Tag Archives: HIV

Reliability of Some Selected Novel Markers in Detecting Early Renal Dysfunction in HIV Positive Patients on TDF Regimen: A Nigerian Study (Published)

This study evaluated the predictability of novel biomarkers (Urine Cystatin C, NGAL and Albumin) in detecting early renal dysfunction. About 140 patients (53 (37.9 %) male and 87 (62.1%) female) who attends ARV clinic at the University’s Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt were included in the study. The study was designed in 3 phase to include Visit 0, 1 and 2 which lasted for about 12weeks (3months). Visit 1 was 4weeks from visit 0 and Visit 2 was 8 weeks from Visit 1. Laboratory assessment was carried out on samples collected from the patients, Albumin was 0.90±0.56, 1.36±0.89, and 1.36±0.94; Urine Creatinine was 479±1.90, 489.06±445.09 and 514.85±595.55; Urine Total Protein was 15.04±26.73 9.50±5.07 and 6.53±3.84; while NGAL was, 1902.51±902.59, 1941.48±743.60 and 4881.60±2792.01and Cystatin C was 889.70±1201.04, 1062.38±1165.38 and 1577.92±506.61 for Visit 0, 1 and 2 respectively. Significant difference was observed in the measured parameters across all Visits from 1st visit to end of the study.  The differences observed between the markers across all visits were significant. Using differential reliability test, NGAL has 241.67% better chance of predicting renal dysfunction compared to Cystatin C, while Cystatin C has 166.67% better chance of predicting renal dysfunction compared to albumin, while NGAL also has 811.1% better chance of predicting renal impairment as compared to albumin. However, creatinine clearance did not pick up renal dysfunction. This study is therefore recommended to Physicians in other to help in diagnosing early renal dysfunction in HIV patients, especially those on tenofovir (TDF) based ARV regime which has been proven to cause renal dysfunction.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Cystatin C and Albumin, HIV, NGAL, Tenofovir

The Challenges of Community-Based Interventions for People Living With HIV in Four High HIV Prevalence Regions in Ghana: Lessons for Africa (Published)

The ‘HOPE’ programme is a major community-based care and support programme for providing care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Ghana. This paper explores the challenges confronting the ‘HOPE’ programme and discusses them in the context of wider literature to provide lessons for Ghana and Africa. The study adopted a qualitative approach in which in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with 14 stakeholders and 8 focus group discussions were held with the programme beneficiaries. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. It was identified that only a few of the beneficiaries benefited from skills training leading to employment due to inadequate funding, slow cash flow and inadequate inter-sectoral collaborations. To compound these weaknesses, most reported that they preferred petty trading to the skills offered. Also, the long-term sustainability of the food supplementation once funding is discontinued was a major concern. However, the health education component could be sustained due to peer educators trained.

Keywords: Care, Community-Based, Evaluation, HIV, interventions

Evaluating the Effect of Moringa (K Formula Dietary Supplement) On Renal Function among HIV Positive Patients on TDF Regimen: A Longitudinal Study of Nigerians (Published)

This study evaluated the effect of Moringa on the renal function of HIV positive patients. It was a time dependent comparative pilot study involving 140 patients (53 (37.9 %) male and 87 (62.1%) female) in the sampled population, who attends ARV clinic at the University’s Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt. The study was a 3 phases design to include Visit 0, 1 and 2 which lasted for about 12weeks (3months). The subjects were divided into two experimental groups (those receiving tenofovir and moringa and those receiving tenofovir without moringa supplementation). For the moringa group at visit 0, 1 and 2 respectively, the following values were obtained (Urine phosphate was 16.3711.84, 12.798.37 and 18.356.29; Urine Albumin was 2.001.41, 1.290.96 and 1.132.54; Urine Creatinine was 125.682.01, 418.53225.54 and 766.211030.82; Uric acid was 326.4387.45, 289.8782.50 and 239.3867.36; Urine Total Protein was 7.625.06; 19.8542.94 and 8.453.85. Significant differences were seen in the measured parameters at Visit 0, 1 and 2. However in the non moringa group, Urine phosphate was 16.93±12.53, 17.49±9.33 and 18.94±6.77; Urine Albumin was 0.90±0.56, 1.36±0.89, and 1.36±0.94; Urine Creatinine was 479±1.90, 489.06±445.09 and 514.85±595.55; Uric acid was 317.81±72.78, 311.79±65.55 and 259.56±84.04; Urine Total Protein was 15.04±26.73 9.50±5.07 and 6.53±3.84; for Visit 0, 1 and 2. Significant difference was observed in the measured parameters across all Visits from baseline to end of study.  However differences were generally higher in the control, compared to the experimental groups. Finding therefore shows that moringa improved renal function slightly in HIV positive subjects, while sex was also observed to play a role. The study is therefore recommended to Physicians and care givers in other to help improve the health and wellbeing of HIV patients, especially those on tenofovir (TDF) based ARV regimen.

Keywords: HIV, Moringa, Renal Dysfunction, Tenofovir

Reliability of Some Selected Novel Markers in Detecting Early Renal Dysfunction in HIV Positive Patients on TDF Regimen: A Nigerian Study (Published)

This study evaluated the predictability of novel biomarkers (Urine Cystatin C, NGAL and Albumin) in detecting early renal dysfunction. About 140 patients (53 (37.9 %) male and 87 (62.1%) female) who attends ARV clinic at the University’s Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt were included in the study. The study was designed in 3 phase to include Visit 0, 1 and 2 which lasted for about 12weeks (3months). Visit 1 was 4weeks from visit 0 and Visit 2 was 8 weeks from Visit 1. Laboratory assessment was carried out on samples collected from the patients, Albumin was 0.90±0.56, 1.36±0.89, and 1.36±0.94; Urine Creatinine was 479±1.90, 489.06±445.09 and 514.85±595.55; Urine Total Protein was 15.04±26.73 9.50±5.07 and 6.53±3.84; while NGAL was, 1902.51±902.59, 1941.48±743.60 and 4881.60±2792.01and Cystatin C was 889.70±1201.04, 1062.38±1165.38 and 1577.92±506.61 for Visit 0, 1 and 2 respectively. Significant difference was observed in the measured parameters across all Visits from 1st visit to end of the study.  The differences observed between the markers across all visits were significant. Using differential reliability test, NGAL has 241.67% better chance of predicting renal dysfunction compared to Cystatin C, while Cystatin C has 166.67% better chance of predicting renal dysfunction compared to albumin, while NGAL also has 811.1% better chance of predicting renal impairment as compared to albumin. However, creatinine clearance did not pick up renal dysfunction. This study is therefore recommended to Physicians in other to help in diagnosing early renal dysfunction in HIV patients, especially those on tenofovir (TDF) based ARV regime which has been proven to cause renal dysfunction.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Cystatin C and Albumin, HIV, NGAL, Tenofovir

Health System Factors As Correlates of Infant Feeding Options among HIV Positive Mothers in Ogoja Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

Most rural communities are faced with numerous health challenges including contagious and terminal diseases. Their extent of survival from most of these ailments is tied to the quality of health facilities, equipments and the service providers available within the rural setting and the extent of affordability of these services. The problem is most aggravated when the issue involve is a communicable disease with terminal possibilities like HIV and the quality and accessibility of health facilities available to these rural dwellers. Most HIV+ mothers are faced with the risk of transmitting the virus to their new infant especially during infant birth and breastfeeding. The incidence of mother to child transmission of HIV can be reduced if there are functional health systems that can give the basic information and also provide the necessary services to reduce the incidence of mother to child transmission of HIV. Most HIV+ mothers are faced with the challenges of feeding their infant children; hence the health system factor was examined to ascertain the extent to which this influence the choices of infant feeding options among HIV+ mothers. The study adopted the descriptive research design, 136 HIV+ mothers were purposefully sampled for the study. The instruments for data collection were structured questionnaire and semi structured interview. Chi square was used for data analysis and the result of the analysis revealed that availability of qualified personnel providing basic services, (14.194, P≤.05), adequacy of ARVs for pregnant HIV+ mothers, (12.709, P≤.05), the availability of medical equipments for attending to HIV+ mothers, (14.367, P≤.05), giving of basic education on various feeding options to HIV+ mothers, (13.576, P≤.05) statistically significant. The study concluded that health system influences the choices of infant feeding options among HIV+ mothers. It was therefore recommended that government, organizations or individuals who can afford to provide health facilities should also endeavor to put the necessary facilities, equipment and qualified personnel in such facilities to give adequate services and education to those who may wish to access their services.

Keywords: Child Transmission, HIV, Health System Factors, Infant Feeding Options, Mothers

Prevalence of HIV/AIDS among Ethiopian People in Khartoum State (Published)

Background: This descriptive cross sectional and analytical study has been done to study prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the impact of associated factors affecting prevalence in Ethiopian people in west Juref in Khartoum state. Methods: Seventy five blood samples collected from patients coming to Alfaruk medical center, seeking for medical care. Serum was separated from blood and subjected to rapid testing by immunochromatogrphy (ICT) to detect presence of antibody against HIV antigen. Result: Six samples were positive for presence of HIV-Abs (5-positive for HIV-1 and 1 positive for HIV-2) comprising 8% while (69) samples (92%) were negative for HIV.ELISA (Fourth generation ELISA) was done on the six positive ICT result as confirmatory test revealed presence of strong positive result indicating presence of HIV-Ab. Conclusion: Results of studying parameters of socioeconomic factors affecting. HIV prevalence indicates positive correlation showing high infection rateIn the age group (31-40years), in males (8%) more than females, all males were Christian, and maybe uncircumcised, in the same time uneducated or just at primary level.

Keywords: Ag, Aids, ELISA, HIV, ICT, serum

Cluster Analysis of the Incidences on HIV in Nigeria (Published)

Data clustering is a vital tool when it comes to understanding data items with similar characteristics in a data set for the sake of grouping. Clustering may be for understanding or utility. Clustering for understanding, which is the focus of this work deals with grouping items with common characteristics in order to better understand a dataset and to identify possible or pre-interest sub-groups that could be formed from such data. The HIV prevalence statistics in Nigeria is measured bi-annually across 36 states and FCT which were zoned under 6 geo-political zones happens to be a suitable data to implement this subject matter. Cluster Analysis was implemented through the general methods of Hierarchical (agglomerative nesting) and Partitioning methods (K-Means). These techniques where implemented on the platform of R (Statistical Computing Language) to cluster HIV prevalence rate in Nigeria so as to find out states that could be considered same category and to investigate the concentration of the disease in respect to geo-political zones. Relative type of validation was used for cluster validation (a mechanism for evaluating the correctness of clustering).

Keywords: Clustering analysis, HIV, Nigeria, Pregnant Women, data

Determinants of Community Participation in Planning HIV and AIDS Interventions under National Multisectoral Strategic Framework in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (Published)

This paper is based on a research which was conducted in Mtwara Region, Tanzania, to assess determinants of community participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions under the National Multisectoral Strategic Framework (NMSF) on HIV and AIDS. The findings indicated that 69.0% of the respondents were not aware of NMSF interventions; 77.0% had unfavourable attitude towards the interventions; and 81.8% did not participate in planning the interventions. Furthermore, using ordinal logistic regression, it was found that community awareness of (p ≤ 0.001) and attitude towards HIV and AIDS interventions (p ≤ 0.005), access to planning information (p ≤ 0.001), education level (p ≤ 0.05), and community satisfaction with involvement in planning (p ≤ 0.001) had significant impacts on the chances of participating highly in planning the interventions. The results substantiate a need for decentralisation in order to address obstacles which constrain participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions.

Keywords: Aids, Community, HIV, NMSF, Participation, Planning

Chelation Therapy in the Neonatal Period: D-Penicillamine Has Possible Beneficial Effects on the Lethality of HIV or Ebola Infection Due To Vertical Transmission (Published)

D-penicillamine (DPA) was first recognized as a potential benefit for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NHBI). During this time there was a remarkedly low incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the infants treated with DPA. Later, our studies were replicated in other institutes in Hungary, Poland, U.S. A., India and Mexico. It is important to note that there was no intolerance or short- or long-term toxicity of the medication, in spite of the fact that in the newborn period DPA was used 10-20 times higher doses than those in adult. On the basis of an American research work concerning the beneficial effects of DPA-therapy in adult AIDS-patients (although in these cases there were many unpleasant, adverse effects), it would be reasonable to treat neonatal HIV- or Ebola-positivity due to vertical transmission with short-term DPA therapy (300 – 400 mg/kg/bw/day for 5-7 days). In addition, neonates born to mothers with Ebola virus disease have not survived yet, i.e. the lethality of this disease is 100 %. Therefore, we have a moral obligation to help the fight against HIV and EBOLA with this inexpensive (~30 US Dollar/baby) drug in the neonatal period.

Keywords: Aids, D-Penicillamine, Ebola, HIV, Neonatal Hypeerbilirubinemia, Retinopathy of Prematurity, Therapy

Therapeutic Dilemmas in the Management of Emotions for Couples after Discordant HIV Test Results in Eldoret Town, Kenya (Published)

The purpose of the study das to investigate the therapeutic dilemmas experienced by HTC counselors in the management of emotions for couples after discordant HIV test results in Eldoret Town, Kenya. The objectives of the study were; to investigate the therapeutic difficulties experienced by HTC counselors in releasing results to discordant couples, to find out the therapeutic difficulties in handling different emotions based on each client’s test results, to investigate the counselors’ therapeutic dilemmas in dealing with anger at the person giving the test result, to find out the difficulties experienced by HTC counselors in handling violence and emotional outbursts among discordant couples as well as to establish influence of gender and nature of training on the experience of therapeutic difficulties in handling discordance. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The study population comprised all the HTC counselors operating within Eldoret town, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya who were 68 in total. This study adopted questionnaire as the data collection instrument. Thefindings indicated that most HTC counselors experience the said difficulties. The study reccommedned the retraining of Kenyan counselors with the view to equipping them with therapeutic as well as emotional competencies to handle the emotional dilemmas

Keywords: Couple, Emotion, HIV, Therapeutic Dilemmas, counselor, difficulties