The study examined the impact of trade openness and human capital investment on economic growth in Nigeria from 1981 to 2020 and employed error correction mechanism for the analysis. Economic growth was proxied by nominal gross domestic product. Human capital investment was decomposed into government capital expenditure on education, government recurrent expenditure on education, government capital expenditure on health and government recurrent expenditure on health while trade openness was measured by trade openness index. Exchange rate was used as check variable. The study carried out descriptive statistics test, Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test, Johansen co-integration test and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) technique for the analysis. The result revealed that capital component of government expenditure on health and education were negatively related to national output during the period of investigation. However, the recurrent component of government on both health and education as well as trade openness were positively related to economic growth for the period. The study recommended among others that Government should increase funding in education and health sectors to meet the 20% to 15% benchmark recommended by UNESCO and WHO respectively and adopt the private sector model of payment that is based on milestone achieved in capital projects in both sectors.
Citation: Timothy Kabari Kerebana and Itode James Krama (2021) Trade Openness, Human Capital Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria, International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, Vol.9, No.3, pp.57-71
This paper explores the determinants of rural to urban migration decision in China. We use Logit models to examine the effect of a variety of different factors on individual migration choice. The empirical analysis is based on the data of Chinese Household Income Project (1995). We find that males are more likely to migrate. Age has an inverted-U shaped effect on migration. Marriage has a negative significant effect on migration. The rural individuals with professional school and middle professional school educational levels are less likely to migrate. Household head in the family is more likely to migrate. Membership of Communist Party or national ethnic minority has a negative effect on migration decision. Individuals with non-farm working experiences are more likely to migrate. Finally, some policy implications are derived based on the findings.
Effect of Human Capital Investment on Organizational Performance of Pharmaceutical Companies in Kenya (Published)
Provision of adequate health care services to their population remains a major challenge for governments in Africa. In Kenya, the number of trained Pharmacists is increasing with time but still insufficient relative to the population in need (one pharmacist for every 8,710 persons, or approximately 0.1 per 1000 persons. Kenya had about 8 pharmacists for every 100,000 people). It was estimated that for the country to meet its health related Millennium Development Goals, the pharmacy workforce needed to grow by 28 per cent annually between 2010 and 2015. Whereas, Kenya’s population is estimated to be 43 million (provisional) in 2014, the number of registered pharmacist in 2013 was 2,202 and rose to 2,355 with a ratio of 5 pharmacists per 100,000 persons. In summary we have approximately 5:100,000, meaning 5 pharmacists to 100,000 persons, while the requirement is approximately 1:10000, meaning 1 pharmacist to 10000 persons. The current numbers of pharmacists are not adequate for achievement of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goal 3. The study sought to establish the effect of Human Capital Investment on Organizational Performance of Pharmaceutical Companies in Kenya. The independent variables include: training, education, knowledge management and skills development. The main underpinning theories in this study include: Human Capital, Skill Acquisition and Sustainable Resource Theory. 200 observations were used in the study. Study used questionnaires in data collection, descriptive and inferential statistics used in the analysis. The found a positive significant relationship between human capital investment and organizational performance. The study recommends provision of quality education, relevant training linked to industry requirement, the study suggest adoption of German Dual Vocational Education and Training system to facilitate and strengthen linkage between education sector and the industry. Promotion of knowledge management through teamwork, social networks and knowledge management systems; training on employability and transferability skills to enhance Skills Development. The enterprises to go beyond traditional apprenticeship, Soft skills assessment in schools, embrace technology and promote intrapreneurship. The study also suggest introduction of Skill Development Fund to equip the communities and businesses with relevant skills required in the dynamic global market place.