Assessment of Anthropogenic Activities and Their Impact on Ngong Hills Forest in Kajiado County, Kenya: A Remote Sensing Approach (Published)
Human beings are dependent on forests for various livelihood needs. Forests offer a variety of benefits, including ecological, social as well as economic benefits. As such, the development and conservation of forests around the world is vital. Monitoring of the forest ecosystem is mandatory in order to detect any changes in the ecosystem. Forest cover change detection gives an opportunity to track the productivity, health and the forest cover as well over the years so as to enable proper management, promote conservation and enhance functionality. Optical and radar remote sensors make it possible to monitor changes by use of various analytical techniques that include visual interpretations. The study investigated how remote sensing can be applied to detect change in forest ecosystem and to assess the rate of change of Ngong Hills Forest in Kenya. The project sought to determine whether anthropogenic activities are the major cause of the change in Ngong Hills Forest. Data from satellite images was analysed from 1984 to 2019 to identify the changes that have occurred on the ecosystem. Landsat and Rapid-Eye images were used to inform on change detection. In this case, rapid eye data was found to be better than Landsat data in informing on change detection because of its high resolution thus high precision and better results. The changes depicted by the remotely sensed data were mapped for ease of analysis and visualization. The research depicted a massive decrease in the forest cover despite the afforestation efforts by the Kenya Forest Service (KFS) in the 1990s. The forest has been depreciating massively from 1995 depicting greater deforestation rates between the years 2010 and 2019. This depreciation has been acknowledged by the KFS as it is said to be occurring due to the anthropogenic activities mainly settlement and logging. The means of detecting change by use of remote sensing is thus able to identify the exact areas that change has occurred and thus provide insight for the Kenya Forest Service and other ecosystem protection bodies on the most affected areas and the extent of change. Once the study area is mapped, it is possible to calculate the areas that have decreased in vegetation quantity, areas where increase has occurred as well as the areas that have remained unchanged. The findings of the study make it possible for management agencies to enforce conservation because of the presence of reliable data.
Status of Discharged Abattoir Effluent and Its Effects on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Orogodo River, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The discharge of untreated wastewater into waterbodies results in water quality deterioration of the receiving waters. This study assesses the impact of abattoir wastewater discharge on the water quality of Orogodo River in Nigeria. Effluent discharges and water samples were collected from river at six points over a 6-month period. Physicochemical analyses were conducted using standard methods. The pH was within a fixed band of 5.56 – 8.04. The downstream biochemical oxygen demand of the receiving river water increased significantly to 75% in July and up to 192% in December. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus followed a similar trend. Dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, also increased appreciably. The downstream levels of these parameters were higher than their corresponding upstream values, indicating that the discharge of the abattoir wastewater into the river has negatively impacted the river water. The dilution of the waste in the river water was not enough to reduce them to acceptable levels. This study demonstrates that abattoir wastewater impacts Orogodo River water negatively. The abattoir effluent did not meet the National standard for effluent discharge into the environment leading to cross pollution of the receiving water based on the parameters investigated. This therefore, calls for the need to put an effective wastewater treatment and monitoring system in place to enforce existing legislations to curb water pollution and to safeguard both the environment and human health.
Impact of Social Structures on African Humanism: A Study of Selected Novels of Meja Mwangi (Published)
African humanism is conceptualised in the idea of Ubuntu. This term embodies various values that are uniquely African, culturally and conservatively. They include communalism, sharing, openness, respect for life and the upholding of the dignity of persons, and the devotion to family ties. The research examined the status of African humanism in Kenya as represented in selected popular fiction works of Meja Mwangi, namely Kill Me Quick (1973), Going Down River Road (1976) and The Cockroach Dance (1979). Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the findings on how social structures affect individuals’ sense of African Humanism in the selected novels. The study was qualitative in approach, employing analytical research design in the collection and analysis of data. Qualitative data was collected using content analysis. The study population comprised African popular fiction, with special focus on popular novels by Kenyan popular writers. The study narrowed down the population to Meja Mwangi’s novels that are forty-four in number. Purposive sampling technique was employed with the inclusion criterion being Meja Mwangi’s novels that address the humanistic issues being investigated. The sample size was Meja Mwangi’s three urban-based novels mentioned above. Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources through close textual reading. Data analysis was conducted by the guidance of Marxist theoretical framework. The collected data was categorised along the study’s units of analysis. It was established that different social structures such as government agencies, including the police and prisons, as well as private entities, such as employers and residential systems, have contributed to the decline in individuals’ commitment to the values of African humanism in the selected novels. The study is significant since it unravels the humane dispositions of individuals as portrayed in popular fiction, a reflection of the humane status of ordinary people in Kenya of today. The study reveals that literary writers, such as popular fiction authors, are increasingly voicing the impact of changing social structures on African humanism in society today. The presence of social classes in the modern Kenyan state is inevitably affecting the utu of individuals. As such, instances of exploitation, poverty, inequality, and dehumanization are rampant.
Impacts of Selected Seed Pretreatments on Emergence and Early Growth of Ceiba Pentandra (L.) Gaertn (Published)
The research work on seed pretreatment methods was carried-out to examine the effects on the emergence and early growth of Ceiba pentandra (Linn) Gaertn. The research was carried out at Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) nursery Jericho, Ibadan. Major pretreatments employed on the seeds of Ceiba pentandra were soaking in water at room temperature, soaking in water at boiling point, soaking in H2SO4, and soaking in organic manure (rabbit dung) with untreated seeds as control. Each of the treatments has three levels of administration except control with a single level. The research was laid in a completely randomized design with 20 seeds per treatment and each level of treatment was replicated five times. Growth parameters assessed were germination count, seedling height, seedling girth and number of leaves with germination percentage derived from germination count. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS package. From the table presentation of germination parameters and percentage derivative, Treatment 1 (soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours) has the highest germination percentage of 100% followed by Treatment 7 (soaking in H2SO4 for 10 minutes) 70% and Treatment 13 (control) 70%. ANOVA stated that there was significant difference among the seedling height, seedling girth and number of leaves at 5% level of probability. In overall assessment, Treatment 10 (soaking in rabbit manure for 12h) has the highest mean value of height, 15.67 followed by Treatment 8 (Soaking in H2SO4 for 20 minute) with mean value of 15.45 In the area of number of leaves, Treatment 10 has the highest mean value of 18.67 followed by Treatment 2 with 18.02 while Treatment 7 (soaking in acid for 10 minutes) has the highest mean value of 2.77 in stem diameter followed by Treatment 10 with 2.68 mean value. It was concluded based on the result obtained from the research work that Treatment 10 (Soaking in Rabbit Manure for 12 hours) was highly and positively significant in treating seeds of C. pentandra majorly in the areas of seedling height and number of leaves that form the essential parameters of plant growth and development. It is therefore recommended that further research should be carried on other fresh organic manures with various plant species.
Pattern and Trend of Malaria Morbidity and Mortality in Tigray Region, Ethiopia from 2011/12-2014/15 (Published)
Malaria is vector borne disease. Even though there is global reduction in malaria mortality still the African Region continues to shoulder the heaviest burden: in 2015, this one region accounted for approximately nine in 10 malaria cases and deaths globally. Methods: The main aim of this study was to assess four year pattern and trends of malaria morbidity and mortality in Tigray region using retrospective study design from patients’ registration and Health Management Information System (HMIS) data. The data was interred and coded to Epi Info and exported to SPSS version 21 for statistics analysis. Result: A total of 1.5 million malaria cases were analyzed. 78% of the cases were confirmed though liberator where as 22% of the cases diagnosis were made though clinical manifestation without liberator. The most common species of malaria morbidity is Plasmodium falciparum which accounts 71% where are the rest were other species. The magnitude of malaria morbidity in 2014/15 is 1.5 times lower than 2011/12. Similarly the magnitude of malaria mortality is 1.74 times lower than 2011/12. Conclusion: Although elimination and eradication of malaria morbidity and mortality were not possible reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality were achieved. But still know it needs high-level and sustained political commitment and constant vigilance, intense programmatic efforts in affected areas for eradication and elimination of malaria.
Women’s empowerment has become a global affair in the contemporary discourse for the developing countries. This paper examined the impact of microcredit schemes on women’s empowerment in rural Bangladesh. The data was collected from 324 rural women borrowers on a field study from four villages in the district of Tangail, Bangladesh through the administration of questionnaires. This research was conducted during the period of July to December 2016. Data was also collected from women non-borrowers to compare the impact between borrowers and control-group. Data has been analyzed by SPSS software and also Logistic Regression is used to estimate the impact of empowerment of women after participating in microcredit program. A significant outcome of this research showed that microcredit has a positive impact on women’s empowerment and promotes microcredit borrowers women to participate in the household decision-making process through acquiring the self-esteem, business skills and confidence level.
The relationship between South Africa and Nigeria dates back to 1960s during the Apartheid era. Nigeria played an instrumental role in ending apartheid and upon the collapse of the apartheid regime, migrants from Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria swamped into the country as a result of investment opportunities. However, the current challenges facing South Africa such as unemployment, poor border control, lack of education caused deep resentment amongst the locals and resulted in xenophobic attitudes and violence. This paper thus, is informed by the rise in the attacks on Nigerians in South Africa and takes a critical analysis of the impact of xenophobia on Nigeria students in South Africa. In achieving this, data was collated using a 12 item questionnaire titled “Impact of Xenophobia on Nigerian students in South Africa” across 30 randomly selected Nigerian students using sampling technique rated on a 4point likert scale. The findings of this study indicates that Nigerian students face discrimination from fellow students, locals and immigration and government officials while the rise of xenophobic sentiments has impacted the economy and investment opportunities of South Africa. Awareness campaigns by stakeholders, policies that boost employment and the economy as well as partnership by both governments were recommended by the study.
Impact of Evolving Construction Project Management Techniques for Proper Project Delivery: Review on Constructability Review, Lean Construction (Lc) and Value Engineering (Ve) Techniques (Published)
Throughout the existence of construction industry especially starting in the period of industrial revolution, there have been many developments of different construction techniques that can help the industry to reach success. Formed models but with unmet realities; unsuccessful timely delivery of the projects, out of projected budgets and intended quality are leading factors that still push industry players to seek the change in construction sector worldwide. In other words past experiences of failure of existing construction management tools have evidenced the search of the improved construction concepts that leads to industry success hence customers’ satisfaction. One the other side, among different construction concepts developed in a way of enhancing the industry; include lean construction, constructability review and value engineering. Both latter tools focus on the use of knowledge management to assessing inputs ahead of production process so to successfully achieve the stated outputs. By that, they provide a good consideration for construction sector as significant and impactful principles for proper project delivery. This review article aims to study the importance of evolving construction project management techniques namely lean construction, constructability review and value engineering in the construction industry particularly on construction projects delivery; as well as to assess their current practice and impact.
This paper evaluates the impact of good governance on rural development in Niger State. The problem investigated is stimulated by the expectation of the people for good governance in democratic era. The specific objective of the study include determining the extent to which the government archived the tenets of good governance, finding out the impact of good governance on rural development and examining the constraints of good governance in achieving rural development. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources using the instrument of observation, questionnaire, published and unpublished material as well as the internet. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive tools used include tables and simple percentages while the inferential tool used is the spearman rank correlations. The study revealed that, good governance has not provided rural development. More specifically, there is low service delivery, low rate of adherence to rule of law, lack of transparency and accountability, existence of high rural poverty, decay in rural educational system, inadequate water and road infrastructure as well as inadequate health facilities. The study also revealed poverty, corruption, poor judicial system, need for excess wealth as constraints for good governance. It was therefore recommended that, there should be institution of integrity, transparency and accountability in governance, there should be improvement in social services and there should be measures to check misgovernance and mismanagement.
Tourism as Factor for the Presence and Continuation of Harm Full Traditional Practices in Hamer Community, Ethiopia (Published)
The main objective of this research is to examine whether tourism is key factor for the presence and continuation of HTP in Hamer. In order to collect necessary data, structural interview survey with local people, informant in-depth interview and focus group discussion were conducted. Data collected from local people through interview was entered into SPSS version 20 and then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, chi-square test and binomial tests. Data collected through focus group discussion and in depth interview were analyzed using descriptive, explanatory and narrative methods of qualitative data analysis techniques. The finding shows that out of the three most prevalent HTP, Whipping of women (as part of the bull jumping ceremony) was found to be directly influenced by tourism. Chi-square analysis shows that there was no significance difference between the supporter and opponent of continuation of the practice of whipping among Hamers. Local peoples, local government, local associations, private hospitality and tourism sectors have gained economic benefit from tourism. Majority of local people constituting 90 percent practiced bull jumping and evangadi dance primarily for non-tourism related purpose. 67.5 percent local people believed that tourist could visit their village in the absence of bull jumping and evangadi dance. Informant and deductive analysis shows tourism is factor for the continuation and practice of whipping in Hamer community. Therefore, special attention should be given to whipping besides to teaching females of the community
A Sociological Analysis of the Impact of Solid Minerals Mining On Community Development in Nasarawa State: A Study of Awe Local Government Area (Published)
Nigeria’s economic history shows that the solid minerals sector was a major player in the country’s economy before the discovery of oil, contributing about 12 per cent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Generally, the exploitations of solid minerals always take place in communities where they are deposited. The activities involved in the process cannot be divorced from the social interactions and relationships between the miners and host communities. It has been observed that mining activities have great degrading effects on physical environment of the host communities, which can negatively affect the socio-economic development of the mining communities and cause serious health hazards for the members of the communities. The thrust of this research is to examine the impact of mining activities on the development of the host communities particularly, now that the economic policies of Nigerian government is focusing more on mining as a better alternative source of revenue for government. This study employed survey research design approach to analyze causal explanation. For the purpose of this study, three mining communities in the study area were selected using cluster sampling, namely Abuni, Azara and Mairago. The principal methods of data collection used are closed-ended questionnaire, in-depth interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Based on the research questions, the analysis of data is both quantitative and qualitative. The study revealed that mining sector has the potential for creating jobs, greater GDP and huge exports but a greater amount of Nigerian miners are artisanal small scale operators, who conduct explorations of minerals without adequate equipment. The study discovers that there has been cordial and harmonious relationship between the host communities and mining companies in the area under study. The study concludes that mining companies has contributed to community development in the area according to their capacity. It therefore recommends among others that the potential of solid mineral sector notwithstanding, there is the need for environmental impact assessment of the host communities before any mining activity to reduce environmental hazards. Establishing and maintaining mutual trust between people and the mining companies should be the main goal of the community partnership. The mining companies should always recognize the need for cooperation with the community and to encourage members of the community to be involved in their own development.
This research paper investigates the impact of brand equity on consumer purchase decision of cell phones. The research has highlighted the gaps found in many marketing efforts of cellular companies while presenting their market offerings to the target market. The research paper starts off by explaining what brand equity is, how it is built and then how it slowly and gradually ends up producing loyal and in-synced consumers, who will not switch to any other brand no matter what, simply because for them the brand has become their companion, which not only satisfies their needs but also helps them complete themselves. Therefore, it will assist the marketers to know such consumer insights and opinions of their target market, what they want and need and from a mobile brand, all these gaps have been identified in this study and it helps in setting out a strategic plan which will be very valuable for marketing professionals who want to increase the market share of their brand, because like Kevin Keller said that no matter what kind of the brand it is at any point of time it can become susceptible and vulnerable to poor brand management. In this study, Brand Equity is further divided into four elements, namely; Brand Association, Brand Awareness, Brand Quality and Brand Loyalty and thus how the combined role of all 4 elements influences and molds the purchase decision of consumers. A scientific review of literature has been done and questionnaires were distributed for data collection and Likert scale was designed to ask respondents about their insights and opinions and they were asked to rate them on a five point scale between strongly agree and strongly disagree. A sample size of 300 respondents has been chosen. The method of sampling selected is Simple Random Sampling, to test the data Correlation and Regression analysis has been done with the help of SPSS. The research paper takes into account 5 major players of cell phone brands in our country; Samsung, iPhone, HTC, Nokia and Q mobile.Brand savvy consumers have been surveyed only belonging to middle – middle, upper middle and upper class, covering limited area of Karachi and Lahore. The results found were that all the four variables strongly have an impact on consumer purchase decision of cell phones, the most significant being brand loyalty and brand association just by a slight difference. We can thus conclude that when consumers are attached and loyal towards a brand they are likely to do repeat purchases and this only happens when the relationship between the brand and the user is very in depth and has an emotional connection with the mobile brand. For this reason it has become very crucial for marketers that not only should they highlight the features and functional capabilities of the mobile while presenting their brands to their target market but also define what meaning the brands stands for and how it affects the relationship with the consumers. In short, a step by step process should be taken from defining who the brand is (brand awareness), to highlighting its points of differentiation and user profile (brand performance and brand association) by taking both the functional route (brand quality) and emotional route (brand feelings) so that the consumers can evaluate it positively and form a bond that will result in everlasting and unbreakable bond (brand loyalty) that moulds and influences their purchase decision.
The Impact of Distribution Channel Differentiation on Organizational Performance: The Case of Sameer Africa Limited in Nairobi, Kenya (Published)
The study investigated the relationship between differentiation strategy and performance of Sameer Africa Ltd located in Nairobi, Kenya. Informed by the study this paper discusses the extent to which channel differentiation strategy adopted by Sameer Africa (K) Limited influenced the company’s performance. The study employed a correlational research design. The study targeted 112 employees of Sameer Africa (K) Limited comprising of senior management, HODs and junior staff and 90 dealers based in Nairobi. A sample of 134 respondents was selected by use of stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Primary data was collected through self-administered questionnaires. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics in the form of tables and inferential statistics in the form of Pearson correlation and regression analysis with significance level of 0.05 to test the hypothesis. From the findings of the study, majority of the respondents believed that Sameer Africa (K) Ltd could achieve competitive advantage through channel differentiation. This suggest that an increase in channel differentiation strategy such as use of market trends to determine most appropriate channel strategy, use of different channels with the aim of minimizing cost of distribution, selling some of the products and services through intermediary and complementary firms and applying different distribution channels so as to satisfy unique customer needs would result in an increase in performance through market share, revenue, sales and customer satisfaction. The study sought to provide an empirical evaluation of the relationship between differentiation strategy and organizational performance.
After fall in oil prices a lot of sectors are affected in Oman. Oman is one of the country’s which fully was depending on income from petroleum products also the people were receiving subsidy from the government for many things. Suddenly, after the fall in oil prices government affected very badly and like the other GCC countries, they decided to remove the subsidy from the oil price also to cover the loss, the government increased the rates of a lot of services. SME’s are affected very badly by these decisions. A lot of SME’s started in delaying in the payment and not performing well. In my research, I will cover the challenges which they are facing it, the reasons of the low performance and suggestions which will help them to perform better.
The Eclipse of the Institution of Slavery and its Impact on the pre-colonial state of Ibadan, 1873-1900 (Published)
The concept of progress among individuals, communities and organisations globally implies positive changes. The process of change itself is a normal occurrence and this is why it has been regarded as the most permanent phenomenon in human history. However, it must be noted that despite its permanent nature, societies view the concept of change as less desirable than status quo because of the fear of the unknown. This is applicable to development in the pre-colonial state of Ibadan. The Ibadan of our period introduced quite a lot of dynamism into statecraft. The changes swept through governance, agro-allied and local industrial production; marketing and diplomacy, both at home and in the vassal states. However, decision makers in Ibadan were reluctant when it was their turn to experience similar changes. This is not surprising because the wind of change that confronted the status quo in Ibadan was massive, such that the existing arrangement in which slaves were practically made the mainstay of the political economy of the state, collapsed under the new arrangement that was introduced by the British. This paper therefore, discusses the prelude to the sweeping changes and their effects on the society.
Tourism as Factor for the Presence and Continuation of Harm Full Traditional Practices in Hamer Community, Ethiopia (Published)
The main objective of this research is to examine whether tourism is key factor for the presence and continuation of HTP in Hamer. In order to collect necessary data, structural interview survey with local people, informant in-depth interview and focus group discussion were conducted. Data collected from local people through interview was entered into SPSS version 20 and then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, chi-square test and binomial tests. Data collected through focus group discussion and in depth interview were analyzed using descriptive, explanatory and narrative methods of qualitative data analysis techniques. The finding shows that out of the three most prevalent HTP, Whipping of women (as part of the bull jumping ceremony) was found to be directly influenced by tourism. Chi-square analysis shows that there was no significance difference between the supporter and opponent of continuation of the practice of whipping among Hamers. Local peoples, local government, local associations, private hospitality and tourism sectors have gained economic benefit from tourism. Majority of local people constituting 90 percent practiced bull jumping and evangadi dance primarily for non-tourism related purpose. 67.5 percent local people believed that tourist could visit their village in the absence of bull jumping and evangadi dance. Informant and deductive analysis shows tourism is factor for the continuation and practice of whipping in Hamer community. Therefore, special attention should be given to whipping besides to teaching females of the community.
Purpose: This research paper aims to examine the Impact of University Motivated Environment on Students Learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Keeping in view the objectives the University Motivated Environment factors has been taken. The study sample of 300 students randomly selected from different departments of Albaha university. The use of the likert scale and a questionnaire containing 35 items related to the university motivated factors were used to measure the impact. Popular statistical T-test ANOVA was applied by using SPSS software highlighting more detailed findings of the study. Findings: The results shows that students are not satisfied with the university motivated learning environment because the services and support provided by the university related to Library, Computer, Parking, Cafeteria, Bus, Air Conditioning, Sports, Lab equipments, Cleanliness, Light, Guidelines, Track Complaints, Website, Internet Wi Fi environment, Training and placement, Update curriculum according to need of Industry, Scholarships, Sufficient number of staff to serve students, Recruiting staff according to the need of students, etc are not proper or given which affect students learning environment. Statistical analysis shows that Hypotheses is accepted in all cases. Originality/value – The value of this research is that the university will improve the services from which students are not satisfied.
A Study On the impact of Microbes on Oil Transporting Pipelines in Obiafun/Obrikom, Rivers State, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria (Published)
A study on the impact of microbes on oil transporting pipelines in Obiafun/Obrikom, Rivers State, Nigeria was conducted between 2011 and 2012. To harvest biofilms from the pipelines, ten coupons were placed into the inner surfaces of five pipelines (two per pipeline) and allowed for normal flow of petroleum for a period of 127 days. At the end of the 127 days, biofilms were scraped and used for the enumeration and identification of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungal counts. Corrosion rate was determined by weight loss method. The results revealed the following species of SRB, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, Desulfosarcina variabilis and Desulfobulbus propionicus. The bacteria species identified were Bacillus Cereus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Serrratia marcescens and Halomonas subglaciescola. Among the bacterial species, Gram positive bacteria were more dominant with 62.5% occurrence and the Gram negative bacteria with 37.5%. the fungal isolates identified were mostly of the genera; Aspergillus, Verticillium, Saccharomyces and Microsporarium; Penicillum, Aureobasidium and Hormoconis. The mean values of corrosion rates in each pipelines were 1.6, 5.39, 1.0, 3.37 and 2.22 mpy respectively for 7 TUB, 6 LS, 6 25, 11ss and OBF31 pipelines. These results will provide baseline data for monitoring and controlling of biocorrosion in oil transporting pipelines.
Introduction: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are working to facilitate and support the development activities in every sector to achieve the development goals of Nepal Government. While facing difficulty to reach different areas, contributions of NGO become the significant and milestone for the change and development of the society. This study was conducted in Karnali Zone, Midwestern Development Region of Nepal. Objective: The objective of this research was to develop the NGO assessment criteria. Methodology: This study was particularly based on the pragmatism philosophy. Deductive approach was used to test the theory. Cross-sectional descriptive and exploratory research design was adopted. Study was conducted among the beneficiaries, NGOs executive board, NGOs staff, Civil Society and Governmental Officials in Karnali Zone. A total of 562 respondents were selected for survey and 45 key informants were interviewed, 15 case studies were prepared, 15 focus group discussions were conducted and 56 observations were done in 56 NGOs and 15 communities. The qualitative analysis was done to develop the criteria. Results: There were four major indicators; structure, environment, value and impact. The total sub-indicators were 25 which finally increased to 33 but main elements were the same. Under the sub-indicators, there were 74 indicators in the Civil Society Index (CSI) which were applied in the field of research as a theoretical guideline of the study. the study developed 137 criterias; 14 indicators came from existing criteria of Civil Society Index, 70 new added, 53 modified and 3 existing criteria was removed. Further researchers can evaluate the impact of performance of NGO by using the NGO assessment criteria developed by this study.
The study assessed the extent of the effects of marketing research on the practice of business management in Nigerian organizations. Survey method was used. The target population was 15,600 registered members of the National Institute of Marketing of Nigeria (NIMN), comprising academic marketers, AM (2200), marketing practitioners, MP (9350) and marketing students MS (4050).Stratified, simple random, convenience and judgmental sampling procedures were adopted. The sample size of 390 was determined using Yamane (1967) formula. Applying Bowley’s proportional allocation formula, the sample size for each category of the respondents was estimated; AM (55), MP (234) and MS (101).One hypothesis and a research question guided the study. Primary and secondary sources were accessed for data. In-depth interviews were held with marketing practitioners and students, academic marketers, coordinators of marketing research firms and secretary of Nigerian Marketing Research Association (NIMRA). The questionnaire adopted the five point Likert scale format, viz, strong agree (5points), agree (4points), undecided (3points), disagree (2points) and strongly disagree (1point). The opinions of marketing experts validated the research instrument. Pilot study was conducted. The reliability coefficient of the research instrument, 0.973 was estimated, using Cronbach’s Alpha technique. With one-way ANOVA and Minitab software techniques, the hypothesis of the study was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance and 15degrees of freedom. The study revealed the extent of the effects of marketing research at 18.08 percent had non-significant positive impact on business management practice in Nigerian organizations. Recommendations were made.