Tag Archives: Ideology

Towards A Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis of Mubarak’s And Algaddafi’s Speeches (Published)

This article is dedicated to the analyse the most salient linguistic and extra-linguistic features of Algaddafi’s and Mubarak’s speeches during the Arab Spring. It will start with an overview of the Arab Spring events to provide a context within which the speeches were delivered. Followed by the suggested analytical framework to analyse the data, which combines Fairclough’s CDA theory to analyse the linguistic aspects of the texts such as the use of pronouns, vocabulary and repetition. This is subsequently followed by Kress’s multimodality approach, which draws on the importance of analysing the extra-linguistic features of the speeches because meaning can be established through other modes, like the image and body language. Lastly, this article emphasises the significance role linguists and speakers play to influence the audience by combining linguistic and extra-linguistic tools to persuade them with their goals.

Keywords: Arab Spring, CDA, Ideology, Multimodality, Political Speeches, body language

Ideology in Unequal Treaties: A Social Actor Representations Study (Published)

This paper is an analysis of the social actors in bilateral and multilateral unequal treaties investigating the system of ideas that expresses the interests of the powerful states engaged in the treaties in question. It tries to answer the following: how do the unequal treaties represent the social actors? Thus, the study aims at uncovering the ideological stance behind including or excluding treaties’ participants.  For this end, the study analyzes six treaties using Van Leeuwn’s (1996:66) model .It has been found that social actors are represented in various ways and for various rationales. They are included to be assigned a responsibility, and to legitimate the stipulations agreed upon. They are excluded when the most significant part of the message is introduced instead, as being more important than its doers or to generalize the intended acts. In all cases, the ideological perspective involves satisfying the states’ interests.

Keywords: American treaties, Ideology, Power, critical discourse analysis

The Socio-Stylistic Variation of the Media Language of Jordan (Published)

This study aims at investigating the stylistic variation in the media language of Jordan. The study explores this variation by analyzing some extracts from the opinion articles from both Al-Rai newspaper in Arabic and the Jordan Times newspaper in English in order to find out a justification for this variation. The study methodology is based on the contrastive analysis of the quotations from both newspapers in light of the critical discourse analysis theory. The study concludes that the stylistic variation in the media language of Jordan is due mainly to the status of readers and writers of the discourse and to the writers’ and readers’ cultural and national ideologies that influence the writers’ selections of words.

Keywords: Culture, Discourse, Ideology, Socio-stylistic, international public opinion, local public opinion

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Personal Deixis in Isis Selected Messages (Published)

Power and ideology, which are two main concerns in critical discourse analysis (CDA) approach, have become medium for each other to innervate and sustain each other in the society.  Both of them can be manifested via the use of some linguistic expressions and forms. Halliday’s Systematic functional linguistic (SFL), can be applied in the sake of investigating those linguistic forms in harmony with CDA. The current article investigates the use of deixis to represent power relations and ideologies in two messages of Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi (leader of ISIS). The analysis involves CDA based on the works of van Dijk (2000 & 2008) and Fairclough (1989, 1995& 2003) in addition to Halliday’s SFL (1985 & 1994). The conclusions manifested different power relations in Al-Baghdadi messages (Allah Almighty and Al-Baghdadi, Al-Baghdadi and Non-Muslims, and Al-Baghdadi and the Muslims). Further, ideologies of principle belief, the believers’ duty and political ideologies are all identified through the use of personal deixis such the pronoun ‘I’ and the pronoun ‘we’ refer to Al-Baghdadi (the speaker) and to ISIS (his group) respectively, the pronoun ‘Him’ and the pronoun ‘He’ represent Allah Almighty. In this context, the pronoun ‘we’ has no power over anyone, while the pronoun ‘Him’ is the powerful one.

Keywords: ISIS, Ideology, Personal Deixis, Power relations, critical discourse analysis

Investigating Feminist Tendency in Margaret Atwood’s “The Handmaid’s Tale” In Terms of Sara Mills’ Model. A Feminist Stylistic Study (Published)

This paper purports to explore the relationship between linguistic structures and socially construed meanings in a narrative text. A stylistic analysis is conducted to unravel the design agilities of Margaret Atwood’s novel “The Handmaid’s Tale”. It tries to investigate her stylistic traits whereby much of the time her words seem to cloak or obscure what really happened. By adopting Sara Mill’s Model, the researcher attempts to reveal the ideology and power relations that underpin a literary text from different levels (according to the model) word, phrase, and discourse. The evidence seems to be strong that the model, however, has identifiable functions which contribute to the effective meaning of the novel. On this basis, it may be inferred that these elements trigger and play significant roles in passing the intention of the writer across.

Keywords: Feminism, Focalization, Fragmentation, Ideology, Stylistic Analysis, Stylistics

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Newspaper Headlines on the Anglophone Crisis in Cameroon (Published)

This research explores private and public newspaper headlines on the Anglophone crisis in Cameroon from a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) perspective. The aim is to find out the lexical choice and rhetorical questions used in reporting the crisis, and how they portray the ideologies of the reporters and newspaper ownership, as well as shape readers’ thoughts. Data for this study comprises 130 headlines collected from 29 randomly selected newspapers in Cameroon. Results show the use of vocabulary that shows imposition, tension and dialogue. Some rhetorical questions were also discovered. However, there was a lot of incompatibility in the way government and private newspapers reported the Anglophone crisis. Lexical choice in private newspaper  headlines paint a negative picture of the Cameroon government, and pushes readers to see the government as deliberately refusing to show great attention to the crisis, and unable to protect its citizens. On the other hand, Cameroon Tribune hedge information on the crisis, swallows tension and advocates national unity. The state owned newspaper presents the Anglophone contestants in the crisis as perpetrators or terrorists who are frustrating children’s future. Therefore, the newspaper publishers exercise power through language to influence the thought and opinion of Cameroonians on the Anglophone crisis.

Keywords: Anglophone Crisis, Ideology, Newspaper Headlines, critical discourse analysis

(Re) Collecting the Memory of Bulawayo through Naming In Short Writings from Bulawayo (Published)

The fundamental concern of this paper is that the process of naming in the short writings from Bulawayo, the ‘ City of Kings’ that includes short stories and poems encodes the ideological envision of Bulawayo as the second largest city in Zimbabwe. The last hundred years’ social history of Bulawayo has been sculpted alongside the broader Zimbabwean national history, by particular circumstances of colonial conquest occupation; of colonial capitalism, with its lopsided economy, a system of circulatory labour migration; and of policy controversies and resistance regarding the control of space: physical, social, political, psychological, and historical. This paper presents that these factors are typical of most cities in Southern Africa. What distinguishes Bulawayo an urban centre is not only its distinct socio-historical experience with white settler governments and social change but also its experience with the Zimbabwe African National Union- Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) government in the post-independence period, which has been characterised by politics of exclusion and attempts to obliterate the experiences of the Ndebele ethnic group in the national cultural symbols. Antroponyms, geographical names, names based on history and brand names, used by authors in short writings from Bulawayo, have a telling effect as they capture the cultural heritage and identity of the City of Bulawayo. The paper draws its examples from an understanding that the postcolonial period, within which Zimbabwe as a country celebrated its independence in 1980, has witnessed a massive drive towards renaming of streets, buildings, places, schools, and other social amenities in order to recapture the identity of Bulawayo and represent its peculiarity to the other cities in Zimbabwe and the whole world in general. Also of note has been the overriding need to preserve the exploits of the liberation war icons from Matabeleland. The continued redefinition of the history of Bulawayo, particularly in the post-2000 period characterised by extensive closure of companies and de-industrialisation, has been a major concern as the short writings have shown an attempt to restore the glamour of Bulawayo and the subaltern representation that has characterised the City as a marginalised entity in comparison to other cities such as Harare. In the final analysis, this paper engages with both the theoretical and literary discourses of regionification, nationhood and representation as forms of identity creation. In this light, the paper uses the socio-historical approach to premise its arguments.  

Keywords: Bulawayo, Ideology, Region, Short Writings, Subaltern

The Garden Party Will Go on or Not? Who Persuades Whom? : A Modality Analysis of Mansfield’s “The Garden Party (Published)

This paper seeks to analyze the modality in the interactive exchanges of language as the vehicle of persuasion amongst three characters –Laura, Jose and their mother Mrs. Sheridan- over the question ‘whether or not the garden party goes on’ in the legendary short story ‘The Garden Party’ by Katherine Mansfield. Laura’s strong impulse, on an ethical ground, to put off the party following an impecunious neighbor’s coincidental demise is asserted largely through ‘modality of desirability’. Nonetheless, in the realm of reality, their high ranking whereabouts in societal structure, trepidation of losing face to the already invited visitors, Mrs. Sheridan’s and Jose’s views on Laura’s proposition are outright negative and their reinforcement on the ongoing of the party is essentially demonstrated through their predominant choices of ‘modality of validity’ dedicated in their utterances. Ergo, the garden party does not correlate with the impoverished fellow’s death and it goes on. Fowler‘s (1985) proposed modality categories have been followed in examining how modality makes sense of ‘persuasion’ in terms of the characters’ conversations in the cited text. The outstanding excerpt from the aforesaid text that involves the argument over the settlement of either continuation or discontinuation of the party has been exploited as the data for this modality analysis and a purposive sampling of the data has been adopted.                          

Keywords: : Modality, Ideology, The Garden Party, persuasive, power relationship, social class

Lexicalisation as a Tool for Ideological Expression in News (Published)

The use of critical discourse analysis has led to the development of a different approach to the understanding of media messages. This study focusses on the deployment of lexical items by the broadcast media to portray the political actors in Osun State, South-western Nigeria. The data for the study centred on politics and are derived from selected radio news of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation, Nigeria. The selection of data was done by purposive sampling and cover the period from 2007 to 2010. This period of time was very significant because of the political activities as a result of the elections in Osun State, Nigeria. A content analysis of the data was carried out at the surface and deep levels using the linguistic approach and critical discourse analysis to bring out the ideologies and the underlying meanings embedded in the texts. The analysis reveals that the news items feature lexical choices projecting positive self-presentation of the ruling political party and negative other-presentation of the opponent.

Keywords: : lexical choices, Ideology, Politics, broadcast media

Investigating Feminist Tendency in Margaret Atwood’s “The Handmaid’s Tale” In Terms of Sara Mills’ Model. A Feminist Stylistic Study (Published)

This paper purports to explore the relationship between linguistic structures and socially construed meanings in a narrative text. A stylistic analysis is conducted to unravel the design agilities of Margaret Atwood’s novel “The Handmaid’s Tale”. It tries to investigate her stylistic traits whereby much of the time her words seem to cloak or obscure what really happened. By adopting Sara Mill’s Model, the researcher attempts to reveal the ideology and power relations that underpin a literary text from different levels (according to the model) word, phrase, and discourse. The evidence seems to be strong that the model, however, has identifiable functions which contribute to the effective meaning of the novel. On this basis, it may be inferred that these elements trigger and play significant roles in passing the intention of the writer across.

Keywords: Feminism, Focalization, Fragmentation, Ideology, Stylistic Analysis, Stylistics

Investigating Feminist Tendency in Margaret Atwood’s “The Handmaid’s Tale” In Terms of Sara Mills’ Model. A Feminist Stylistic Study (Published)

This paper purports to explore the relationship between linguistic structures and socially construed meanings in a narrative text. A stylistic analysis is conducted to unravel the design agilities of Margaret Atwood’s novel “The Handmaid’s Tale”. It tries to investigate her stylistic traits whereby much of the time her words seem to cloak or obscure what really happened. By adopting Sara Mill’s Model, the researcher attempts to reveal the ideology and power relations that underpin a literary text from different levels (according to the model) word, phrase, and discourse. The evidence seems to be strong that the model, however, has identifiable functions which contribute to the effective meaning of the novel. On this basis, it may be inferred that these elements trigger and play significant roles in passing the intention of the writer across.

Keywords: Feminism, Focalization, Fragmentation, Ideology, Stylistic Analysis, Stylistics

Ideology in News Reports: Al-Jazeera Reporters As Representative: A Critical Discourse Analysis (Published)

This paper adopts a critical discourse analysis approach to investigate the way reporters of Al-Jazeera English Satellite Channel use to covey events and actions during the Syrian crisis. The study aims to find out whether reporters are neutral in their coverage or they carry an ideology which accords with one of the warring parties of conflict. It also aims at finding out the ideological implications that reporters have in the news texts toward the parties of conflict in Syria. The study hypothesizes that news reporters of Al-Jazeera are not neutral, but rather they have a prejudiced and a one-sided ideology towards the conflicted parties. For the analysis of the data, the study follows Van Dijk’s (1998) model of ‘ideological square’. The analysis is limited to investigate some discourse features, among many others, for their importance and their abundance in the data under scrutiny. Finally, the study has come with some conclusions that validate the hypotheses.

Keywords: : Modality, CDA, Contrasts, Crisis, Ideology, Media, Topics, Transparency

How do Egyptian Newspapers Tell Us about the Current Ideological Trends (Published)

The present paper attempts to analyse the main front-page headlines of eight Egyptian newspapers, with different mainstream readerships, reporting a single political news issue. On the 13th of April 2013, the retrial of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was postponed when the judge withdrew from the case and referred it to another court. The next day, all Egyptian newspapers tackled the event. A critical discourse analysis is carried out to investigate the way language is used to shape certain political ideologies in the newspapers’ headlines. The study concludes that despite their claim of being objective, newspapers represent news in a way that propagates their preferred ideologies. Hence, other than being a means of communication, newspapers seem to be an instrument of power, control and manipulation.

Keywords: Egyptian Newspapers, Headlines, Ideology, Power, critical discourse analysis

Language, Ideology and Reportage on Mutuality in a Pluralistic World (Published)

This paper observes that most discourses in a multilingual setting tend to be ideologically based. Using the multi-ethnic Nigerian situation as reference point, the study explores the ideological nature of reportage in selected newspaper headlines with a view to examining how the structures of media discourse are influenced by the structures of ideologies. The Triangulated Discourse Analytical Approach of Teun Van Dijk was adapted as the theoretical framework for the study. Twenty headlines, characterized by social properties of ideologies such as activity, perspective, rhetorical form, goal, resource and so on are purposively selected from five different Nigerian newspapers, formed the data which were content-analyzed. The surface structure of the newspaper headlines contained ideologies and belief system of the writers which were not overtly expressed but located in the linguistic expressions that characterized the selected newspaper headlines. The nature of language in the newspaper headlines indicate that the writers conceal their opinions in linguistic forms in order to create persuasion for ideological support.

Keywords: Ideology, Language, Media Discourse, News Story, Reportage

The Transcendental Ideology: The Reflection of Just Law Certainty in Indonesian Adjudication (Published)

Indonesian adjudication find a difficulty in establishing fair law certainty because it is hard for the judge to interpret the transcendental ideology concerning with law certainty and justice. This ideology has been within First Principle of Pancasila, “The Belief on One Supreme God” and also principle of adjudication stating that “adjudication shall favor of justice based on One Supreme God”. Islamic Law offers the transcendental ideology as manifestation of the physicality and mentality of legality principles. These principles are: “law does not deteriorate at all; there is a presumption of innocence; the punishment with doubt is invalid; and God may not punish human without notification or warning through Prophets”. The transcendental ideology for just adjudication has been justified by the Act of Judicial Power which requires the judge to explore, to follow and to understand the justice values advocated and developed within the community (spirituality) and also the unwritten laws (religion). The universality of the transcendental ideology for just adjudication in Indonesia, according to Islamic, is deriving from the attributes of God (al-hakam, al-adel, al-hakim) and also from the signification of universality of al’adl, al-qist and wasat.

Keywords: Adjudication, Ideology, Justice, Law Certainty, Transcendental

Saudi Arabia Educational Map- From Sand Dunes towards Western Skyscrapers Platforms (Published)

This paper explores the emergence of the concept of education and its ideological roots vis-s-vis Islamic principles and pedagogy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Hence, a general description of the Saudi Arabian educational system and a general account of how and when education was first introduced into the KSA is a necessary step to provide a complete picture the system of education and its rapid developments towards E-learning and/or distance learning status. In fact, all legal decisions within the Kingdom; however, are based on the Sharia Law-Islamic law as set forth by the Holy Qur’an, as stated in the Education Policy document. Therefore, according to Islamic studies constitute a major portion of the curriculum at the educational levels, and even science textbooks emphasize Islamic notions. This, in turn, may propose some obstacles in learning and teaching distance education from a Western ideological perspective. Therefore, the paper will lay out some of these hindrances and pedagogical implication in how to transition from traditional towards a more modern pedagogical education paradigm within the KSA.

Keywords: Education, Ideology, Islamic, Pedagogy, Policy Documents, Saudi Arabia, Western

Clash of Cultures: The Interface between Islam and the West (Published)

The struggle for cultural supremacy is not only a fact of history but also an observable phenomenon of social existence. Perhaps, the frenzied defence of cultural identity is second only to the expression of territorial nationalism. Contemporary cultures of which Islam is a resilient part are engaged in a ceaseless war of survival. Following the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Centre in New York, Islam has come under intense scrutiny. What has followed is a feverish commitment to the obliteration of Islamic values at home and abroad and the intensification of the scheme to enthrone western culture. This raises many legal, constitutional and sociological questions as well as questions relating to the place of Islamic culture both on the international arena and within the Nigerian jurisdiction. The paper is dedicated both to defining the place of Islamic culture vis-a-vis freedom of conscience and the constitutional safeguards in place against the prejudices that confront Islamic civilisation.

Keywords: Civilisation, Culture, Democracy, Government, Ideology, Law, Religion.