Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Gc/Ms Analysis of the Root of Stachytarpheta Cayennensis (L .Vahl) Grown in Eastern Nigeria (Published)
Stachytarpheta cayennensis is a plant full of phytonutrient, it has been applied by many traditional healers to treat host of diseases. Its full constituents have not been fully documented. The phytochemical screening of the root of this plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and phenols. The antimicrobial analysis on selected human pathogens; Streptococcus specie, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Proteus specie and Pseudomonas specie showed that the extract was only sensitive to Proteus specie having a diameter of inhibition of 4mm at concentration of 240mg/cm3 and minimum inhibition concentration of 120mg/cm3. The spectrum obtained from the GC/MS analysis showed ten peaks at M/z 128 ,220,242,256,252,270,256, 296, 282 and 281 corresponding to molecular formulas of C10H8 for Cyclopentyl cycloheptene, C15H24 for Butylated hydroxyl toluene, C16H320 for Hexadecanoic acid, C16H28O2 for 11-tetradecyl-1-ol acetate, C17H38O2 for Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester,C16H32O2 for n-hexadecanoic acid C19H34O2 for 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, C18H34O2 for octadec-9-enoic acid and C18H35NO for 9-octadecenamide respectively. 9-octadecenamide (Oleamide) is useful for the treatment of insomnia. Oleamide accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid during sleep deprivation and thus induces sleep in animals. It may be a potential medicinal treatment for mood and sleep disorders
ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF LEBANESE CEDAR EXTRACT AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENS AND FOOD SPOILAGE MICROORGANISMS (Published)
Water and methanolic extracts of the leaves, stems, and pulp of Lebanese Cedar (Cedrus libani), were assayed for antibacterial and antifungal properties against human and food spoilage pathogens namely: Klebsiella pneumonia, MRSA, ESBL E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Candida albicans using disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were evaluated. The bacterial and fungal strains tested showed a various degree of sensitivity represented by inhibition zone diameter: Klebsiella pneumonia (27mm), MRSA (27mm), ESBL Escherichia coli (20mm), and Candida albicans (21mm). Listeria monocytogenes showed the strongest inhibition zone 70 and 37mm with methanolic and water leaves extracts respectively. The MIC, MBC, and MFC were between 5- 200 µl/ml, and 300 µl/ml respectively. Time-kill curve showed a fast and sharp antimicrobial activity. The efficacy of killing by Lebanese cedar extract was essentially the same in light and dark. Phytochemical analysis of Lebanese cedar extract explored the presence of terpenoids, flavenoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins and traces of tannins. Electron microscopy examination of cells treated with Lebanese cedar extracts showed a great variation in the cell structure.