Tag Archives: Immunization

Community Pharmacists, Participation In Immunization Services in Cross River State, Nigeria. (Published)

Community pharmacists’ participation in providing immunization services is pivotal to expanding access to immunisation services especially in resource-constraint settings and bridging the existing gap in shortage of skilled service providers. Although there are several studies conducted on pharmacy–based immunization, the findings of such studies varies between countries and depends on the pharmacy practice characteristics of the area. Objective: The general objective of the study is to assess the extent of participation of Community Pharmacists in immunization services in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. Method: A descriptive cross sectional study design was used for the study. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire from 68 community pharmacists which were selected using the purposive sampling technique. Data generated were synthesised and analysed using SPSS (version 20.0) and results were presented in frequency tables and charts. Chi-square and Fisher Exact test was used to test for association between variables at 0.05 alpha level. Results: The result showed that 43 (69.4%) respondents were males, 49 (79.0%) were less than 40 years of age, 36 (58.1%) have been in practice for between 1-5 years and 53 (85.5%) had B.Pharm as the highest qualification. Most respondents 60 (97 %) provided at least one  type of immunization service to the public and the vaccines commonly retailed were Tetanus Toxoid 57 (91.9%), Rabies vaccine 36 (58.1%) and Hepatitis B vaccine 9 (14.5%). Majority of the respondents 58 (94.0%) were willing to be more involved in providing immunization services. The immunization services respondents were willing to provide more were mainly educating clients on immunization 42 (67.7%), administering vaccines to clients 40 (64.5%) and engaging in mass campaign on immunization 38(61%).  The association between the number of pharmacist in CPs (p = 1.000, fisher’s exact test,) and years of practice (p = 0.149, fisher’s exact test) were statistically not significant to the willingness of the community pharmacists to participate in immunization services. Conclusion: The inclusion of community pharmacists in advocacy, education and facilitation of immunization is critical to improving and expanding immunisation services to the underserved populace

Keywords: Calabar metropolis., Immunization, community pharmacist, community pharmacy, vaccine

Sociocultural Factors as Predictor of Immunization Participation among Rural Mothers of Waterside in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

Active Immunization Coverage in the rural community of Ogun Waterside have been perceived to be bedeviled by several factors ranging from geographical to demographic issues limiting accessibility to health care. The study looked into those factors that prevented and distorted complete uptake of Immunization in the rural location of waterside. The study was conducted in eight wards of the Local Government Area. Descriptive survey research design with qualitative method was adopted. SFIIPQ: R = 0.78, CFPIPQ R = 0.810, AUPIPQ: R = 0.93 and MMFPIPQ: R = 0.88 were the instrument used to glean data. The study revealed that cultural factors of living style, health seeking behavior and values are 59.0% of the total variation (R2 = 0.587, P < 0.05). Also, the social variables of peer influence, parenting style, socioeconomic status, level of education and sex of the child accounted for 55.0% of the total variation (R2 =0.550, P <0.05). Mothers reported that sometimes, vaccines are not available in the right quantity. Conclusively, immunizations in the local community of waterside is fairly good as reported but require more education, supply of adequate vaccines and provision of active cold chain facilities.

Keywords: Immunization, Participation, rural mothers, vaccines, waterside

Sociocultural Factors as Predictors of Immunization Participation among Rural Mothers of Waterside in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

Active Immunization Coverage in the rural community of Ogun Waterside have been perceived to be bedeviled by several factors ranging from geographical to demographic issues limiting accessibility to health care. The study looked into those factors that prevented and distorted complete uptake of Immunization in the rural location of waterside. The study was conducted in eight wards of the Local Government Area. Descriptive survey research design with qualitative method was adopted. SFIIPQ: R = 0.78, CFPIPQ R = 0.810, AUPIPQ: R = 0.93 and MMFPIPQ: R = 0.88 were the instrument used to glean data. The study revealed that cultural factors of living style, health seeking behavior and values are 59.0% of the total variation (R2 = 0.587, P < 0.05). Also, the social variables of peer influence, parenting style, socioeconomic status, level of education and sex of the child accounted for 55.0% of the total variation (R2 =0.550, P <0.05). Mothers reported that sometimes, vaccines are not available in the right quantity. Conclusively, immunizations in the local community of waterside is fairly good as reported but require more education, supply of adequate vaccines and provision of active cold chain facilities.

Keywords: Immunization, Participation, rural mothers, vaccines, waterside

Mechanisms of Immunity to Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Albino Rats: Role Of Homologous Antibodies (Published)

The role of antibodies in conferring protection against infection caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in albino rats was carried out in this study. Antibody against E. coli O157:H7 of known titre was raised actively and used to passively protect some sets of rats intraperitoneally. Antibody titre was determined using tube agglutination test. At different intervals, starting from 30 minutes to 168 hours, the liver, spleen and ileum of actively, passively immunized and unimmunized rats were dissected out and the number of trapped E. coli O157:H7 was counted in these selected organs using standard microbiological techniques. The highest recovery of the organism was seen in unimmunized rats followed by the actively immunized rats. The least recovery was seen in the passively immunized rats. The spleen trapped more of the organism compared to the liver and ileum throughout the experiment. From this investigation therefore, passively raised antibodies to E. coli O157:H7 play a significant role by causing a reduction in the number of trapped E. coli O157:H7 in the organs examined. It is conceivable therefore that in case of an outbreak of infection caused by this organism, administration of preformed antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 to infected individuals, that is, passive immunity will reduce the severity of the infection and also the spread of the infection in the community.

Keywords: Antibody, E. coli O157:H7, Ileum, Immunization, Liver, Spleen

Mechanisms of Immunity to Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Albino Rats: Role Of Homologous Antibodies (Published)

The role of antibodies in conferring protection against infection caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in albino rats was carried out in this study. Antibody against E. coli O157:H7 of known titre was raised actively and used to passively protect some sets of rats intraperitoneally. Antibody titre was determined using tube agglutination test. At different intervals, starting from 30 minutes to 168 hours, the liver, spleen and ileum of actively, passively immunized and unimmunized rats were dissected out and the number of trapped E. coli O157:H7 was counted in these selected organs using standard microbiological techniques. The highest recovery of the organism was seen in unimmunized rats followed by the actively immunized rats. The least recovery was seen in the passively immunized rats. The spleen trapped more of the organism compared to the liver and ileum throughout the experiment. From this investigation therefore, passively raised antibodies to E. coli O157:H7 play a significant role by causing a reduction in the number of trapped E. coli O157:H7 in the organs examined. It is conceivable therefore that in case of an outbreak of infection caused by this organism, administration of preformed antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 to infected individuals, that is, passive immunity will reduce the severity of the infection and also the spread of the infection in the community.

Keywords: Antibody, E. coli O157:H7, Ileum, Immunization, Liver, Spleen