Non-Governmental Appraisal of the Frameworks for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in Nigeria (Published)
Non-governmental organization are key actors in human rights promotion and protection in Nigeria. As also key players in international human rights mechanisms and particularly the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process of the Human Rights Council (HRC), non-governmental stakeholders in Nigeria have participated in the three UPR circles of Nigeria and submitted reports appraising the normative and institutional frameworks for the promotion and protection of human rights. As a creation of the HRC in 2006, the UPR is a peer mechanism to review, on a periodic basis, the human rights records of all Member States of the United Nations based on three distinct sources of information submitted to the HRC. One of such sources of information is the reports from non-governmental organization operating in Nigeria classified as ‘other reports’ and compiled by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Focusing on the ‘other reports’ submitted to the HRC on the normative and institutional frameworks for the promotion and protection of human rights in Nigeria, this article which is descriptive in nature concludes that despite advances claimed in its national UPR reports by the Government of Nigeria, non-governmental stakeholders are still of the view that there are evidently several weaknesses in the normative and institutional frameworks for the promotion and protection of human rights in Nigeria.
This paper examined the scope of deportation within the deterrent framework of Nigerian Criminal Justice System. Various legal provisions for its operation and judicial attitudes were discussed. The paper equally examined various acts of internal deportation carried out by the Executive Arm of Government with impunity, against the poor and proffered lasting solutions to the problem.
National Human Rights Commission, Citizenship Education and the Prospects of Citizens’ Rights Protection for Peace and Stability in Nigeria (Published)
Human rights are critical to sustainable livelihoods. This is why most states established human rights institutions to prevent the violations of rights by individuals and states. This paper explores the relevance and oversight functions of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in addressing Nigeria’s poor human rights protection complexities. The paper establishes the linkages between citizenship education and necessity for human rights protection with emphasis on the legal framework of the NHRC, the mechanisms for rights protection by the commission and the performance of the NHRC so far. The paper concludes that having people well informed about their duties as citizens of Nigeria, and the effectiveness of human rights monitoring would sustain the capacity of the state to reduce human rights abuses in the post-COVID-19 era, when individuals and governments are struggling to address development and economic challenges.
The Right of Citizens to Keep and Bear Guns: A Violation of the Article 3 and 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights- Study Case of USA, South Africa, France and India-Recommendations to United Nations Based on China’s Experience (Published)
This article raises the issue of the right of citizens to keep and bear guns. The right of citizens to keep and bear guns is the right conferred by governments to people to own a gun for the purpose of self-defense. However, for more than two decades, this right has become a tool of violation of human rights across the world, justified by a high rate of gun related deaths, violence and gun delinquency. More than two hundred thousand people die by private guns every year around the world, either by homicide or suicide. Amnesty International talks about a human right crisis, putting the life of seven billion of people in danger, threatening global security and peace, and causing serious consequences on the socioeconomic life of the countries, in violation of the Article 3 and 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Based on the case of USA, South Africa, France and India, this article shows the consequences that this legislation causes on the humanity, demonstrates the efficiency of the China’s gun policy and recommends to United Nations to require to State members to abolish the right of citizens to guns following China’s experience, and to establish a world day against the right of citizens to guns.
Human rights and good governance are the salient elements of a well-functioning state and society. They are also mutually reinforced; for human rights principles provide a set of values to guide the work of government and other political and social actors. Good governance on the other hand is a key to sustainable development and without good governance human rights cannot be respected in a sustainable manner. The three concepts thus work hand in hand. However in countries like Nigeria where democracy and rule of law have not been fully nurtured the move towards implementing human rights and good governance principles into the daily functioning of state institutions can be a huge challenge. The probability that a nation will achieve the aims of sustainable development and participative democracy are all the greater if human rights are respected. The aim of this article is to ascertain the level of observance of respect of the human rights in Nigeria by the government authorities and other social actors and the impact such observance or otherwise has on governance and development in Nigeria. It is observed that though the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended) makes an elaborate provision on human right, and that Nigeria has acceded to numerous international instruments on human rights, the problem of bad governance with the resultant inadequate development has a link with failure of the authorities that be, to adequately appreciate the requirements of human rights and apply them in governance. Furthermore a lot of the basic human rights as contained in Chapter II of the Nigerian Constitution are not enforceable, thus failure of the authorities to observe them cannot be questioned. It is advocated.
Pedagogy for Teaching and Promoting Social Justice and Human Rights in Early Childhood Educational Institutions in Nigeria (Published)
Every state is desirous of quality and meaningful development where empowerment, emancipation and liberation of the citizens is key. Achieving and enjoying a state where empowerment, emancipation and liberation of the citizens are norms can only be possible through education especially one that is provided to citizens in their early childhood days and in an atmosphere where the fundamental human rights of the citizens and the citizens’ pursuit of other socio-moral and socio-political ideals are guaranteed. An educational provision that promises the Nigerian society such value-laden ideals is one that is deep-rooted in social justice and human rights. Using the philosophical method, this paper focuses on the pedagogy for promoting social justice and human rights among early learners in Nigeria. The study is strongly anchored on the position that early and sound foundations of Nigerian learners on issues that border on social justice and human rights (individual welfare, public welfare or national interests) have potentials to challenge learners into indulging in abstract, creative and critical thinking that revolve around human welfare and the welfare of the state. The study concludes by raising pedagogical signposts through which the ideals of social justice and human rights can be inculcated in early childhood learners in Nigeria.
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) refer to the global initiatives that developed and developing nations have signed up to for the purpose of guaranteeing the best quality of life in 17 broad areas of human needs. SDG 4 is about quality education. SDG 4.7 focuses on education for sustainability, sustainable living/lifestyle, human right education, peace education gender inequality, global citizenship and how they should impact on quality education. These global educational contents are expected to be mainstreamed into the school curriculum at various educational levels. This paper clarifies each component of the SDG 4.7 and explains how best the new subject matters can be integrated into the Nigerian school curriculum as well as implemented in our daily living. Two ways whereby the new curriculum contents can be mainstreamed are either to create new school subjects or, to infuse the new contents into existing subjects in the curricula. This latter option is preferred and so recommended because the curricula of our schools are already too over-loaded to accommodate more subjects. The guidelines for the recommended infusion are made. The place of the teacher in implementing the new curriculum areas is emphasized. Recommendations are made for reorienting teachers towards more effective implementation of the new curricula through pre-service and in-service training. The pedagogical practices that will facilitate the attainment of Goal 4.7 are described, including appropriate teachers preparation, improved methods, resources, and facilitates. Also stressed is the need to accommodate all categories of children- the normal and disabled, boys and girls in the provision of furniture, play facilities and toilet facilities among others.
The Persistent Breach Of Human Rights by Personnel of the Nigerian Police Force as Recorded in 2016 to 2018: A Call for International Attention (Published)
The rascality exhibited by the Nigeria police started way back from the colonial days till date. The Police Act, Administration of Justice Act, chapter four (4) of the Nigeria Constitution are the Codes that regulate and define the duties and mode of operation of the Police Force in Nigeria. The International law is also there as a global standard on human rights preservation. The primary objective of this paper is therefore to identify the reasons for frequent human rights abuses by the Nigeria police force and make recommendations toward stemming the tide. This paper reviews the Human rights abuses by the Nigeria police force in the years 2016-2018 by reference to the International law, Constitution, Police Act, Internet sources, Newspaper scholarly publications and text books. The findings in this paper are that the Nigeria police force has not been fair to the Nigeria masses. There are lapses in the training and orientation of Nigeria police force, the officers and the rank and file. The Nigerian Constitution guaranteed human rights protections. Similarly some domestic legislation had been passed protecting the Human rights. This paper brings to the bare a few cases and instances the Nigeria police force personnel had exhibited unbridled rascality in utter disregard for citizens lives and the dignity of human person. This paper makes recommendations toward ensuring that the police keep to their statutory role of protecting lives and property and eschew bitterness in discharging their duties.
In addition to the adoption of U.D.H.R and E.C.H.R, the founding Treaties of the European Communities did not undertake any commitment to the protection of human rights at Community level. An explanation for this is the one that relies on the purpose of creating the EU, which was the creation of a common market, putting emphasis on the economic and functional aspects. The treaty establishing the European Economic Community (Treaty of Rome-1957) contained only a few fundamental rights, the foremost of which was the prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of nationality. However, it is understandable that, despite the lack of projections therein, treaties were not intended to violate of human rights. The 1986 Single Act made a direct reference to the notion of the protection of human rights for the first time. Maastricht’s treaty (1992) undertook a more concrete step, stating in its Preamble the observance of human rights in more specific way.
The Link between the Eu and the Echr (Published)
The ECHR has played a major role in incorporating the ECHR as part of the EC’s general principles, which assured the EU and its institutions to look at issues from the perspective of human rights. The ECHR has considered the convention as an unwritten human rights record in the EU. However, this was not enough to avoid the uncertainty in protecting human rights in the EU. The Treaty of Amsterdam for the first time became a general reference to the convention. An important step is considered Article 6 (2) of the Amsterdam Treaty. With the new status of the Charter following the Treaty of Lisbon, there are two international human rights documents belonging to the two supranational organizations, closed: on the one hand, the Council of Europe and the ECHR convention with the jurisprudence of her and in turn the Card inspired more by the ECHR and its jurisprudence. The question posed by this point is: Is the Charter a competitive or a threat to the convention system? Does the Charter come as an alternative to the Convention on the Protection of Human Rights in the EU?
Fetus-Abortion: Is It Violating Human Rights (Published)
Abortion today is a burning issue. The question related to it was raised by Feminists – whether a woman has right over her body or not? A fetus is developed within the body of a woman hence the concept of abortion is related with the notion of feminism closely. It is moral to use if the life of the mother is in danger. But one can illegally use this medical process to abort only female child (female infanticide). Thus there is high chance to misuse this medical tool. However in this present dissertation I want to focus on the question of abortion from the point of view of human rights.
Irregular Migration by Sea: Contemporary Incidents in the Mare Nostrum – The Transition from State-Based Action to Humanitarian-Drive Regional Controls (Published)
Irregular sea migration has proven to be a popular means of escaping violence and armed conflict. Events after the Arab Spring in 2011 caused a lot of irregular sea migration over the Mediterranean to Europe. This created serious problems and concerns. The purpose of this research is to examine the rights of irregular sea migration in international law, constraints of states in accepting these irregular migrations and propose a solution to the problem. The paper identifies that the right to life is a fundamental legal provision that irregular sea migrants have. Therefore, it is imperative for all state and non-state actors to honor this. This can best be done by viewing the sea in a regional rather than national context. This way, states can unite and share the challenges of dealing with common issues within a regional context.
Democracy has been generally acclaimed as the best protector of human rights amongst all forms of government. In many democratic nations of the world this is evidential, but in Nigeria the story is different. Democratic government of Nigeria, with regard to the issue of human rights protection is not too different from military dictatorship. It has been observed and rightly too, that government agencies are the worst violators of human rights and tacitly backed by the government. This paper challenges the Nigerian government that was democratically elected to uphold her statutory and definitional responsibility of respecting, protecting and enhancing human rights of her citizens and punish decisively any abuses of human rights. The citizens also should not be complacent about this, they should protest legitimately against such violations bearing in mind that violation of their rights dehumanizes them which should not be the case.
Principle of separation of powers is reflected in albanian constitutional system. There are intense debates among constitutionalists about recent developments of this principle. Tripartite system of separation of powers lies in the prediction of independence of judiciary system. Independence of judiciary system is a legal requirement, a core principle of rule of law, a human right guaranteed by democratic constitutions all over the world and as well as a means to enjoy other human rights. Albanian Judiciary System has made limited progress toward independence and impartiality. Regarding legal framework, Albania adopted essential set of laws, even that there are some laws passed by legislative bodies which according to Constitutional Court Verdicts are unconstitutional and violate independence of judiciary system. Another debatable issue it is the composition of High Council of Justice, membership of President of Republic and Minister of Justice. Two parallel inspectorates as Inspectorate of Ministry of Justice and Inspectorate of High Council of Justice overlap each other competences and undermine judiciary independence and intimidate judges. The main research question is about the linkage between independence and impartiality judiciary system and human rights. Dealing with laws ensuring independence, as well as with some legal provisions violating it we will reach into important conclusions
Retrieving Sex Work from the Nigerian Court (Published)
The court of public opinion in the Nigerian state is greatly titled against women in sex work (prostitution). This position of the court of public opinion stemmed from the non recognition of sex work as legitimate work and the laws used in the governance of women. Again the consequence(s) of this position of the court of public opinion on sex work is for the trade to be driven underground thus being prone to human rights abuses. The human rights abuses suffered by women in sex work in Nigeria are in direct contradiction to the principles of the universal human rights declaration of 1948. The crux of matter is whether the Nigerian state and its agents especially when cognizance is given to the universal human declaration have the rights to disparaged women in sex work. Furthermore does the Nigerian “woman” have the right of going into sex work? The attempt to answering to these questions through this paper did inadvertently set the tone and direction for this paper thus the recommendations canvassed herein which includes the women having rights over her body and having the capacity to make rational choices.
Human Right Issues and Women’s Experiences on Demanding Their Rights in Their Communities: The Way Forward for Nigeria (Published)
The renaissance humanism era of the early modern period ushered in the belief that everyone, by virtue of his or her humanity is entitled to certain human rights. These rights therefore accrue to people by virtue of their humanity and some of these rights are so fundamental that violation of any of them attracts an action of enforcement by the aggrieved person. These rights are enshrined in Chapter IV of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The extent of the protection of these rights for some members of the Nigerian population especially women, remains uncertain, doubtful and a seeming mirage because its protective powers have been thwarted by long standing discriminatory and cultural norms and practices in relation to women. This paper will look at the violations and the precarious position of women in rights issues. It will also x-ray some experiences of women in quest of these rights in their communities. The paper will also proffer recommendations as a way forward.
CULTURAL RE-ENGINEERING: THE WAY OUT OF HUMAN RIGHTS SUBVERSION IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA, NIGERIA A CASE STUDY (Published)
The importance of culture need not be over emphasized in the life of a community, as it is a sign of their identity. Cultural practices reflect the fundamental values of the community which are geared towards protecting members of the community. These practices are good where they fulfil these functions. But sometimes traditional cultural practices are harmful, with negative consequences, violating human rights. This work asserts that cultural belief is one of the major reasons why human rights are violated. The world is not stagnant, but continues to evolve. With new discoveries and philosophies, world’s systems change and the world adjusts to the demands of the changing times. Cultures and traditions are no exceptions. Cultural rites are human rights, insofar as they relate to and affect human beings. The aim of this work is to identify some of these harmful traditional cultural practices that violate human rights and suggest ways in which they can be re-engineered to bring cultural practices in consonance with the human rights system, within the traditional setting
In practical terms, religion and human rights are understood to be performing similar functions in respect of human development. The relationship between religion and human rights is on one side problematic and on the other, unavoidable in all parts of the world (as religion is a universal phenomenon). Broadly defined, religion involves what is sacred and transcends human knowledge. Human rights which seek to provide assorts of protection has also developed to received global attention. Human rights norms are inherently abstract ideals which depend on the visions and values of human communities to get its content and coherence. Traditional African concept of man emphasizes the spiritual dimension of human rights that must be heeded to. Western thought of ‘human rights’ seems to emphasise the ‘rights’ rather’ than the ‘human’. Human rights consist of two categories (human and rights) which need equal concentration. In view of this the paper explores the interaction of religious ideas and institutions in the wake to promote the rights of humans for sustainable development. Wherever religion appears to be a guiding principle in the lives of individuals and communities, it seems of obvious relevance to consider how it might be employed to further the course of equal rights for all. The paper objectively purports religion as an inherent condition of human lives which invariably provides the sources and scales of dignity and responsibility, respect and restitution that human rights need to survive and flourish
‘BABY FACTORIES’: A NEW PHASE OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION IN NIGERIA (Review Completed - Accepted)
Recent developments in Nigeria has witnessed a different form of human trafficking as a violation of human rights. While the crusade against human trafficking and violation of human rights is gaining ground and yielding positive results in Nigeria, there emerges another form of trafficking and slavery called ‘baby factories’ through the use of deceit, undue-influence, kidnapping and abduction et cetera, by unlawful incarceration of pregnant young/teenage girls or getting them pregnant for the purpose of giving birth to babies for sale or other purposes. This paper discovers that this illicit trade is further aggravating the incidence of trafficking and human rights violation in Nigeria. It is further discovered that the operation of ‘baby factories’ brings along with it the commission of other crimes and further worsen the effects of human trafficking and slavery as violations of inalienable rights. The paper concludes that unless necessary steps are taken immediately to completely abolish the practice of ‘baby factories’ in Nigeria, the practice will be on the increase as it is attracting income to the perpetrators of this illicit act. In the final analysis, we recommend ways of tackling human trafficking in general and specifically, the menace of the emerging ‘baby factories’ in Nigeria, including both legislative and executive interventions.
Rule of Law and Good Governance in Bangladesh: Does Judicial Control Matter? (Review Completed - Accepted)
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of judicial activism as an instrument of judicial control in establishing rule of law and its impact on good governance in Bangladesh. Judicial activism is one of the effective and proactive mechanisms in protecting various aspects of human rights such as- fundamental rights, equal rights of human being, life, liberty and properties, equal opportunity of employment, rights of sound environment and overall protection of public or national interest. All those are the basis of rule of law and good governance of a country. The major findings of the paper are: rule of law is one of the most crucial elements of good governance and judiciary is a very vital institution of government to establish rule of law in a country. Judicial activism is such an approach, where, there is no need to file a writ by the affected person directly. Any legally conscious person or organization has the right to writ on behalf of affected rights or public interest. It has also found that the role of NGOs or human rights defender organizations is crucial for adjudicating public interest litigation to promote and protect individual rights as well as to uphold the spirit of rule of law. In Bangladesh, most of the PIL cases are filled by human rights defenders organizations (e.g.: BELA, BLAST and ASK) and some other NGOs. Apart from this, delay and log jam of cases is another crucial problem of Bangladesh judiciary which appears in few cases of this paper. This is one of the major impediments of fair and speedy justice delivery, which ultimately creates room for more corruption and violation of human rights in Bangladesh