This article explores solutions to the hierarchy problem and the cosmological constant problem with gravity and the fundamental forces, including properties and interactions of dark matter, dark energy, parallel dimensions, and cold thermodynamics, while developing advanced models for gravity to help declare a winner between Newton and Einstein. Aside from the difference in geometry and mathematical formulas, and aside from a Newtonian separation of space and time, with no gravitational waves, no gravitons, no speed of light limits for gravity, and no relativity metrics based on matter, Newtonian gravity is simply based on observation of an apple, leaving the question of how it works to the reader, while Einsteinian gravity has an elegant warping of space-time based on a natural consequence of mass’s influence on space, but who’s really right here?
Both baryonic matter (ordinary matter) and non-baryonic matter is needed to explain current observations about the universe, but dark matter candidates, such as the pion, SIMP, WIMP, axion, MACHO, Kaluza-Klein, gravitino, and any other supersymmetric particles, along with the case for composite dark matter particles, will take time to rule out, never mind the possibility multiple types of dark matter likely exist. James Bullock, a professor of physics and astronomy at UC Irvine and his colleagues have done simulations with strong interacting dark matter (SIDM) and have found them to be consistent with current observations of the universe, which often resembles similar halo profiles as cold dark matter (CDM), but solves larger than predicted elastic cross section problems, which could be the right size if dark matter is composite. This article explores composite dark matter, what it has in common with cold hydrogen and slow moving particles, including strong interactions and molecular structure, and what these atoms might resemble.