factors, age and income influence the quantity of pork purchased and consumed. The study then recommends that these factors should not be taken for granted; rather they should be identified and studied since purchase and consumption of pork are based on them.

Keywords: Age, Buying Behaviour, Cultural Factors, Income, Pork

Determination of the Effect of Agro-Inputs Utilization on Yield and Income of Community-Based Natural Resource Management Rice Farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study determined the effect of agro-inputs utilization on yield and income of community-based Natural Resource Management Programme (CBNRMP) Rice Farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria.  The specific objectives of the study were to: assess the socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers under CBNRMP, identify the agro-inputs made available to rice farmers through their service providers, etc.  Data were obtained from primary and secondary sources for the purpose of this study. The results revealed that 70% of the respondents were males, 40% of the respondents were within the age range of 41-51years.  Majority (90%) of the respondents were married, 85% of the respondents have formal education and majority of the respondents belong to farmers’ cooperatives.  The t-test analysis of the effects of agro-inputs utilization on yield and income of CBNRMP rice farmers were significant. Increased government supports for mobilization of rice farmers for participation and sustained provision of agro-inputs were therefore recommended.

Keywords: Agro-Inputs, Income, Utilization, Yield

Comparative Analysis of System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study compared the System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria.  The specific objectives included the description of socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers in Abi L.G.A, determination of the rate and levels of adoption of SRI, etc. Data were obtained from primary and secondary sources.  Two-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of 100 respondents.  Descriptive statistics, t-test and Likert scale were employed for analysis.  The major findings of the study shows that, majority (78%) were males and 88% of respondents has rice farm sizes ranging from 1-5ha.  The rate of adoption was 50% with 4 levels of adoption of the principles of SRI.  The t-test analysis revealed t-calculated value of 8.40 greater than t-tabulated.  Meaning that adoption of SRI enhanced the income of the adopters.  It is recommended that participation of rice farmers during SRI demonstration be encourage.

Keywords: Adoption, Income, Production

Cost Evaluation of Producing Different Aggregate Sizes in Selected Quarries in Ondo State Nigeria (Published)

This research centres on cost evaluation of producing aggregate sizes in selected quarries in Ondo State, Nigeria. In this study, two granite quarries out of the quarrying companies in Ondo State are used as case studies. In order to achieve the aim of this research physical properties of aggregate and stages involve in aggregate production were discussed. Also, structured questionnaires were distributed to the mangers and other management staff in the selected quarries to acquire the total cost implication of producing 1 ton of granite aggregate. The data acquired was subjected to basic economic evaluation. The results show that the monthly operation costfor Quarry A is N 30,618,000, while that of Quarry B is N10,164,000. The total production in volume value isN 67,242,000 for A and that of B is N32,625,000. Base on the above values the profit for A is N37,242,000 while that of B is N22,241,000. These translate to 122% profit for A and 219% profit for B. It is recommended that the cost price of granite aggregates in Nigeria can be reviewed to make it reachable for masses. This will eradicate the use of natural gravels that are not free from clays coating and other fine materials that could affect hydration and bond of cement paste which can lead to building or structure collapse.

Keywords: Aggregates, Cost Evaluation, Expenditure, Income, Quarry

Impact of National Fadama 111 Development Project Financing On the Socio-Economic Growth of Ebonyi State in Nigeria. (Published)

One of the major problems confronting Nigeria today is how to improve the quality of life in the rural areas, reduce the level of poverty and contribute to economic growth through Fadama 111 Development Project. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of National Fadama Development Project Financing on the socio-economic growth of Ebonyi State using contents analysis and descriptive survey. It was discovered that counterpart contribution by Ebonyi State government has significant effect on socio-economic development of Ebonyi State and that there is long run correlation between counterpart contribution by Local Government Areas of Ebonyi State and socio-economic development of the state. We concluded that introducing the principles of comparative advantage, by the provision of credit facilities to the comparative group in Ebonyi State, only for those businesses that earned them the highest income should be encouraged.

Keywords: Counterpart, Fadama, Financing, Income, economic growth

Is Tourism a Gene Sector to Jordan’s Gdp? (Published)

Tourism in Jordan is a service industry with multiple outcomes. However, at present, it has not been fully utilized and developed to generate the expected income for Jordan’s GDP. Researchers have examined Jordan’s tourism and identified its economical outcomes and methods of enhancement. This study is intended to investigate the contribution of tourism on Jordan’s GDP. To approach the aim of the study, data used in the empirical analysis was collected from the Ministry of Tourism for the period 2006 -2014.Statistical techniques used were: means, variances, covariance, and standard deviations. Research results indicated positive and significant contribution of Jordanian Tourism Sectors on GDP.

Keywords: GDP, Income, Outcome, Service Industry, Tourism

Impact Of Company Income Taxation On The Profitability Of Companies In Nigeria: A Study Of Nigerian Breweries. (Published)

This study ascertains the impact of taxation on the profitability of companies in Nigeria. The study used secondary sources of data and a time series econometric technique with an error correction model tested the variables most likely to impact on profitability of companies in Nigeria. The study revealed that the level of company tax has significant effect on the profitability, that company income tax (CIT) has significant effect on profitability. We conclude that the positive and significant relation between the profitability and the taxation explanatory variables indicates that policy measures to expand tax revenue through more effective tax administration will impact positively on growing the company’s profitability. It is therefore recommended that Government should expand the tax yield through improved tax system administration. This is because of the positive danger of over-reliance on crude oil export receipts to drive the economy. There should be more improve in the effectiveness of taxation by ensuring proper and equitable tax assessment and timely collection.

Keywords: Breweries, Economy, Income, Profitability, Tax

EXCHANGE RATE AND TRADE BALANCE IN GHANA- TESTING THE VALIDITY OF THE MARSHALL LERNER CONDITION (Published)

Currency depreciation has been lauded as a means of improving a country’s trade balance borrowing from the Marshall Lerner Condition that the sum of the elasticity or the coefficient of the trade balance in respect of the exchange rate be greater or equal to unity. This paper examined exchange rate and trade balance in Ghana testing the validity of the Marshall Lerner Condition at aggregate level. The data spanned from 1980-2013 sourced from World Development Indicators. Co integration and vector error correction mechanism (VECM) was used to estimate the short as well as the long run parameters. The result of the findings showed that real effective exchange is negatively linked to trade balance in long run. In the short run the lag one coefficient shows a positive sign implying that trade balance deteriorate in the short run due to some contractual obligations already signed by the domestic country with the trading partners. However in the long run the coefficient shows that a depreciation of cedi all things being equal will lead to an improvement in Ghana’s trade balance. Though the Marshall Lerner condition is not met in Ghana because of the REER coefficient less than unity but evidence from the result indicates that depreciation can be used to improve on the trade balance. The estimated coefficient of the error correction term is -0.3696 which implies that the speed of adjustment is approximately 37. percent per quarter. This negative and significant coefficient is an indication that co integrating relationship exists among the variables. The paper recommends that Ghana should devalue its currency to move from the deficit side of the J curve to the surplus side since evidence from the result shows that depreciation or devaluation can substantially improves the trade balance in the long run.

Keywords: Currency depreciation, Exports, Imports, Income, Marshall Lerner Condition, Trade balance

MOROCCAN CANNED SARDINES VALUE CHAIN-GOVERNANCE AND VALUE ADDED DISTRIBUTION (Published)

Morocco is the world’s leading producer and exporter of canned sardines. However, this product value chain encounters multiple challenges. This study explores how such a chain could create and capture a larger value added share within the European market. Surveys using questionnaires and open interviews have been carried out including a sample of relevant actors in the chain. The results show that the value chain is substantially driven by European retailers who create 68% of the total value added; while Moroccan canning industry remains relatively less wealth-building and captures less income. The improvement strategy should foster better vertical cooperation among actors, a common commercial policy and an innovative diversification of the Moroccan offer.

Keywords: Canned sardines, Governance, Income, Morocco, Value Chain, Value added

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE APLICATION OF ORGANIC VEGETABLE FARMING IN SAMARINDA CITY (CASE STUDY AT NORTH SAMARINDA SUBDISTRICT, EAST KALIMANTAN) (Published)

The objectives of research are to understand the application rate of organic vegetable farming and to analyze factors influencing the application of organic vegetable farming in Samarinda City. Research is carried out in North Samarinda Subdistrict, Samarinda City, from April to June of 2013. Method of research is survey and the sampling technique is simple random sampling. Result of research has shown that (1) the application of organic vegetable farming in Samarinda City is classified into four categories, which include conventional category for very low application rate, knowing-organic category for low application rate, interest-in-organic category for moderate application rate, and toward-organic category for high application rate; (2) some factors such as age, land width, number of training, farmers’ general knowledge about organic, farmers’ knowledge about the principle and benefit of application, and farmers’ knowledge about organic agriculture technique, will give significant influence on the application of organic vegetable farming; and (3) the application rate of organic farming has significant influence on the production and income of vegetable farmers. Farmers with toward-organic application rate of vegetable farming have higher production and income than those with conventional, knowing-organic and interest-in-organic farming.

Keywords: Application, Income, Organic, Vegetable

Determinants of Saving Capacity Of Rural Women Farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

Rural women farmers play significant role in both agricultural production and home management. Despite these roles, their saving capacity seems to have been empirically documented in Ebonyi State Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique involving three stages was employed in the section of 180 respondents. Results showed that at 1% level of significant; household size, farm cash income, farm output and distance to nearest market were the major determinants of saving capacity. The women mainly save in non-cash way which involved saving through investment in livestock production and storage of farm produce. However, minority of the women that practice cash saving, safe keep their money in the house and lending of money to fellow needy farmers. Fear of bank failure, inadequate income due to lack of access to productive resources and low returns, high consumption rate out of available income, and bureaucracy involved in opening bank account were identified as the major constraints to rural women farmers saving capacity. The study based on the finding recommended the creation of enabling socio-economic environment that will increase the rural women farm income through market creation for farm output and subsidy in the price of farm input. Again, the rural financial intermediaries should encourage farmers to save by raising the interest paid on saving; this will discourage farmers from saving in kind or hoarding cash in the house which usually lead to loss of wealth in case of thefts, burglaries. Finally, Government and banks should create channels through which farmers especially rural women farmers can be educated on saving modalities; this will not only encourage investment and consequently their saving capacity.

Keywords: Determinants, Farmers, Income, Rural Women, Saving Capacity

An Assessment of Some Factors Influencing the Performance of Household Tasks Among Women Civil Servants in Lagos State (Published)

This study investigated the assessment of some factors influencing the performance of household tasks among women civil servants in Lagos State. Three objectives and three research questions were formulated for the study. Three null hypotheses were postulated, and a sample of 520 women civil servants were drawn from nineteen ministries in Lagos State using proportional random sampling technique. Data were collected using a self designed questionnaire. ANOVA statistics was used to test the hypotheses of significance at 0.05 level of agreement. The findings revealed that (i) there was a significant difference among women civil servants of different educational level and the type of household tasks they performed. The second one indicated a significant difference among women civil servant of different occupational level and the availability of labour saving devices for the performance of household tasks. (iii) revealed that significant differences did not occur among the women civil servants with different income level and hours spent for the performance of the tasks. Necessary recommendations and conclusions were made.

Keywords: Education, Household tasks, Income, Occupation, Performance, Women civil servant