Evaluation of Ambient Air Quality at Nekede and Naze Dumpsites, Imo State, South East Nigeria (Published)
Environmental pollution is one potential consequence of lack of proper management of municipal solid waste. The study was carried out to evaluate on-site air quality at Nekede and Naze dumpsites with respect to dry and wet seasons. Samples were measured at six (6) sampling points within and around the field using a series of calibrated hand held air quality monitoring equipment. At each sampling point, nine (9) air quality parameters (particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), Ammonia (NH3), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Methane (CH4), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured.Results showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were detected in all stations of both dumpsites in both seasons. The highest values for all parameters measured were at the dumpsites except for CO which increased as distance progressed off the dumpsite. The CO ranged 0.42-0.94ppm at Nekede dumpsite and 0.20-1.12 ppm at Naze dumpsite during the dry season with the lowest values measured at station NKAQ1 and NZAQ1 with corresponding values of 0.42 and 0.20 ppm. CH4 was less than 0.01 ppm at NZAQ3 in both seasons under study. All parameters measured were higher in Nekede area than Naze except for NH3 which ranged 0.01- 0.15 ppm and 0.02-0.17 ppm respectively for both seasons. Generally NKAQ3 and NZAQ3 which all served as control stations had the lowest concentration of all parameters measured but otherwise for CO. Result further revealed that all parameters except CO exceeded the concentration values stipulated by USEPA and WHO, implying serious health implications in the study area. Results from this study calls for proper waste management system to ameliorate air pollution in the study area.
This study was conducted in Imo State, Nigeria to assess the Chemical quantities of some land using soil management assessment framework (SMSF) techniques. Three land uses namely; the grass land, continuously croppedand forest land. Soil profile representations were established in each of the physiographic units and soil samples collected from the pedogenetic horizons for the analysis of some chemical properties. The chemical properties investigated were the soil pH.organiccarbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, the exchangeable cations of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium, cation exchange capacity and electrical conductivity. Analytical values obtained using the SMAF were combined into quantitative index based on the critical value of the soil properties. The results of this study showed that the grass land, continuously cropped and forest land were moderately acidic with mean pH values 5.43, 5.38, and 5.65. The organic matter contents were low in grass land and continuously cropped with mean values of 0.43 and 0.41 but moderate in the forest land with mean value of 0.82. Total K, available P and exchangeable K were low in grassland and continuously cropped with mean value of 0.96gkg-1, 0.85gkg-1 for N, 12.20mgkg-1, and 12.14mgkg-1 for P in grass land and continuously cropped respectively. The forest land had high sodium content with mean value of 0.74 and high electrical conductivity with a mean 4.91 dsm-1. The results revealed high chemical quality of forest land and low to moderate qualities of the grass land and continuously cropped.
Renewable Energy Potentials: A Substitute for Fossil Fuels Utilization in Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
This paper discusses the renewable energy potential in Imo State. Despite the availability of these renewable energy resources, Imo State like any other state in Nigeria still depends solely on fossil fuel for their power generation. The extreme dependence on fossil fuels has generated serious negative consequences on the environment, climate and health. This Study highlights the benefits of renewable energy utilization as a substitute for fossil fuels if properly harnessed. It also pin-points the available renewable energy sources, biomass as a means of combating environmental pollution , remedial inputs to harnessing renewable energy resources in Imo State.
Knowledge and Attitude of Female Students of Tertiary Institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening (Published)
Cervical Cancer which is the second most common cancer in women is largely preventable when detected early. Premalignant form is the earliest stage of cervical cancer can be detected early through effective cervical cancer screening. This work was carried out to ascertain the knowledge and attitude of female students in four tertiary institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening. Self-administered closed end structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaires were properly validated. Three hundred and ninety-eight female students in tertiary institutions who were of reproductive age between 16 – 45 years were used as respondents. All completed and returned their questionnaires. These were analysed using simple statistical methods. Result analysis showed that 350 (87.9%) have heard of cervical cancer while 265 (66.6%) have heard of cervical screening. One hundred and eighty-six (47%) were sexually active while 17(4.3%) have done the screening. Three hundred and seventy-two (93.5%) agreed that having multiple sexual partners was a risk factor. Three hundred and eighty-three (96.2%) of the population know that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the causative agent. The most prevalent reasons for not undertaking the screening were embarrassment 374 (94%) and fear 320 (80.4%). The study has revealed high knowledge of cervical cancer amongst the students but poor attitude towards its screening. Women of reproductive age including students in the tertiary institutions should be enlightened on the need of the routine screening for cervical cancer especially once they become sexually active. This is expected to increase rate of early detection and treatment thereby preventing the heavy economic cost of treating and managing full-blown cervical cancer.
Perception and Uptake of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test among Caregivers of Under-Five in Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
The launch of RDT is hoped to enable in reducing the rate of presumptive treatment of malaria. However, simply making RDTs available has not led to high uptake of the test, in light of this, it is crucial to understand the perception of RDT and its uptake among caregivers concerning the treatment of malaria in under five children, therefore the aim of the study was to determine the perception and uptake of rapid diagnostic test in the treatment of malaria among care givers of under five children in Owerri West Local Government. Descriptive study was employed and a multi stage cluster and systematic sampling techniques was used to select 420 respondents in the LGA. The Instrument for data collection was structured pre- tested questionnaire which was administered by trained researcher after gaining informed consent from the respondents. Results of the study showed that more respondents were aged 30 -49 years 161 (38.3%), females 268 (63.8%), Married 216 (51.4%), Primary education 126 (63.8%) and civil servant was 196 (46%) respectively. Perception of malaria RDT showed that 175 (41.7%) respondents were of the opinion that mRDT was useful, 102 (24.3%) not useful, 101 (24%) dangerous while 16 (2.8%) felt it was not good. Malaria RDT uptake indicated that majority of the respondents 223 (53.1%) did not know about RDT and 215 (51.2%) did not carry out mRDT test. 300 (73.8%) indicated that malaria rapid diagnostic test is not very useful and 373 (88.8%) of caregivers were of the opinion that mRDTs w ere expensive. From the study it is evident that the perception of malaria rapid diagnostic is negative and low, therefore sensitization of the caregivers about mRDTs will be of benefit.
Against the background of the ban on the importation of poultry products, and growing interest in the local Poultry production, this study looked at the viability of poultry enterprises in Imo State, Nigeria. It specifically analyzed the profit level of these enterprises and estimated their viability using the Benefit-Cost Ratio. Logistic regression technique was used to estimate the determinants of viability of the poultry enterprises in the area. Sixty Poultry enterprises were randomly selected from Owerri Agricultural Zone of the State and their entrepreneurs interviewed. Data were collected by means of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, net returns model and Benefit-Cost Ratio were analytical tools used to achieve the objectives of the study. The results showed that males dominated the poultry business in the study area and the average age of the entrepreneurs was 44 years. Majority of the entrepreneurs attained some level of formal education and had average number of employees of about 6 persons. The poultry enterprises in the area were found to be profitable and viable with profit level of N188163.86 and BCR of 1.68. Sex, marital status, age, farming experience, facility size, returns and access to veterinary services were the determinants of viability of the poultry enterprises in the area. Age of entrepreneur, marital status, facility size, access to veterinary services and returns positively influenced the viability of poultry enterprises in the area. Years of experience of the entrepreneur negatively influenced viability of the poultry enterprises in the study area. The study recommended the encouragement of more females to venture into poultry production. It also advocated the provision of efficiency and easily accessible veterinary services for the poultry farmers in the area.
Youtube on Utilization of Information on Contagious Diseases by Medical Students in Teaching Hospitals in Abia and Imo States (Published)
Medical students in teaching hospitals in Abia and Imo States are believed not to be influenced by YouTube on utilization of information on contagious diseases. To reveal whether they receive information on contagious diseases through YouTube is the bases for this study. The survey research method was adopted to investigate a total population of 709 medical students of the two teaching hospitals in Abia and Imo States respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data for the research. Information were provided for the students to ascertain their level of agreement and the result shows that YouTube provides medical students with information on the pattern of the infection/ spread, information on how to avoid contacting an infection, It gives them news on outbreak of contagious diseases and others. The paper therefore concludes that YouTube influences medical student’s utilization of information on contagious diseases.
Productivity of Enterprises Owned By Women Loan- Beneficiaries and Non-Loan Beneficiaries in Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
This study was conducted to investigate the comparative analysis of the productivity of enterprises owned by women loan-beneficiaries and non-loan beneficiaries in Imo State, Nigeria. A representative sample was selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were collected through the use of two sets of structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and total factor productivity. A total of 151 (comprising of 80 loan beneficiaries and 71 non-beneficiaries) respondents were selected for the study. The results showed that the enterprise with the highest total factor productivity is the most productive and that access to credit enables loan beneficiaries in the procurement and purchase of inputs, tools and equipment needed to improve their businesses. Increment in funds invested in the business enterprises of these women entrepreneurs alongside reduced cost of expenses could boost the possible expansion of their enterprises
Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Borehole Water Samples in Owerri North – West Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
Assessment of the quality of borehole water samples from Federal Housing Estate and Sites and Services areas of Owerri North, Imo State, Nigeria was conducted to determine the suitability of these borehole water samples for human consumption. six samples of borehole water obtained from six different families living in these areas were analyzed for microbial, chemical and physicochemical parameters using standard analytical methods of Association of official Analytical chemists (AOAC). The result of microbial analysis revealed that all the water samples from Chuk’sresidence,Ebe’s residence, Uwuru’s residence,Okre’s residence, Agbu’s residence and Ngwe’s residence referred to as samples D, E, F, G, H, and M respectively had total coliform count of 64.0cfu/100ml, 5.0cfu/100ml, 41.0cfu/100ml, 16.0cfu/100ml, 124.0cfu/100ml and 0.0cfu/100ml respectively. This showed that sample D, F, G, and H exceeded the standard of 10 coliform counts/100ml. The entire samples resulted at 0 counts for Escherichia coli. Samples D, F, G and M tested negative for pseudomonas test, whereas samples E and H did not. The chemical analysis showed that all the samples did not meet up with the recommended standard of pH (6.5-8.5) by World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and National Agency for Drug and Administration Control (NAFDAC).However, there was significant difference (p<0.5) between samples D and E. Samples F, G, J and M were not significantly different (p>0.5)from one another. Sample M was the least significant while sample D was the most significant at pH 4.6 and 6.4 respectively meaning that it is safe for consumption. The temperatures were not significantly different and did not exceed standard limit of 370C. The total dissolved solid also did not exceed the limit of 500ppm as recommended by World Health Organization /United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (WHO/UNICEF) and the conductivity limit was not exceeded. All the samples did not exceed limits for zinc, copper, lead, magnesium, cadmium and iron which are 3mg/l, 1mg/l, 0.01mg/l, 0.02mg/l, 0.03mg/l and 0.3mg/l respectively except for calcium, where samples D, E, G and H were beyond standard of 0.4mg/l. All the samples were significantly different for each parameter except for lead of which the entire sample were all the same. The depth of Sample G borehole was according to the regulatory standard of 150 ft., and from the analysis the entire parameters were within standard except for pH.The study concludes that increase in population in Federal Housing Area and Sites and Services Area in Owerri coupled with the rise in human activity pose a great pressure on provision of safe drinking water