This paper attempts to explore how successful Charlotte Bronte is in creating for her novel Jane Eyre a heroine of her age, dramatizing her own autobiography, including social problems that she encountered as a woman during the Victorian era. And how she can tackle and address many nineteenth century Victorian social problems such as class and gender inequality, race prejudice, and religious beliefs. The research uses the descriptive analytical method, and in it is revealed that Bronte has deliberately created Jane, the main character along with other female characters to refute Victorian inherited conventions that treated women unfairly, many critics and writers think and confirm that women were oppressed during Victorian era. Bronte made an innovation by raising a powerful, passionate, female character who can articulate her thought, and fight for her rights. This portrayal contracts with the real women images of Victorian time, who were oppressed and marginalized by men. It is sum up that Charlotte Bronte revolts against the inequality between men and women during the nineteenth century, she portrays this rejection in the Jane Eyre’s resistant behavior.
Factors Influencing Voice Message Service Acceptance among Mobile Phone Users in Nigeria (Published)
The aim of this study is to empirically establish a framework of consumers’ attitude and intention towards mobile advertising in Nigeria with particular focus on Voice Message Service (VMS). This study became necessary given that context specific studies conducted in the area of voice message service based mobile advertising since the advent of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in Nigeria are lacking. The study replicated and extended a Chinese-based research model to a different context, namely Nigeria. We adapted constructs from the IDT, TAM, TRA, and by extension the TPB to under-pin the study’s conceptual framework. The unit of analysis comprised active mobile phone users in Nigeria. Two-stage multiple regression analysis was used in the modeling. The result from a convenience sample of 2,509 respondents in six geopolitical zones of Nigeria show that the three key factors affecting consumers’ attitude towards voice message service based mobile advertisements are compatibility, trialability and image. On the other hand, the study also revealed that the behavioral intentions of mobile phone users in Nigeria towards voice message service are as a result of attitude and perceived behavioral control. Interestingly, the voice message service based mobile advertising acceptance model was posited by the study. Overall, the study concludes that service providers and advertisers in Nigeria may need to revise their business models in line with these findings to reach out to their teeming VMS based mobile advertising consumers. A key recommendation is that the regulator in the telecom industry in Nigeria should mandate service providers to profile mobile phone users that subscribed to their network to be able to send them targeted VMS ads.
Effect of the Application of the traditional Media in Projecting A Favourable Image of A Manufacturing Firm in Nigeria: A Study of Innoson Group of Companies (Published)
An organizational image is the “shared meanings, attitudes, knowledge, and opinions’ of organizational stakeholders, influenced, at least in part, by strategic communications emanating from the organization. Organizational images are created and sustained by both organizations and stakeholders; while the organization is actively attempting to project a particular image of herself, stakeholders are forming perceptions of the organization. In communicating an organization’s policies, programmes, activities and further projecting its image, traditional media which tend to appeal to both rural and urban dwellers come to mind. However, most organizations seem to be ignorant of the significance and efficacy of the usage of traditional media thereby leading to the organization recording low patronage; having few loyal customers; weak financial impact; and negative perception of the organization. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of traditional media in projecting the image of Innoson Group of Companies. The population for this study comprised of selected management and staff of Innoson Group of companies on one hand and publics of Innoson group of companies. Data were tested using simple percentages, Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient and Regression analyses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study showed that: Demonstrations as traditional media tool to a large extent positively influence public perception of Innoson Group of Companies (r = 0.764; F = 418.677; p<0.05). There is a significant relationship between fair as a traditional media tool and public support (r =. 955, P<.05). It was concluded that usage of traditional media (demonstration and fair) serve as credible tools and are capable of influencing the image of political candidates in Nigeria. The study therefore recommended that the management of Innoson group of companies should as much as possible recognize, appreciate and attach importance to usage of traditional media tools, as such may be the needed inputs for the growth, development and revamping/boosting the image of the company.
The Image of Women in Chinua Adchebe’s Novels Things Fall Apart, No Longer At Ease and Arrow of God (Published)
This paper explores and discusses the image of women in Chinua Achebe’s novels: Things Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease and Arrow of God. In Things Fall Apart (TFA), there is a great marginalization of women in Nigerian society. Although there are many tasks undertaken by women such as educating the children by narrating folk stories to them, upbringing their daughters, and serving as priestesses of gods (e.g. Chillo). The reader of such novels can effortlessly internalize the image of women in Chinua Achebe because it is very obvious. This Image has been improved through the development of the society in TFA. The citizens are ignorant, but are educated in the second novel No Longer at Ease. When a girl was asked to fulfill an application form and reaching to sex activities item, she wrote twice a week. It is the same case in Arrow of God, when Ezulu wants to send his son to the church in order to enable him to learn the lifestyle of the white This was evident when his mother asked him “Why do you send my son ?” and his a answer is that ” How does it concern you while I do with my son”. Regardless of his changeable Image from time to time, we have to acknowledge that Chinua Achebe, belittles, scorns, and underestimates women in his early and modern novels.