Tag Archives: Impact

Review on Climate change impact on soils: adaptation and Mitigation (Published)

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4°C during the 21st century, and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change. Soils  are  intricately  linked  to  the  atmospheric–climate  system  through  the  carbon,  nitrogen,  and  hydrologic cycles.  Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties, and at the same time, the soils themselves will have an effect on climate. Study of the effects of climate change  on soil processes and properties  is  still  nascent,  but  has  revealed  that  climate  change  will  impact  soil  organic  matter  dynamics, including  soil  organisms  and  the  multiple  soil  properties  that  are  tied  to  organic  matter,  soil  water,  and  soil erosion.  The  exact  direction  and  magnitude  of  those  impacts  will  be  dependent  on  the  amount  of  change  in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise and that this is particularly true of high latitude regions with currently permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water–CO2 level–temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and associated  effects  on  soil  organic  matter  dynamics  is  a  critical  need.  There  is  also  a  great  need  for  a  better understanding  of  how  soil  organisms  will  respond  to  climate  change  because  those  organisms  are  incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles.


Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Impact, Mitigation, Review, soils

The Impact of Fear overcoming on enhancing oral Communication for Sudanese EFL Students (Published)

This paper aimed to investigate the impact of fear overcoming on enhancing oral communication for Sudanese EFL students. A teachers’ questionnaire was used to collect the students’ stand points about of our questions that subdivided into statements to be responded by the students.  The data was analysed by adopting (SPSS) program. The results reveal the following: Sudanese EFL students feel nervous and shy when they try to speak English. Sudanese EFL students afraid of facing the experience of speaking English.   Sudanese EFL students feel that they will never master spoken English. The researchers recommend that a new method of teaching should be adopted to help students to overcome fear, students should be motivated to learn English language, and they helped to build self confidence that English language can be studied and mastered.

Keywords: EFL, Fear, Impact, Students, oral communication, sudanese

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Education in Cambodia (Published)

This paper reviewed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education by preliminary document studies. In Cambodia, as of 30 October 2020, school closures replaced by distance learning. First, the paper highlighted the immediate impact on student learning and wellbeing, mostly kids. Second, it illustrated teachers and school personnel are facing on adapting with ICT skills to support distance learning. Third, it showed ineffective delivery of continuous learning and learning outcomes are not quite well and limit for quality of education. Finally, it stated the implementation of the Ministry of Education Youth and Sports (MoEYS) Education Strategic Plan (ESP) 2019-2023 is also severely impacted by the pandemic. To address these challenges, MoEYS developed learning platforms and continue learning programs for line learning. The Joint Technical Working Group (JTWG), MoEYS and ESWG created objectives for the Education COVID-19 Response Plan. MoEYS is planning to reopen educational institutions in three phases with the strictest health safety standards by blended learning following the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the condition of Covid-19. The paper recommended that the government and MoEYS and stakeholders should respond to the situations during the Covid-19 pandemic: i). The continuous learning program should be strengthened as a priority for online learning with social media to ensure effective learning; ii). The digital infrastructure should be promoted in the countryside and remote areas to strengthen online learning with the platforms of MoEYS; iii). The ICT skills and digital education should be strengthened by providing training and development to teachers to ensure effective online learning; and teachers and students engagement, and iv). The content and curriculum on paper should be adapted and replaced by digital form to ensure effective learning and teaching.

Keywords: COVID-19, Education, Impact, pandemic

Environmental Quality of Enugu, Nigeria As Impacted by the Primary Air Pollutants in the Area (Published)

Air pollution activities have increased over the years in urban areas of most developing countries like Nigeria. The same has been experienced in Enugu metropolis. This study therefore examined how environmental quality of Enugu metropolis has been impacted by the polluted air in the environment. The metropolis was classified into different neigbourhoods and then stratified into low, medium and high density areas. Samples were randomly collected from these neighborhoods. In determining the residential environmental quality of the area factor analysis (principal component analysis was used to reduce the various environmental quality variables into single factor known as “Y” variable. This served as dependent variable. Primary air pollutants; particular matter, Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide constituted the independent variables as x1, x2, x3 and x4 respectively. Using multiple regression model a relationship between the dependent and independent variable was established. The coefficient of determination in the result showed that adjusted r2=.917, indicating that 91.7% variation in the   residential environmental quality could be predicted from air pollution. Health challenges of reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood, chronic bronchitis and worsening respiratory illnesses were identified as some of the effects. Also identified, are acidification of soils, staining of fabrics among others on the environment. Making petroleum products like kerosene available and affordable to all by the federal government of Nigeria, among others have been recommended.


Keywords: Enugu, Environment, Impact, Nigeria, Quality

The Free Trade Policy of the World Trade Organization: An Assessment of the Impact on the Industrial Development in Africa (Published)

This study focused on the impact of the free trade policy of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on the industrial development in Africa. It obtained its data from the secondary sources such as textbooks, journals, articles published and unpublished from libraries in Abuja and the internet. The data were analyzed using content analysis and the liberalist theory which revolves around three interrelated principles: rejection of power politics as the only possible outcome on international relations; accentuates mutual benefits and international cooperation and; implements international organizations and nongovernmental actors for shaping state preferences and policy choices was adopted as a framework for the purpose of analysis. The findings revealed that the Third World or developing countries have not benefitted from WTO agreement. It was realized that Foreign Direct Investment has not contributed significantly to the growth of the African Nations’ Economy. The paper, therefore, recommended as follows: African leaders should summon the political will and commitment to limit the negative impact of WTO’s free trade policies on their economies generally and the industrial sectors in particular. To do this, specific policy options including, but not limited to the followings, should be pursued with vigour: Adopt protectionist economic and industrial policies with emphasis on key sectors including the agricultural sectors; Promote and protect local industrial development that is capable of producing basic goods and services; Improve and strengthen their decision-making machinery and institutions; Limit import of major goods and services which they have relative comparative advantage and; Identify their specific interest and objective in respect of the subject of the WTO. This can be done through the process of a broad-based and in-depth examination of the issues and their implications. For the WTO itself, it should ensure that it carries all countries along by giving them equal treatment no matter their statuses etc.

Keywords: Impact, Liberalism, free trade, policies, world trade organisation

Impact of Brewery Effluent Discharge into Niger River: A Case Study of Interfact Brewery Plc Onitsha Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

In this study, effluent discharged from brewery was collected to assess its impact on the water quality of Niger River, Onitsha.  The values of the effluent discharge from brewery were compared with values recorded for its receiving river.  Parameters investigated include total suspended solid (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BODs), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, Temperature, conductivity and Dissolved Oxygen (Do).  ANOVA test was used for the analyses of these parameters, with the exception of the pH, all the parameters measured from the brewery effluent site as well as in the river indicated higher levels than those permitted by the Nigerian industrial standard and WHO.  The study revealed that effluent from the wastes treatment plant has higher BODs (142 Mg/L) and COD (400Mg/L) than those of receiving river (88.6 Mg/L and 198.22 Mg/L means) respectively.  The indicators of all pollutions exceed the WHO and Nigeria industrial standard recommendations.  It is therefore, being recommended that the brewery authorities as well as the Nigerian industrial standard must ensure that the brewery effluents meet quality standards.  This action is urgently warranted as high level pollution of the industrial effluents cause environmental problems which will affect plants, animals and human lives.

Keywords: Impact, Interfact PLC, Niger River, Onitsha, brewery effluent, discharge

Comparative analysis of the influence of teachers’ motivation on academic performance of students in selected private and public schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State. (Published)

The study examined the influence of teachers’ motivation on academic performance of students in selected private and public schools in Oredo local government area, of Edo state. The design of the study was the causal comparative design. The population of the study was the twenty-six (26) public secondary schools and two hundred and forty-five (245) private secondary schools in Oredo local government area. A sample of 300 teachers was selected for the research using the stratified, simple random and cluster sampling techniques. Mean and standard deviation, Pearson’s Correlation as well as Fishers Z were used for data analysis. The findings of the study among other showed that the motivation of teachers in selected public and private schools in Oredo Local Government area of Edo state was very efficient, the level of academic performance of selected public and private secondary school students in Oredo local government area was moderate.And a significant relationship existed between academic performance of students and teachers’ level of motivation in Oredo Local Government area of Edo state. Teachers’ level of motivation accounted for about 6% of students’ academic performance in selected private and public secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State it was therefore recommended that there is the need for all stake holders in education to always motivate teachers through regular payment of salaries, regular promotion as this have a huge influence on students’ academic performance and the urgent need for government to monitor effectively private sector participation  education  so as to impact in them proper motivation technique as against the slave labour they give to their staff.

Keywords: Impact, Motivation, Performance

A Historical Analysis of the Introduction, Spread and Impact of Western Education in Southern Taraba Area, 1905 to 2018 (Published)

Education can be construed as a pattern of awareness which determines and influences the behavioural pattern of any given society. It encompasses societal civilization, values, norms and traditions. It is a people’s belief system, system of thought, an instrument through which a society produces and reproduces its kind in the light of what makes one a representation of his/her society. Every society therefore has its own system of education through which cultural transmission and socialization are anchored. Unfortunately, former colonies erroneously consider western education as the only best alternative for all-round development. It is viewed as the basic instrument for civilization, gainful employment, socialization, economic prosperity and development. This conventional assumptions has resulted in the eventual neglect of the traditional education by African societies, Southern Taraba inclusive. This paper therefore examine the process of introduction and spread of western education in Southern Taraba Area. The paper captures issues like the agencies and individuals involved, the impact, challenges encountered and how the challenges can be remedied. Thus, using a multi-disciplinary methodological approach, the study came to the realization that western education has impacted tremendously on the peoples of Southern Taraba Area in the spheres of human, infrastructural, political and socio-economic development.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Education, Impact, Influence, history, western education

Assessment of Anthropogenic Activities and Their Impact on Ngong Hills Forest in Kajiado County, Kenya: A Remote Sensing Approach (Published)

Human beings are dependent on forests for various livelihood needs. Forests offer a variety of benefits, including ecological, social as well as economic benefits. As such, the development and conservation of forests around the world is vital. Monitoring of the forest ecosystem is mandatory in order to detect any changes in the ecosystem. Forest cover change detection gives an opportunity to track the productivity, health and the forest cover as well over the years so as to enable proper management, promote conservation and enhance functionality. Optical and radar remote sensors make it possible to monitor changes by use of various analytical techniques that include visual interpretations. The study investigated how remote sensing can be applied to detect change in forest ecosystem and to assess the rate of change of Ngong Hills Forest in Kenya. The project sought to determine whether anthropogenic activities are the major cause of the change in Ngong Hills Forest. Data from satellite images was analysed from 1984 to 2019 to identify the changes that have occurred on the ecosystem. Landsat and Rapid-Eye images were used to inform on change detection. In this case, rapid eye data was found to be better than Landsat data in informing on change detection because of its high resolution thus high precision and better results. The changes depicted by the remotely sensed data were mapped for ease of analysis and visualization. The research depicted a massive decrease in the forest cover despite the afforestation efforts by the Kenya Forest Service (KFS) in the 1990s. The forest has been depreciating massively from 1995 depicting greater deforestation rates between the years 2010 and 2019. This depreciation has been acknowledged by the KFS as it is said to be occurring due to the anthropogenic activities mainly settlement and logging. The means of detecting change by use of remote sensing is thus able to identify the exact areas that change has occurred and thus provide insight for the Kenya Forest Service and other ecosystem protection bodies on the most affected areas and the extent of change. Once the study area is mapped, it is possible to calculate the areas that have decreased in vegetation quantity, areas where increase has occurred as well as the areas that have remained unchanged. The findings of the study make it possible for management agencies to enforce conservation because of the presence of reliable data.

Keywords: Anthropogenic Activities, Assessment, Impact, Kajiado Kenya, Ngong Hills Forest, Remote Sensing

Status of Discharged Abattoir Effluent and Its Effects on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Orogodo River, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

The discharge of untreated wastewater into waterbodies results in water quality deterioration of the receiving waters. This study assesses the impact of abattoir wastewater discharge on the water quality of Orogodo River in Nigeria. Effluent discharges and water samples were collected from river at six points over a 6-month period. Physicochemical analyses were conducted using standard methods. The pH was within a fixed band of 5.56 – 8.04. The downstream biochemical oxygen demand of the receiving river water increased significantly to 75% in July and up to 192% in December. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus followed a similar trend. Dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, also increased appreciably. The downstream levels of these parameters were higher than their corresponding upstream values, indicating that the discharge of the abattoir wastewater into the river has negatively impacted the river water. The dilution of the waste in the river water was not enough to reduce them to acceptable levels. This study demonstrates that abattoir wastewater impacts Orogodo River water negatively. The abattoir effluent did not meet the National standard for effluent discharge into the environment leading to cross pollution of the receiving water based on the parameters investigated. This therefore, calls for the need to put an effective wastewater treatment and monitoring system in place to enforce existing legislations to curb water pollution and to safeguard both the environment and human health.



Keywords: Abattoir, Impact, Orogodo, Pollution, Water Quality, physico - chemical, wastewater

Impact of Social Structures on African Humanism: A Study of Selected Novels of Meja Mwangi (Published)

African humanism is conceptualised in the idea of Ubuntu. This term embodies various values that are uniquely African, culturally and conservatively. They include communalism, sharing, openness, respect for life and the upholding of the dignity of persons, and the devotion to family ties. The research examined the status of African humanism in Kenya as represented in selected popular fiction works of Meja Mwangi, namely Kill Me Quick (1973), Going Down River Road (1976) and The Cockroach Dance (1979). Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the findings on how social structures affect individuals’ sense of African Humanism in the selected novels. The study was qualitative in approach, employing analytical research design in the collection and analysis of data. Qualitative data was collected using content analysis. The study population comprised African popular fiction, with special focus on popular novels by Kenyan popular writers. The study narrowed down the population to Meja Mwangi’s novels that are forty-four in number. Purposive sampling technique was employed with the inclusion criterion being Meja Mwangi’s novels that address the humanistic issues being investigated. The sample size was Meja Mwangi’s three urban-based novels mentioned above. Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources through close textual reading. Data analysis was conducted by the guidance of Marxist theoretical framework. The collected data was categorised along the study’s units of analysis. It was established that different social structures such as government agencies, including the police and prisons, as well as private entities, such as employers and residential systems, have contributed to the decline in individuals’ commitment to the values of African humanism in the selected novels. The study is significant since it unravels the humane dispositions of individuals as portrayed in popular fiction, a reflection of the humane status of ordinary people in Kenya of today. The study reveals that literary writers, such as popular fiction authors, are increasingly voicing the impact of changing social structures on African humanism in society today. The presence of social classes in the modern Kenyan state is inevitably affecting the utu of individuals. As such, instances of exploitation, poverty, inequality, and dehumanization are rampant.

Keywords: African Humanism, Impact, Meja Mwangi, Novels, Social Structures

Impacts of Selected Seed Pretreatments on Emergence and Early Growth of Ceiba Pentandra (L.) Gaertn (Published)

The research work on seed pretreatment methods was carried-out to examine the effects on the emergence and early growth of Ceiba pentandra (Linn) Gaertn. The research was carried out at Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) nursery Jericho, Ibadan. Major pretreatments employed on the seeds of Ceiba pentandra were soaking in water at room temperature, soaking in water at boiling point, soaking in H2SO4, and soaking in organic manure (rabbit dung) with untreated seeds as control. Each of the treatments has three levels of administration except control with a single level. The research was laid in a completely randomized design with 20 seeds per treatment and each level of treatment was replicated five times. Growth parameters assessed were germination count, seedling height, seedling girth and number of leaves with germination percentage derived from germination count. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS package. From the table presentation of germination parameters and percentage derivative, Treatment 1 (soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours) has the highest germination percentage of 100% followed by Treatment 7 (soaking in H2SO4 for 10 minutes) 70% and Treatment 13 (control) 70%. ANOVA stated that there was significant difference among the seedling height, seedling girth and number of leaves at 5% level of probability. In overall assessment, Treatment 10 (soaking in rabbit manure for 12h) has the highest mean value of height, 15.67 followed by Treatment 8 (Soaking in H2SO4 for 20 minute) with mean value of 15.45 In the area of number of leaves, Treatment 10 has the highest mean value of 18.67 followed by Treatment 2 with 18.02 while Treatment 7 (soaking in acid for 10 minutes) has the highest mean value of 2.77 in stem diameter followed by Treatment 10 with 2.68 mean value. It was concluded based on the result obtained from the research work that Treatment 10 (Soaking in Rabbit Manure for 12 hours) was highly and positively significant in treating seeds of C. pentandra majorly in the areas of seedling height and number of leaves that form the essential parameters of plant growth and development. It is therefore recommended that further research should be carried on other fresh organic manures with various plant species.


Keywords: Impact, Organic Manure, Pretreatment, kapok, room temperature

Pattern and Trend of Malaria Morbidity and Mortality in Tigray Region, Ethiopia from 2011/12-2014/15 (Published)

Malaria is vector borne disease. Even though there is global reduction in malaria mortality still the African Region continues to shoulder the heaviest burden: in 2015, this one region accounted for approximately nine in 10 malaria cases and deaths globally. Methods: The main aim of this study was to assess four year pattern and trends of malaria morbidity and mortality in Tigray region using retrospective study design from patients’ registration and Health Management Information System (HMIS) data. The data was interred and coded to Epi Info and exported to SPSS version 21 for statistics analysis. Result: A total of 1.5 million malaria cases were analyzed. 78% of the cases were confirmed though liberator where as 22% of the cases diagnosis were made though clinical manifestation without liberator. The most common species of malaria morbidity is Plasmodium falciparum which accounts 71% where are the rest were other species. The magnitude of malaria morbidity in 2014/15 is 1.5 times lower than 2011/12. Similarly the magnitude of malaria mortality is 1.74 times lower than 2011/12. Conclusion: Although elimination and eradication of malaria morbidity and mortality were not possible reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality were achieved. But still know it needs high-level and sustained political commitment and constant vigilance, intense programmatic efforts in affected areas for eradication and elimination of malaria.

Keywords: Eradication, Impact, Plasmodium falciparum, Vector born

Perspectives Of Microcredit: A Catalyst for Women’s Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh (Published)

Women’s empowerment has become a global affair in the contemporary discourse for the developing countries.  This paper examined the impact of microcredit schemes on women’s empowerment in rural Bangladesh. The data was collected from 324 rural women borrowers on a field study from four villages in the district of Tangail, Bangladesh through the administration of questionnaires. This research was conducted during the period of July to December 2016. Data was also collected from women non-borrowers to compare the impact between borrowers and control-group. Data has been analyzed by SPSS software and also Logistic Regression is used to estimate the impact of empowerment of women after participating in microcredit program. A significant outcome of this research showed that microcredit has a positive impact on women’s empowerment and promotes microcredit borrowers women to participate in the household decision-making process through acquiring the self-esteem, business skills and confidence level.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Impact, Microcredit, Rural Women, Women’s Empowerment

Impact of Xenophobia on Nigerian Students in South Africa (Published)

The relationship between South Africa and Nigeria dates back to 1960s during the Apartheid era. Nigeria played an instrumental role in ending apartheid and upon the collapse of the apartheid regime, migrants from Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria swamped into the country as a result of investment opportunities. However, the current challenges facing South Africa such as unemployment, poor border control, lack of education caused deep resentment amongst the locals and resulted in xenophobic attitudes and violence. This paper thus, is informed by the rise in the attacks on Nigerians in South Africa and takes a critical analysis of the impact of xenophobia on Nigeria students in South Africa. In achieving this, data was collated using a 12 item questionnaire titled “Impact of Xenophobia on Nigerian students in South Africa” across 30 randomly selected Nigerian students using sampling technique rated on a 4point likert scale. The findings of this study indicates that Nigerian students face discrimination from fellow students, locals and immigration and government officials while the rise of xenophobic sentiments has impacted the economy and investment opportunities of South Africa. Awareness campaigns by stakeholders, policies that boost employment and the economy as well as partnership by both governments were recommended by the study. 

Keywords: Education, Impact, xenophobia

Impact of Evolving Construction Project Management Techniques for Proper Project Delivery: Review on Constructability Review, Lean Construction (Lc) and Value Engineering (Ve) Techniques (Published)

Throughout the existence of construction industry especially starting in the period of industrial revolution, there have been many developments of different construction techniques that can help the industry to reach success.  Formed models but with unmet realities; unsuccessful timely delivery of the projects, out of projected budgets and intended quality are leading factors that still push industry players to seek the change in construction sector worldwide. In other words past experiences of failure of existing construction management tools have evidenced the search of the improved construction concepts that leads to industry success hence customers’ satisfaction. One the other side, among different construction concepts developed in a way of enhancing the industry; include lean construction, constructability review and value engineering. Both latter tools focus on the use of knowledge management to assessing inputs ahead of production process so to successfully achieve the stated outputs. By that, they provide a good consideration for construction sector as significant and impactful principles for proper project delivery. This review article aims to study the importance of evolving construction project management techniques namely lean construction, constructability review and value engineering in the construction industry particularly on construction projects delivery; as well as to assess their current practice and impact.

Keywords: Constructability review, Evolving construction project management techniques, Impact, Lean construction, Proper project delivery, Value engineering

Evaluation of the Impact of Good Governance on Rural Development in Niger State (Published)

This paper evaluates the impact of good governance on rural development in Niger State. The problem investigated is stimulated by the expectation of the people for good governance in democratic era. The specific objective of the study include determining the extent to which the government archived the tenets of good governance, finding out the impact of good governance on rural development and examining the constraints of good governance in achieving rural development. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources using the instrument of observation, questionnaire, published and unpublished material as well as the internet. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive tools used include tables and simple percentages while the inferential tool used is the spearman rank correlations. The study revealed that, good governance has not provided rural development. More specifically, there is low service delivery, low rate of adherence to rule of law, lack of transparency and accountability, existence of high rural poverty, decay in rural educational system, inadequate water and road infrastructure as well as inadequate health facilities. The study also revealed poverty, corruption, poor judicial system, need for excess wealth as constraints for good governance. It was therefore recommended that, there should be institution of integrity, transparency and accountability in governance, there should be improvement in social services and there should be measures to check misgovernance and mismanagement.

Keywords: Good Governance, Impact, Rural Development

Tourism as Factor for the Presence and Continuation of Harm Full Traditional Practices in Hamer Community, Ethiopia (Published)

The main objective of this research is to examine whether tourism is key factor for the presence and continuation of HTP in Hamer. In order to collect necessary data, structural interview survey with local people, informant in-depth interview and focus group discussion were conducted. Data collected from local people through interview was entered into SPSS version 20 and then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, chi-square test and binomial tests. Data collected through focus group discussion and in depth interview were analyzed using descriptive, explanatory and narrative methods of qualitative data analysis techniques. The finding shows that out of the three most prevalent HTP, Whipping of women (as part of the bull jumping ceremony) was found to be directly influenced by tourism.  Chi-square analysis shows that there was no significance difference between the supporter and opponent of continuation of the practice of whipping among Hamers. Local peoples, local government, local associations, private hospitality and tourism sectors have gained economic benefit from tourism. Majority of local people constituting 90 percent practiced bull jumping and evangadi dance primarily for non-tourism related purpose. 67.5 percent local people believed that tourist could visit their village in the absence of bull jumping and evangadi dance. Informant and deductive analysis shows tourism is factor for the continuation and practice of whipping in Hamer community. Therefore, special attention should be given to whipping besides to teaching females of the community

Keywords: Hamer, Impact, Tourism, harmful traditional practice

A Sociological Analysis of the Impact of Solid Minerals Mining On Community Development in Nasarawa State: A Study of Awe Local Government Area (Published)

Nigeria’s economic history shows that the solid minerals sector was a major player in the country’s economy before the discovery of oil, contributing about 12 per cent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Generally, the exploitations of solid minerals always take place in communities where they are deposited. The activities involved in the process cannot be divorced from the social interactions and relationships between the miners and host communities. It has been observed that mining activities have great degrading effects on physical environment of the host communities, which can negatively affect the socio-economic development of the mining communities and cause serious health hazards for the members of the communities. The thrust of this research is to examine the impact of mining activities on the development of the host communities particularly, now that the economic policies of Nigerian government is focusing more on mining as a better alternative source of revenue for government. This study employed survey research design approach to analyze causal explanation. For the purpose of this study, three mining communities in the study area were selected using cluster sampling, namely Abuni, Azara and Mairago. The principal methods of data collection used are closed-ended questionnaire, in-depth interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Based on the research questions, the analysis of data is both quantitative and qualitative. The study revealed that mining sector has the potential for creating jobs, greater GDP and huge exports but a greater amount of Nigerian miners are artisanal small scale operators, who conduct explorations of minerals without adequate equipment. The study discovers that there has been cordial and harmonious relationship between the host communities and mining companies in the area under study. The study concludes that mining companies has contributed to community development in the area according to their capacity. It therefore recommends among others that the potential of solid mineral sector notwithstanding, there is the need for environmental impact assessment of the host communities before any mining activity to reduce environmental hazards. Establishing and maintaining mutual trust between people and the mining companies should be the main goal of the community partnership. The mining companies should always recognize the need for cooperation with the community and to encourage members of the community to be involved in their own development.

Keywords: Community development, Impact, sociological, solid mineral mining

The Impact of Brand Equity on Consumer Purchase Decision of Cell Phones (Published)

This research paper investigates the impact of brand equity on consumer purchase decision of cell phones. The research has highlighted the gaps found in many marketing efforts of cellular companies while presenting their market offerings to the target market. The research paper starts off by explaining what brand equity is, how it is built and then how it slowly and gradually ends up producing loyal and in-synced consumers, who will not switch to any other brand no matter what, simply because for them the brand has become their companion, which not only satisfies their needs but also helps them complete themselves. Therefore, it will assist the marketers to know such consumer insights and opinions of their target market, what they want and need and from a mobile brand, all these gaps have been identified in this study and it helps in setting out a strategic plan which will be very valuable for marketing professionals who want to increase the market share of their brand, because like Kevin Keller said that no matter what kind of the brand it is at any point of time it can become susceptible and vulnerable to poor brand management. In this study, Brand Equity is further divided into four elements, namely; Brand Association, Brand Awareness, Brand Quality and Brand Loyalty and thus how the combined role of all 4 elements influences and molds the purchase decision of consumers. A scientific review of literature has been done and questionnaires were distributed for data collection and Likert scale was designed to ask respondents about their insights and opinions and they were asked to rate them on a five point scale between strongly agree and strongly disagree. A sample size of 300 respondents has been chosen. The method of sampling selected is Simple Random Sampling, to test the data Correlation and Regression analysis has been done with the help of SPSS. The research paper takes into account 5 major players of cell phone brands in our country; Samsung, iPhone, HTC, Nokia and Q mobile.Brand savvy consumers have been surveyed only belonging to middle – middle, upper middle and upper class, covering limited area of Karachi and Lahore. The results found were that all the four variables strongly have an impact on consumer purchase decision of cell phones, the most significant being brand loyalty and brand association just by a slight difference. We can thus conclude that when consumers are attached and loyal towards a brand they are likely to do repeat purchases and this only happens when the relationship between the brand and the user is very in depth and has an emotional connection with the mobile brand. For this reason it has become very crucial for marketers that not only should they highlight the features and functional capabilities of the mobile while presenting their brands to their target market but also define what meaning the brands stands for and how it affects the relationship with the consumers. In short, a step by step process should be taken from defining who the brand is (brand awareness), to highlighting its points of differentiation and user profile (brand performance and brand association) by taking both the functional route (brand quality) and emotional route (brand feelings) so that the consumers can evaluate it positively and form a bond that will result in everlasting and unbreakable bond (brand loyalty) that moulds and influences their purchase decision.

Keywords: Brand Equity, Cell Phones, Consumer Purchase, Decision, Impact