Tag Archives: Hostility

Environmental Uncertainty and Entrepreneurial Success (Published)

This study aims to examine the effect of environmental uncertainty on entrepreneurial success amongst 9,450 small and medium enterprises (SMEs) who are registered members of the National Association of Small and Medium Enterprises (NASME), National Association of Small Scale Industrialists (NASSI) and Association of Small Business Owners in Nigeria (ASBON) in Lagos State. Proportionate stratified random sampling method was used to select samples from the sampling frame. Sample size of 381 used for the study was determined using the formula developed by the National Education Association (1960). Primary data on the dependent variable (Entrepreneurial success) and independent variable (Environmental uncertainty) was collected using questionnaire as research instrument. Environmental uncertainty measures are dynamism, complexity and hostility while measures for entrepreneurial success are profitability, market share, net asset growth, sales growth and government policies. The questionnaire was pretested by a pilot study of 50 selected SMEs. Data obtained from the pilot study was analyzed and based on the result, the questionnaire was slightly modified giving an overall Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.791. The statistics of the model summary reveal correlation co-efficient R = .519 indicating that the combined influence of the three predictor variables of dynamism, complexity and hostility has a strong positive relationship with entrepreneurial success. The R square is .269 or 26.9% signifying that the combined influence of the predictor variables explains 26.9% of the variations in entrepreneurial success. The value of F (3,206) = 25.321, p <.05, shows that the combined effect of dynamism, complexity and hostility was statistically significant in explaining changes in entrepreneurial success in Lagos State. This is confirmed by a p value which is less than the acceptance critical value of 0.05. The model shows that the regression coefficients results for both dynamism (β = .155, t = 2.390, p = .018) and complexity (β = .464, t = 7.392, p = .000) indicate positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial success in Lagos State. The finding indicates that a unit increase in both dynamism and complexity of environmental uncertainty would lead to increase in entrepreneurial success in Lagos State. The regression coefficients for hostility (β = -.155, t = -2.484, p = .014) indicate a negative relationship with entrepreneurial success, though the relationship was significant, p <.05. Complexity measure has the highest influence on entrepreneurial success with a p value was 0.000 followed by hostility with a p value 0.014, and then dynamism with a p value of 0.018.

Keywords: Dynamism, Entrepreneurial success, Environmental Uncertainty, Hostility, Optimism

Domestic Abuse? The Complexities of High Conflict Disputes: The Work of Cafcass. (Published)

This work explores the understanding and experiences of Cafcass practitioner’s engagement in high conflict disputes involving implacable hostility. Design/methodology/approach: Cafcass practitioners are responsible for the preparation of welfare reports to the family court under section 7 of the Children Act 1989 (Cafcass, 2014). These reports are designed to assess what is in the best interests of the child when parents are in dispute over the child’s contact arrangements under private law proceedings (Cafcass, 2014).  Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 participants (Cafcass practitioners). Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings: The study finds that practitioners require more assistance in identifying implacable hostility earlier, and also require help in how best to weigh up the ‘balance of harm’ to the child in individual cases. The study also discusses recent developments in the nature of high conflict cases, including the role of social media in accentuating hostility.

Keywords: Disputes, Domestic Abuse, High Conflict, Hostility


There has been constrained consideration paid to the issue of the Palestinian historical dilemma, which is politically known as “leaderless,” the period ranging from the fall of the Ottoman Empire until Nakbah (catastrophe) war in 1948. The researcher endeavors to shed light on this socio-political issue that created the squandering of several chronicled opportunities, rights and political gains for the Palestinian people. This study means to audit several sorts and meanings of leadership, the fundamentals of selecting the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in the period from the Ottoman Empire until the British Mandate. Who precisely selects the Palestinian leaders? Or used with a different meaning: when the enemy selects his enemy’s leader. Moreover, this paper assumes that the Palestinian grand mufti Haj Amin al- Husseini could not fill in the vacuum, and thus Palestine came about to be “leaderless.” It struggles to gain only one goal: “autonomous statehood” to be alongside an “Israeli state”. However, al- Husseini had no any sense or character of leadership; he did not have qualifications, skills, or even charisma that other well-known national leaders such as Herzl, Gandhi, Mandela, or Ben-Gurion had. In addition, the researcher thinks it intelligently happened in light of the fact that he was chosen deliberately and exceptionally well by his great enemy: “the Jewish and Zionist leader

Keywords: Hostility, Leaderless, Mufti, Palestinian Dilemma, Religious-Economic-Political Vacum