Heavy Metal Concentration in Selected River Tributaries in an Urban Settlement in Akure, Nigeria (Published)
Heavy metals can impact human health and continuous exposure to heavy metals in water can lead to a variety of health issues. Water from surface water bodies such as streams and rivers help to alleviate the problem of water scarcity especially in developing countries. In this study, the heavy metal content of stream water samples was analyzed. Four (4) heavy metals namely Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd) and Manganese (Mn) were analyzed in the laboratory and the results obtained were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standard for potable water. The results revealed that none of the water samples analyzed met WHO standard for Cr in potable water while only 40% of the water samples analyzed conformed to WHO standard for Cd in potable water. Findings of this study revealed that Cr and Cd are heavy metals of concern in the study area. Periodic evaluation of the heavy metal content of surface water in the study area is necessary in order to monitor deterioration in the quality of the water and also to recommend adequate treatment for the water before human consumption.
Citation: Ochuko Mary Ojo (2022) Heavy Metal Concentration in Selected River Tributaries in an Urban Settlement in Akure, Nigeria, British Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 25-31
Water pollution has been a major environmental problem globally. This study investigated the effects of abattoir waste on the water quality of Amilimocha River in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from three sampling locations upstream L1, point of discharge L2, downstream L3, and a control sample L4. Samples were immediately taken to the laboratory for standard analysis. Salinity varied from (0.01 – 0.06%), conductivity (56.70 – 85.10µs/cm), DO (7.80- 8.55mg/L), BOD (3.00 – 6.21mg/L), COD (8.95 – 15.5mg/L), TDS (20.00 – 53.00mg/L), turbidity ( 23.00 – 41.50 NTU), NO3 (0.16 – 0.35mg/L), P042- ( 0.02 – 0.6mg/L), temperature ( 26.00 – 29.10oC), pH ( 6.50 – 8.20) and coliform bacteria counts (10.00 – 50.00 cfu/100ml). There was significant heterogeneity in mean variance of the water quality parameters across the sampling locations [F(31.09)>Fcrit(3.94)] at P<0.05. A further structure detection group means revealed that all the parameters contributed to the observed heterogeneity. Mean concentration of DO and BOD (8.22 0.73 and 5.10 0.37mg/L) respectively exceeded the World Health Organization 6.80 and 4.0mg/L maximum permissible limits for aquatic life. Abattoir wastes should be properly treated before disposal and freshwater systems should not serve as recipients of untreated abattoir waste.
The aim of this review was to summarize the effect of high forage diets in relation heath promoting fatty acids. Fat content in the milk contributes mineral, vitamins, energy and essential fatty acids (C18:2n-6) and C18:3 n-3) to human. But, inclusion of high proportion milk and milk product especially, saturated fat in human diets is becoming questionable because of the health risk like obesity, cancer, diabetics, and cardiovascular disease. This creates negative altitude on consumers towards milk and milk product. Compromising the milk yield inclusion up to 70% of forage enhance n-3 PUFA and CLA (rumenic and vacinic acid). Studies in rat revealed that CLA (rumenic or vacenic acid) rich butter at 2% of its diet show reduction in mamary tumor and cholestrol indiuced coronary heart disease in rat. However, the contribution of the unsaturated fatty acid from milk to the total human diet is relatively low. Since for human to be effecteive it need reasonable to add 20% of its diet. Beside to this, the findings are still under animal model so further study is still needed to test its real effect on human health.
Preliminary Assessment of Some Heavy Metals Pollution Status of Lisikili River Water in Zambezi Region, Namibia (Published)
Good water quality is fundamental to human health and sustenance of aquatic ecosystems. The Lisikili river in Zambezi region, Namibia is a major perennial river which serves diverse economic purposes in the host community. However, it is now receiving pollution threat from effluents discharge and surface run-off from large agricultural lands. Eight (8) water samples were collected at 8 random points within a stretch of approximately 2km on each extremity and median parts of the river. Two major economic fish from the river, tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) and cat fish (Siluriformes) (8 samples of each) were collected using fish net at the points of water sampling. The samples were transported to analytical laboratory in ice boxes for processing and analyses for the levels of Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP: Perkin Elmer Optima 7000 DV). The results obtained showed wide mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the river water; iron recorded the highest level of 2.375 mg/l and arsenic (0.047 mg/l) recorded the lowest level. Apart from Zn (0.259 mg/l) and Cu (0.073 mg/l) with the present concentrations lower than their guideline permissible limits, the mean concentrations of the other heavy metals exceeded their maximum permissible guideline values for the protection of human and aquatic health. Based on the classification of metal pollution index (PI) for water, apart from Cu (PI = 0.03) and Zn (PI = 0.04); all the other heavy metals recorded pollution indices which suggest moderate to strong effect on the river water quality. In both the catfish and tilapia fish (wet weight whole sample), iron (4.926 mg/kg and 3.323 mg/kg) recorded the highest mean concentration while Cd (0.136 mg/kg and 0.078mg/kg) recorded the lowest level respectively. Generally, the present levels of the heavy metals were below their regulatory limits for the protection of human health. However, the fish’s bio-accumulation factors of the metals suggest that they have high potentials to bio-accumulate some of the heavy metals to high levels and this has adverse implication for human consumption. Because heavy metals are non-biodegradable and bio-accumulative in nature which therefore, make their presence in human foods even at very minute levels potential toxins, it is important to monitor their accumulations in the river and fish and advice precautionary measures to limit excessive human exposures to the heavy metals content.
Seasonal Evolution of the Quality Microbiological of the Natural Waters in the Township of Abomey-Calavi (South Benin) (Published)
Water is indispensable at life. Resources in waters of the township of Abomey-Calavi are of a national importance. The township of Abomey-Calavi is very close to the biggest plan of water Beninese lagunaire: The Nokoué lake. Besides, not only the waters of the watertable are consumed by the majority of the population from the wells tradictionnels, but also, the underground waters of the terminal continnental of the township of Abomey-Calavi are exploited intensely by the Society Nationnale of the Waters of Benin (SONEB) to nourish in drinking water the townships of Abomey-Calavi, of Cotonou biggest city of the country and Sèmè. The microbiological parameter follow-up (total coliforms, coliforms thermotolerants and enterrococcis) to the level of pluisieurs well and boring and to pluisieurs points different some Nokoué lake was the object of a treatment of data by the establishment of card of fecal contamination of waters natural of the region, that informs us on the quality of waters by the slant of a microbiological quality indication that calculates itself according to the method of Bovesse and Depelchin (1980). The survey of the microbiological contamination indication, succeeds to the establishment of seasonal cards of quality of waters. The organic pollution represents a serious problem for the environment because of the dismissals poured in the rivers. The worn-out waters domesticated and non-purified represent the main source of organic pollution of waters. Followed it of analysis in the different points of observation made the object of a treatment of data by the establishment of a card of organic pollution of waters natural of the region, that informs us on the influence of the dismissals and the quality of waters by the slant of an organic pollution indication that himself calculation according to the method of Leclercq, Maquet (1987) whose principle is to distribute the values of the polluting elements in 05 classes, to determine from his own measures, the number class correspondent for every parameter to make the average of it. The interpretation of the card representing the different parameters of organic pollution of the natural waters gives some results on the contamination or no of these waters. The card shows that the different natural waters in the region of Abomey-Calavi pass a quality to another.
The research is aim at the Source of Portable Water in Ikeji, Its Effects on Human Health and Solving Problems related to it. Based on a detailed review a few research questions were raised and answered. The study adopted the description research design and a reasonable number of Ikeji indigenes. The main research instrument was the use of questionnaires for the data collection and simple percentage used in analyzing the data collected. The findings from the research analysis show that the access to portable water for the Ikeji indigenes was rain water, well water, water from the local stream and river and pipe borne water. Inspite of some of the problems encountered by the indigenes like impurity of the water, they still use the water. Based on this, it has been recommended that government make available other sources, and here are also suggestions for further studies attached to this study.