Assessment of Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Practices among Households in Southern Nigeria (Published)
Cross River State recorded that 46.4% and 42.1% are still using unimproved source of drinking water and sanitation facilities respectively, leaving about 100 million people without access to improved sanitation? The aim of this study was to assess water supply, sanitation and hygiene practices among households in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was adopted for the study. Data were generated using a semi-structured questionnaire from 400 respondents which were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. An observational checklist was used to conduct an assessment of the availability, functionality and use of WASH facilities. Data generated were synthesized, entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 24.0) and results were presented in simple percentages, tables and charts. The result obtained in this study showed that 172 (43.0%) households have access to improved drinking water source and borehole with hand pump was the main source of water supply for households. Type of toilet facilities use in households were mainly; pit latrine 190 (47.5%) and swat flush 85 (21.2%). Method of household solid waste disposal were mainly; open dumpsite 166 (41.5%), burning 101 (25.3%) and throwing into the bush 81 (20.3%). Most respondents 386 (96.5%) practice hand washing mostly after eating, 318 (79.5%) before eating and 284 (71.0%) after handling children’s faeces. It was also observed that 357 (89.2%) houses had no drainage system, 313 (78.3%) have waste storage facility, 325 (81.3%) have refuse dumpsite and 358 (89.5%) did not have odour of excreta in the surrounding. It was recommended that rural communities should synergize with government at all levels and other relevant stakeholders to ensure adequate provision of WASH facilities in their communities.
A Two-Stage Sampling Design to Study Small Scale Production of Livestock of Households in Unwana, Nigeria: Towards Reduction of Poverty (Published)
In this study, a statistical survey on small scale domestic livestock production of households in Unwana, Nigeria was carried out. The community was first partitioned into eight enumeration demarcation areas (EADs), two EADs were selected by simple random sampling method. Primary data were then collected from the selected areas (a two – stage sampling method). Data obtained were analyzed using sampling estimation theory to ascertain the actual population of livestock reared in the community, again, the chi- square goodness of fit test showed that fowls, goats and sheep are the most kept livestock among the households with estimated population of 56,790, 117,090 and 30240 respectively. The research recommended a modernized method of livestock keeping to maximize production. Engaging veterinary doctors to improve on the animal healthcare, productivity, food safety and safer environment. The work also observed that training of local livestock keepers and incentives from government will ensure a well-developed sector.
Fuel Wood Commercialization and Households Welfare in the Northern Region of Ghana: An Implications for Rural Livelihood Improvement (Published)
Several national forestry policies in Ghana meet resistance and or failure; particularly issues of natural and environment resources use within communities. This is because of the highly dependent nature of people on the environment for sustenance and welfare improvements. This paper examined the major facts which motivate households’ decisions to engage in commercialization of fuelwood; determined the most preferred fuel wood species, and availability of income inequality among sampled districts and establish fuelwood, commercialization and households’ welfare by the travel cost method. The study sampled six districts in the Northern Region based on poverty and rural dependence mode. The paper used the simple random sample along with a structured questionnaire to illicit information from respondents. The results showed that, increased in travel cost and cost of access to forested sites impact negatively on the number of visits for fuel wood. The study further revealed that, benefits from fuel wood commercialization in terms of reducing income inequality differ from district to district. The study recommended that, government and international organizations should facilitate the cultivation forest sites solely for fuel wood harvest to ensure environmental sustainability. In addition, fuel wood harvesters must be taught forest management and conservation strategies in the Northern Region.
Rural Agribusiness-Based Household Preferences and Management Of Communication Services In Abia State, Nigeria: A Hedonic Approach (Published)
This study on agribusiness-based household preferences and management of communication services in Abia State, Nigeria was analyzed using a hedonic approach. The study tried to identify which mobile communication services impacts most on agribusiness households, and which network provider guarantees better utility to the household users. Thus, 240 agribusiness-based households were selected using multistage sampling technique. Two out of three agribusiness zones in Abia State were selected namely: Aba and Umuahia agricultural zones were selected for the study. The study made use of primary data obtained using a well-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, multivariate tests and Hedonic analysis were used for the data analysis. Results revealed that males (61.67%) dominated as agribusiness-based householdsâ€™ heads in the study area. Majority (26.25%) of households were in the age bracket of 61-70 years who were also engage in agricultural activities being their major activity. The hedonic model revealed that household characteristics such as sex, education, electricity connection to household buildings, ownership of house, and increased household size related positively with household ability to settle call prices charged by the preferred network provider while poor and extremely poor households related negatively with ability to settle call prices as charged on calls per day. The multivariate test showed that Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN) Limited Communication service impacted most on the welfare of these households than Globalcom (GLO) communication services Nigeria Limited. No meaningful contribution was observed in the case of Airtel communication services. It was recommended that communication service providers in the study area should reduce their call rates to accommodate the poor and extremely poor households in order to increase household preferences and subscriptions.