Tag Archives: Human Resource Management (HRM)

Empirical Gaps in the Relationship between HRM and Firm Performance: Future Research Perspectives (Published)

HRM is the backbone of any business since it is the systematic and continuous mechanism of molding the most important human resource in any organization. Effective HRM helps stimulates employees’ discretionary effort towards higher firm performance. Though the link is well theorized conceptualized, it has been a less credible assertion in practice. The reasoning behind this debate is evidenced by three most pressing knowledge gaps highlighted in the extant literature which are: (1) narrow focus of contextual factors, (2) abstract and conventional measures, and (3) unclear process of value creation. In the circumstance, it doesn’t show the true picture of this relationship. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review these three gaps in order to draw future research attention to convince that the HRM-firm performance relationship is not an isolated phenomenon. In conclusion, this paper stimulates future research interests to view the underpinning relationship in a holistic approach.

Keywords: Empirical Gaps, HRM-Firm Performance Relationship, Human Resource Management (HRM)


Various attempts have been made towards tracing the historical development of the discipline of Human Resource Management (HRM). However, these initiatives have largely been concentrated on certain specific periods of time and experiences of specific countries and regions such as Australia, the USA, the UK and Asia (Nankervis et.al, 2011; Kelly, 2003; Ogier, 2003). This paper attempts to document the entire history of the discipline of Human Resource Management from a holistic perspective. The evolution and development of HRM will be traced right from the pre-historic times through to the postmodern world. Major characteristics in the evolution and development of HRM will also be examined and documented.

Keywords: Human Resource Management (HRM), evolution, history