Tag Archives: Inclusive Education

Determinants of Effective Implementation of Inclusive Education at the Basic Education Level in Nigeria (Published)

This study was aimed at examining the determinants of effective implementation of inclusive education at the Basic Education level for national development. Inclusive education at the basic level is key to national development because no school age child is left behind. Children with disabilities are integrated into the main stream to enable them learn in normal classrooms. There are certain things needed in inclusive education for effective implementation of the programme at the Basic Education level. This paper therefore looked at the term inclusive education, Basic Education and determinants of effective implementation of inclusive education in terms of information for planning, provision of school libraries, provision of qualified personnel and funding. Some recommendations were made, one of which is that, government should provide infrastructural facilities and funds for effective implementation of inclusive education at the Basic level of education.


Keywords: Inclusive Education, Universal Basic Education, information for planning, provision of school libraries.

Differentiating the ESL Reading Comprehension Classroom for Inclusive Education (Published)

There is a growing need today for teachers to tailor their instructions to meet the different learner profile and learning styles in the classroom. The ESL teacher has greater challenges given that the English language has become a global language, and that most ESL classrooms include students with a wide variety of academic needs, cultural backgrounds, learning styles, and languages. Differentiated instruction is the panacea to cater for all these challenges faced by the ESL teacher in this globalized era. In a differentiated classroom, the teacher closely assesses and monitors skills, knowledge levels and interests to determine effective ways for all students to learn; thereby ensuring learner-centredness, equity and inclusive education.  This paper explores how content, method, material and assessment can be differentiated in a Reading Comprehension English as a Second Language class. The issues in this paper are based on the social development theory as propounded by Vygotsky (1978)

Keywords: Differentiation, ESL, Inclusive Education, Reading Comprehension

Perception of Teachers in Regular Schools towards Inclusive Education in Tano South District, Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana (Published)

This paper examines the extent of awareness of teachers on the concept of inclusive education, the perception teachers have on inclusive education and the perceived effects of inclusive education in the public basic schools towards the implementation    of inclusive education in the Tano South District in Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana.  Three research questions were formulated. Survey approach was adopted using questionnaire as the main data collection instrument. Forty (40) head teachers and one hundred and eighty five (185) teachers were selected from forty (40) basic schools for the study.  In all, a total of two hundred and twenty two (225) teachers and head teachers were randomly selected across the district and questionnaires administered to them. The questionnaires were semi-structured. Data was captured and analyzed.  The results presented in tables showed that most teachers and head teachers in Tano South District were aware of the concept of inclusive education but have no understanding on how the concept works. Teachers and head teachers alike disagreed inclusion of special needs children in regular classroom increase the child’s circle of friends, limit the child’s level of education or make a child well-adjusted socially among others. However, when the concept is implemented it would come with some benefits in the area of increase in the child’s circle of friends, limits the child’s level of education and also make a child well-adjusted socially. The study recommended that; teachers in regular basic schools in Tano South District be educated on the issues of the new policy of inclusive education concept. This, Ghana education service can achieve by organizing workshops at the district levels as well as regional levels for basic level teachers. Conscious effort should be made to make it visible and available to the schools in the district. Necessary equipment and instructional resources should be put in place for successful implementation of inclusive education

Keywords: Basic Education, Inclusive Education, Mainstream education, Perception, Regular Schools, Tano South District

Challenges Faced by Students with Visual Impairments When Learning Physics in Regular Secondary Schools (Published)

The curriculum in regular schools is designed for fully sighted children and is delivered largely through sighted related tasks. The preponderance of visually oriented and visually complex concepts and information in science classrooms poses significant challenges to learning among visually impaired students. Without systematic instructional attention to these challenges science may seem inaccessible to many students with visual impairment, ( Kumar et al 2001).This  study investigated the challenges faced by students  with visual impairment when learning physics in regular secondary schools.  The intention of the study was to make policy makers to be aware of the difficulties that visually impaired students encounter when learning physics in regular secondary schools .The visually impaired students would then be supported so that they can overcome these difficulties. This would promote the national special needs educational policy framework which advocates for inclusive education. The objectives of the study was to identify  problems visually impaired students encounter when learning physics  in form two in regular secondary schools .The targeted population in this study was that of form two physics students with visual impairment. One hundred and forty seven students were selected from regular secondary schools within the study area. A purposive sampling technique was applied to identify the VI students within the study location. The location of the study was Busia County, Siaya County, Vihiga County and Kisumu County. The study was guided by the normalization theory. The argument behind it is that a child with whatever kind of disability can live a normal life if given all kind of support just like any other normal child. The data was collected coded and summarized on the basis of objectives of the study. The data was analyzed using SPSS program and reported using frequency distribution tables and percentages. Chi square was used to compare the proportions observed in each category with what would be expected. Test retest technique was used to test the reliability of the research instruments.  The study found that classrooms in regular schools lacked adequate light hence are not suitable for accommodation of visually impaired learners.  The visually impaired learners were exposed to inappropriate scripts of reading materials and that most of the respondents lacked optical and non-optical devices even though they needed them.  The study also found that the visually impaired students did not receive support services from the vision support teachers nor interventional measures to help them overcome their visual limitations.  The study recommended that Physics teachers adopt an inductive heuristic approach in teaching Physics to visually impaired learners. The study further recommended that teachers’ trainers should include inclusive education in their curriculum and that Ministry of Education should come up with proper guidelines about inclusive education. At least each regular school should have a department of special needs managed by a special needs teacher.  The government through the MOE should also avail funds to regular secondary schools to enable them modify their environments for the purpose of inclusive education.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Regular Schools, Visual Impairment

Psychosocial Effect of the Use of Amplifications among Individuals with Hearing Impairment: Communication Implications for Creativity in Inclusive Education Practices in University Of Calabar, Nigeria (Published)

The main thrust of this study was to determine psychosocial effect of the use of amplifications among individuals with hearing impairment: communication implications for creativity in inclusive education practices in University of Calabar, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 35 hearing impaired students in University of Calabar during 2014/2015 academic session of both regular and sandwich students with hearing impairment in Special Education Department were used for the study. The selection was done through the census technique. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. It was validated by experts in educational tests and measurements in the Faculty of Education. The reliability estimate of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha with a coefficient of .79. The data was analysed using Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient and Anova. The result of the analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between students with congenital hearing loss and their benefit in an inclusive environment with the aid of amplifications. The result also revealed that University activities significantly influence students with hearing impairment who use amplifications psychologically. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended among others that students with congenital hearing loss should be discouraged from using hearing aid since the sounds heard by them makes no meaning but noise.

Keywords: Amplifications, Communication Implications, Inclusive Education, Psychosocial Effect, Students with Hearing Impairment

Challenges of Implementing Inclusive Education of Children with Visual Impairment in Port Harcourt, Rivers State (Published)

The study investigated the challenges of implementing inclusive education of children with visual impairment in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The design of the study is descriptive survey design. The population of the study was all the 80 teachers of children with visual impairment in the 4 centres in Port Harcourt. The simple random sampling technique was used to draw 25% of the population as the sample for the study. A self-designed instrument titled Challenges of Implementing Inclusive Education Scale (CIIES) was used for the study. The cronbach alpha reliability estimate was used to establish the reliability of the instrument. The general reliability of CIIES is given at .92, Social Factors Subscale (SFS) .935, Economic Factors Subscale (EFS) .91 and Emotional Factors Subscale (EFS) .87. Three research questions were answered.  Mean and standard deviation were used for the data analysis. It was found out among others that the social factors that may challenge effective implementation of inclusive education are:  negative attitude of the society towards these students, unadoptable school environment and language/ communication barriers. More so, the economic factors are: inadequate funding, inadequate number of personnel, inadequate training for personnel and inadequate funding to purchase the necessary technological materials, while emotional factors are discrimination against children with visual impairment, lack of awareness of the special needs of children with visual impairment, marginalization of children with visual impairment. The following recommendations were made among others; the school administrators should take social activities like co-curricular activities very seriously in the schools; that the school administrators should endeavour to meet parents, host community and non-governmental functionaries like Tetfund and oil companies for financial assistance.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Visual Impairment, emotional factors, social factors

Managing Schools with Migrant Learners: A Daunting Challenge for Rural School Principals at the Northern Outskirts of South Africa (Published)

The influx of undocumented and unaccompanied migrant learners in the rural schools of the District of Vhembe in Limpopo Province of South Africa is alarming. These learners come to South Africa with unique challenges. They are affected by socio-economic factors.  They do not have identification documents. They are dogged by language barriers and are often victims of xenophobic attitudes. Their inclusion in the school system brings about new challenges to the school management teams. The study argues that effective management of school is a necessary pre-condition for addressing the educational predicament of migrant learners. As such, principals have the responsibility to manage their schools effectively and efficiently. A qualitative research was conducted at Tshipise-Sagole district to determine the extent to which principals address the educational challenges of migrant learners. Six schools with a significant number of migrant learners were purposefully selected.  Data were collected through individual interviews with 6 school principals. Data were analysed thematically. The study revealed that managing schools with migrant learners remains a daunting challenge to principals. It is also revealed that principals as custodians of migrant learners play a vital role in addressing these difficulties. The study recommended that school principals should profile migrant learners’ needs and barriers in order to address them amicably and provide necessary support. Government support and involvement of various stakeholders are cited as very important aspects as this should be a shared responsibility.


Keywords: Inclusive Education, Migration, School Management, migrant learners

An Appraisal of the Development of Special Education and the Achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) In Rivers State (Published)

This study was carried out to examine the development of special education provision visa-vis the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in Rivers State. The desire of every parent in particular and the society as a whole is to have normal and healthy children. The abnormalities that inevitably occur either by human errors or by natural imposition cannot stop the education of these ones. These abnormalities create sufficient disparities in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective development of children especially when they start schooling at various levels. It is on this premise, that this study is contemplated to assess the development of special education with the view of evaluating its parity in the realization of the Millennium Development Goals. It adopted historical survey method to assess quality education for these categories of learners. Policy provisions as well as an overview of the development of special education in Nigeria. Development of special education and the achievement of MDG in Rivers State way forward, that Government should ascertain the statistics of these persons, fund the education of these persons, enact requisite laws and there should be attitudinal change towards these people both from government and members of the public concerning persons with special needs amongst others.

Keywords: Appraisal, Education, Inclusive Education, Millennium Development Goals, Special Needs Persons, policies

The Role of Faculties of Education in the Preparation of Primary School Pre-Service Teachers for Inclusive Classrooms (Published)

Universities in South Africa are responsible for training primary school teachers.  These teachers should be competent to teach learners with and without disabilities in the same classroom environments.  With the exception of very few universities in South Africa, the majority offers courses that do not adequately prepare teachers for inclusive classrooms.  This quantitative study was pegged on the literary debate and used the Modified Survey of Attitudes towards Inclusion of Learners with Special Needs to collect data from 149 primary school pre-service teachers.  The findings revealed that pre-service teachers who took a module on Barriers to Learning have a good understanding of the teaching of learners with special needs, they possess appropriate skills to teach learners with and without disabilities in inclusive classrooms and are confident that they have inherent qualities and mental temperament to deal with special needs learners.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Persons With Disabilities, Pre-Service Teachers, Special Needs Learners, Teacher Knowledge, Teaching Skills And Dispositions

Teacher Preparation for Inclusive Education of Persons with Special Needs In Nigeria: The Challenges and Solutions (Published)

Inclusion of students with special needs education especially those who need specialized skills and technical support give more rise challenges to the training of teachers to produce quality one to handle such children in question. Special needs children, as stipulated in article 223 of the UN’s child right convention endorsed in 1989, have the right to enjoy in full, decent life in conditions which ensure dignity, promotes self-reliance and facilitate the Child active participation in inclusive educational system. This paper focuses on teacher preparation in inclusive education, the concept of inclusive, the benefits, include in-service training programmes, special teacher and inclusive education, teacher preparation and the challenges where discussed. The paper, concluded with some recommendations such as: government at all levels should make inclusive education compulsory for schools and colleges to avoid discrimination against persons with special needs, government should set up committee that will put up machineries for effective implementation of inclusive education among others.

Keywords: Challenges, Inclusive Education, Nigeria, Person With Special Needs, Sustainable, Teacher Preparation