The Role of Productive Safety Net Program in Enhancing Household Food Security: the case of Debark Woreda (Published)
Food security issues become one of the critical concern and priority area for developing countries. Having clear picture on food security status and its major challenges helps policy makers and planners to devise new policies that enhance food security. Therefore, this study discusses the role of Productive Safety Net Program in enhancing household food security the case of rural areas of Semen Gonder Zone, Debark Woreda. The two rural Kebeles have been selected agro-ecologically (One was from Kolla and one Kebeles from Dega where selected based on simple random sampling techniques). To accomplish the study, the researcher was selected 130 household using purposive sampling methods. Both qualitative and quantitative data type were employed for the study from both primary and secondary sources. The study results indicated that Productive Safety Net Program was helping beneficiaries for consumption smoothing, asset accumulation, and development of the local community. However, the Productive Safety Net Program was significantly determined by age, education level of the household head, resources (assets) in household level, infrastructure, Lack good governance, and also natural, demographic, agricultural and institutional factors. Moreover, the study also revealed that the practice of Productive Safety Net Program was challenged by a lack of monitoring and evaluation of structures, low quota, low payment and limited awareness of beneficiaries. The coping strategies pursued by rural households in selected Kebele includes; Selling of fire wood, Migration, Daily wage labor, Handicrafts, Consumption responses, Church aid (giving cash/food) and Begging. Therefore, this study suggests that to assure the positive role of Productive Safety Net Program, culture of savings and accumulation of assets, engagement of beneficiary households in diversified asset building livelihood strategies, targeting and minimizing wrong inclusion and exclusion should be improved.
Contribution of Non-Timber Forest Products to the income and household food security in the Sanaga-Maritime Division, Littoral region, Cameroon (Published)
Cameroon’s tropical forests possess many resources, including Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs). The present research therefore aims to highlight the contribution of NTFPs to household income and food security in the Sanaga-Maritime Division where the destruction of this resource has been observed for the benefit of oil palm production. Specifically, the aim is to identify the different NTFPs exploited in the sub-divisions of Dizangue, Ngwei and Pouma; – to estimate the contribution of NTFPs to household income; – to analyze the contribution of NTFPs to household food security and to identify the constraints related to the exploitation of NTFPs in these localities. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaires administered to the different categories of NTFP household users. A total of 104 households were interviewed, including 90 operators, 02 traders and 12 consumers. The SPSS 14.0 software and the Excel spreadsheet was used to analyze the data collected. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric logistic regression model combined with the Access Scale tool determining household food insecurity was used to realise the objectives of the study. The results show that the most exploited NTFPs were the leaves of Gnetum africanum, the fruits of Dacryodes edulis and Irvingia gabonensis. Therefore, agriculture remains the main source of income for the households surveyed (32%). However, NTFPs harvested contribute 19.5% of household income. The logistic regression model demonstrated that the consumption of NTFPs from picking, although not significant, positively influenced food security of surveyed households. Factors such as income and household size significantly affect food security. Despite the fact that users of NTFP faced some constraints, some of them still put in place strategies to ensure the sustainability of those resources.
Relationship between Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Program and Rural Household Livelihoods in Kapseret Constituency, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Program and rural household livelihoods in Kapseret Constituency, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study was based on Theory of Change. Correlation Research Design was used to examine the study questions. The study targeted 272 respondents who were the connected customers of the Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Program in Kapseret Constituency, Uasin Gishu County. A sample size of 161 respondents was selected for the study using simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study to collect data from each respondent. Content validation method was also used in the research to measure the validity of the instrument. Data collected were analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The finding revealed that patterns in the distribution of electricity (β1= 0.546, p<0.05), and electricity usage (β2 = 0.283, p<0.05) had a positive and significant effect on rural household livelihoods. Therefore, there is need for Kenya power to raise awareness on the modalities to be made to access electricity in the rural areas. Also, the electricity connection needs to be designed in such a way that it can easily be adapted to both domestic and commercial uses in order to improve rural household livelihoods.
Impact of Saudi Arabia Economic Changes (Oil Shock) 2016 on Consumer Purchasing Habits; With Special Reference to Retail Shopping In KSA (Published)
Consumer behaviour is a complex phenomenon, consisting of a set of decision-making processes, economic determinants and market incentives. The complexity of the buying processes of consumers may be largely linked to a sensation that ‘s hard to predict and control. However, consumers are a primary source of income for business organisations, so knowing their behaviour has a great importance for the survival of business and market prosperity. For this, the researcher focuses primarily on highlighting the effects of the current economic recession (oil shock) of Saudi Arabia among the behaviour of consumers, in particular for household goods. An explorative research followed by descriptive research has been taken. Primary data has been obtained through a close-ended questionnaire, and it was collected using online Google form and the personal basis from the consumer of Saudi Arabia during January 2017 March 2017. Following receiving the data, it was examined with deceptive statistics. Chi2 test at P. Value 0.05, correlation coefficient has been utilised to check the validity and reliability of the hypothesis, and results were interpreted accordingly in the article. It was investigated that the majority of the respondents had a negative impact of the current economic crisis on the household purchase. Besides, it was also found that there was a variation in opinion among the respondents regarding the changes of their household consumption and expenses before and after the economic crisis (Oil shock).