Tag Archives: Imperialism

A Fresh Look at Shakespeare’s Dramaturgy: Towards an Orientalist Approach to ‘Othello’ (Published)

Much ink has been spilt over Shakespeare’s Othello​and the controversy over its main concerns, themes and aims. While some critics maintain that the themes of prejudice, love, faith and unbridled jealousy are the focus of the play, other scholars argue that the play is a story about ambition, human frailty and the destruction of an innocent and real love. This paper advances the claim that, through its nuances and subtleties, Shakespeare’s Othello provides much more to ponder and can be equally perceived as a story about the clash and collision of two different cultures, human relationships and racial problems. Using Edward Said’s theory of orientalism and imperialism as a foundation for analyzing and reinterpreting Shakespeare’s Othello, the study will also showcase how through his speech and action, the most intriguing character Iago serves primarily as an agent of orientalism.

Keywords: Imperialism, Othello, Shakespeare, cultural clashes, orientalism

Missionaries as Imperialists: Decolonial Subalternity in the Missionary Enterprise on The Coast Of Cameroon 1841-1914 (Published)

The coming of early missionaries to the global south in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and their activities have received a two sided analysis. While a school of thought holds that the missionaries were motivated by a spiritual revival and response to the call to ‘go ye therefore, and teach all nations… unto the ends of the earth…what I have commanded you’[1], Decolonial and subaltern studies hold the very strong opinion that missionaries, played an ambiguous role in preparing the grounds for European occupation and the entrenchment of coloniality. Within this civilizer-colonizer debate, I argue in this paper that there is a significant amount of historical evidence to justify that missionaries served as forerunners of colonialism and have used missionary correspondences, data on their interaction with the indigenous communities as well as critical secondary literature to present the Cameroon experience.

[1] The Holy Bible, Mathew Chapter 28:20

Keywords: Decolonial, Early European Missionaries, Imperialism, Subaltern

Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness: Debunking the Two Basic Imperial Clichés (Published)

Joseph Conrad’s in his Heart of Darkness has been condemned as a supporter and defender of the imperialist views and in other situations he is thought to be ambivalent, ambiguous and indecisive concerning this same topic. This paper aims at proving that in Heart of Darkness Conrad employs strategy of introducing the long established imperial clichés to debunk them and to show how fake they are. This strategy is successful and convincing in depicting the cruelties that are caused by the power and authority of imperialism especially if we put this novel within its historical context; a time when imperialism and all of its byproducts were acceptable as practices of the white man’s burden theory

Keywords: Congo, Efficiency, Imperialism, Victorian readers, atrocities, clichés, redeeming idea.

The Untold History of Neocolonialism in Africa (1960-2011) (Published)

After the Second World War, the imperialist trends of the eighteenth and nineteenth century began to decline. Through collective struggles, the Africans achieved independence from the whites. But though they attained freedom, they could not imagine the fact that it was just a treacherous exchange of power between the out-going masters and few of their faithful heirs. In the colonial period, the European rulers propagated that as the Africans had no culture and history of their own, it was their holy duty to civilize the native Africans. Thus, they regarded themselves superior to Africans whose culture they considered inferior, uncivilized, and savage. In the name of spreading civilization, they dominated, oppressed, tyrannized and persecuted the native Africans not only economically and politically, but also culturally. When the Europeans left, the Africans got political freedom, but the foul practice of imperialism did not end. It appeared in a new form namely neocolonialism which the scholars had branded as the worst form of imperialism. This camouflaged imperialist practice is turning Africa into a museum of acute poverty, hunger, corruption and famine. The paper aims at elucidating the effects of neocolonialism in Africa from four major perspectives– economic, political, cultural and literary.

Keywords: Africa, Cultural Imperialism, Disillusionment of African Writers., Imperialism, Neocolonialism

IMPERIALISM AND ECONOMIC UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: A STUDY OF SUDAN (Published)

This work attempts to examine the connection between imperialism and the socio-economic challenges that have hindered development in post-independence Sudan. With data derived extensively from secondary source materials on the subject, the paper reveals that the Sudanese have been victims of the struggles among contending imperialist powers in the country, which has over the years, resulted in political destabilisation and economic stagnation in the country. The contention of this paper is that while Anglo-Egyptian imperialism, laid the foundation for the present political and economic turmoil experienced in the country, the trend has been sustained in recent times, by China-US rivalry for the control of Sudan’s oil industry. The paper further reveals that the recent media propaganda and economic sanctions of the US against the Sudanese government in Khartoum, is not a humanitarian gesture. Rather it is part of US Strategy to force the regime of Omar Al-Bashir to sever economic and diplomatic ties with China, who is a major threat to US economic interest in the country. The paper concludes by stating that unless constitutionalism, the rule of law and true nationalism is promoted in the region, the Sudanese (both North and South) would remain pliant and amenable to the interest and subtle machination of contemporary imperialist powers

Keywords: Africa, Imperialism, Sudan, Underdevelopment

HOLLYWOOD IMPERIALISM ON CALABAR-SOUTH TEENAGERS- THE SCORE SHEET (Published)

The onus of this thesis hung on ascertaining Hollywood imperialism on the behavioral pattern of teenagers in Calabar-South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. A multicultural milieu atomized as Efik, Efut and Ejagham clans. Pigeon English and Efik are their diglossia. An area intimately stigmatized by an obnoxious phobia. This study was between June 2013 and November, 2013; and it uncovered the root causes of these attritions. Here, the Social Cognitive Theory, created a paradigm shift from a humble African belief to the polemics of Hollywood imperialism, experimented on 200 teenagers of age bracket 12 to 25 years as sample male and female. A survey method questionnaire titled ‘Individual Experience Questionnaire’ (IEQ) was used for data collection. Using statistics, it was revealed that: (i) 55.8% acculturated Hollywood movies influenced teenagers’ aggressive behaviour. It unveiled the presence of different secret cults, emanating from popular Western cultures. Within this precinct, these cult groups meted mayhems: prostitution, child abandonment and other nefarious threats, mostly perpetrated by primary and secondary schools’ dropouts, broken homes and poor parental care as authenticated by personal interviews. (ii) 97.5% posited that Hollywood movies do not depict Nigerian trado-cultural hegemony; thus leading to a shift from indigenous to alienists’ culture instead of mummifying the unique ‘Africanism.’ While concluding that Hollywood imperialism has caused a shift in youth behavioral paradigm in Calabar-South, it was recommended amongst others that Government (through FVCB) should enhance a curtail of Hollywood  film shows while adopting/encouraging philanthropic youth based projects such as the Obioma Liyel Imoke’s Destiny Child Centre and Mothers Against Child Abandonment.

Keywords: Calabar-South, Hollywood, Imperialism, Pro-social behaviour, Score sheet, Teenagers