Amitav Ghosh’s “history” is a threshold in Re-Constructing National and Cultural Identity: A Study (Published)
As is well-known, history is often shaped by the socio-political perspectives of the Colonizers and therefore, the narratives generated by colonial history must utilize both the author’s imagination and empirical or factual research to create a broader view of historical reality. Amitav Ghosh, one of the most promising Indian writers writing in English has amazingly blended “history” with fiction which is profoundly attached to the re-construction of identity of the people in our postcolonial world. Indeed, one of the important concerns of historical reconstruction in modern third world literature is re-imagining the cultural cartography through the re-formation of national and cultural identities in the wake of emerging nation-states in the post imperial era. This paper clearly indicates how colonial history is incisively connected to the question of reforming national and cultural identity in today’s postcolonial reality.
Just after its accession to international sovereignty, Chad experienced decades of socio-political crises. This has had negative repercussions on its development at all levels and particularly on its education system. However, a democratic process in a country can only achieve the expected objectives if it takes place in a State with a high rate of school-going population. This contribution attempts to show how the success of a country’s democratic process depends to a large extent on the educational culture of its citizens. With a view to achieving the desired objectives, documents relating to the political history of Chad and those concerning the evolution of the Chadian educational process were consulted. In addition to the documentary approach, we proceeded by direct observation in the field. This allowed us to briefly present the vicissitudes that have characterized Chad and to establish their impact on the country’s education and democratic culture.
A Historical Analysis of the Introduction, Spread and Impact of Western Education in Southern Taraba Area, 1905 to 2018 (Published)
Education can be construed as a pattern of awareness which determines and influences the behavioural pattern of any given society. It encompasses societal civilization, values, norms and traditions. It is a people’s belief system, system of thought, an instrument through which a society produces and reproduces its kind in the light of what makes one a representation of his/her society. Every society therefore has its own system of education through which cultural transmission and socialization are anchored. Unfortunately, former colonies erroneously consider western education as the only best alternative for all-round development. It is viewed as the basic instrument for civilization, gainful employment, socialization, economic prosperity and development. This conventional assumptions has resulted in the eventual neglect of the traditional education by African societies, Southern Taraba inclusive. This paper therefore examine the process of introduction and spread of western education in Southern Taraba Area. The paper captures issues like the agencies and individuals involved, the impact, challenges encountered and how the challenges can be remedied. Thus, using a multi-disciplinary methodological approach, the study came to the realization that western education has impacted tremendously on the peoples of Southern Taraba Area in the spheres of human, infrastructural, political and socio-economic development.
Nigeria is heterogeneous with verifiable evidence of extensive inter-group relations predating colonial rule. One of the lingering shadows cast by colonial rule is the issue of national integration. The attainment of political independence was followed with the challenge of achieving unity in diversity as the nationalists almost immediately relapsed into ethno-religious bigotry. The elitist activities of the ethno-religious bigots who manipulate their followers, have been divisive and a crass aberration of the extensive inter-group intercourse. This paper examines the role of History in addressing the teething issue of national integration in the 21st century.
The major goal of this study is to reconstruct the economic history of Dale District, 1941-1991. To achieve this goal, an attempt was made to collect qualitative data source from local elders, officer and archives of the administration office. The written documents which have relation with the study also examined and cross checked. The Dale District practices different economic activities like Agriculture which is based on cereal crop farming and cash crop farming. Coffee is mainly grown under the shade of tree (shade or forest coffee), either within forest or forest like environments, or in farming systems that in corporate specific shade plants usually indigenous (native) trees, time fruit trees and other crop plants. The high profitability of chat has also motivated farmers to hire labor for chat production in the district. Other economic activities like animal husbandry, hand craft technology and trade are common in the District. However agriculture was based on traditional farming system. The infrastructural development in dale District is a recent phenomenon. Un proportional service facilities and infrastructures compared with the high number of population found in the District. The main basic infrastructure like road, school, health centers, electric service, water supply has been established in the District before three decades but did not showed rapid economic development in the District.
Arab nation is one of the most ancient nations in the world. Their history goes back to The Bronze Age (3200–1300 BC). However, such a history is totally distorted as it was written according to the whims of the colonizers. Arab history has been massively transformed; their culture deprecated and entirely disparaged; their wealth plundered. However, some Arab and Arab-American writers have started a mission to rewrite the deformed history of Arabs. One of these writers is Samia Serageldin, whose novel The Naqib’s Daughter is a rewriting of the French invasion of Egypt in 1798. The present article argues that Egyptian history has been defaced by the colonial powers and that Serageldin has succeeded in bringing to light the false claims of the colonists. The article maintains that the novel is a counter-discursive postcolonial novel, in which Serageldin attempts to right and rewrite the history of Egypt from the point of view of Egyptians themselves. The article aims also at analyzing The Naqib’s Daughter in terms of the contemporary political developments in the Arab world and the role played by world superpowers in shaping and reshaping the contemporary history.
The issues raised on the congruency of the Nobel prizes awarded, the will of its founder, and the economic process are only part of a much more complex and deeper problem that constitutes the true genesis of the crisis of our time: an anthropological and not economic crisis. The debate on economics and its methods of study cannot be separated from a correct reading of history that in the long term tends to repeat itself, as G.B. Vico had envisioned; the nature of man never changes, constantly oscillating between Cain and Abel, and it would seem that only pain leads man to wisdom. The single technical-rational thought makes us see the future as the only guarantee of success and we therefore cannot understand the correlations between the causes and effects in our history. We act as if the past had been erased and as if history had never manifested similar situations to those in which we find ourselves today. The debates on the role of studies in economics, and in particular finance, are broader and must be ascribed to a historical framework to understand how these have contributed to an acceleration in the change of a socio-cultural model that has collapsed but has its distant roots in the field of speculation. The change is rooted as far back as Kant, who with the utterance of self-doubt affirmed that reason rendered the finitude and absolute character (infinity) of freedom a starting point of German idealism and the historical materialism of Marx. The West entered the “tekhné” world and began to separate man from his soul, thereby establishing as “truth” only that which is tangible, observable, and measurable, and the sciences that explain this truth become themselves “truth”. This principle of truth has also been extended to economics, to its methods of study, and the role that we attribute it in defining the priorities of the founding values of society. The prizes, as previously noted, have helped change and legitimize the methods of study of a science that was born and remains an instrumental and social science but has ended up assuming the role of a moral science, namely teleological, to be studied as a positive and exact science. We have ended up exchanging the ends for the means, where man no longer defines the needs but the external system becomes dominant, independent of the man who becomes the means, an “economified” man. In short, we do not earn to live but live to earn and thereby life as a means can itself become a commodity. In the positive and exact sciences, however, the object of study is independent of the person who studies it – a reaction takes place because it responds to its intrinsic rationality – but in economics, the object of study – the search for the best combination of needs and scarce resources – is also an integral part of the emotional dimension of the individual addressing the problem.
Pitfalls of Tourism Development in Ethiopia: A Case of Bahir Dar Town and Its Surroundings, a Historical Perspective (Published)
The history of tourism is one of the neglected themes in Ethiopian history which has received less scholarly attention. In Ethiopia, the development of modern tourism as an important economic sector traced back to the imperial regime. This was when the Ethiopian Tourist Organization (ETO) was founded in 1961. Since that period, until the overthrow of the regime in 1974, the development of tourism has shown a remarkable and smooth upward trend in the arrival of tourists. However, shortly after the military government assumed power in 1974, the growth of tourism was highly subjected to adverse political and socio-economic crises. This became evident when the tourism sector experienced a downward trend in its history, whereby the number of tourists steadily decreased from 1,267 in 1974 to 141 in 1977 in Bahir Dar and its surroundings and from 50,220 to 28,984 in 1977 at the national level. However, the seizure of power by a new government in 1991 brought about a relatively conducive environment for the growth of tourism which is evident in the adoption of free market, relative stability, and infrastructural development. Thus, this paper sheds light on the history of tourism and its challenges throughout the three consecutive Ethiopian regimes: the imperial, Derg, and EPRDF. This was done in the context of the changing political regimes in light of the political, economic, and ideological shifts. In order to realize the intended objectives, primary sources of information were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with tourists, experts, hotel managers, and tour guides. In addition, government reports from published and un-published sources were also consulted.
This article examines aspects of the socio-cultural institutions and practices in the context of traditional Mbaise society and culture. The process of evolution and growth of Mbaise society was predicated on a number of institutions and practices which had socio-cultural, political, economic and religious implications. Appreciating the fact that social development is a vast area in socio-cultural history, the paper concentrated on the family structure, marriage institutions, religious beliefs and practices. Traditional Mbaise society was endowed with these great institutions and others which Christianity sought to wipe out, though without success. The impact of Christianity and other western influences notwithstanding, the paper argues that these institutions generated ideas, values, and norms which crystallized into the Mbaise identity and cosmology. Against the backdrop of the popular opinion held by the western writers to the effect that pre-colonial African societies were not part of world history and civilization (and hence incapable of initiating change), we argue further that this negative and bias narrative about pre-colonial African societies is now very anachronistic and no longer worthy of intellectual attention by scholars of both African and European persuasions
The idea of “secularism” is still rejected within the Arab cognitive structure at the level of intellectual, social and political construction. So far, Arab secularists have failed to find popular acceptance for secularism within the Arab cultural- religious structure and socio political sphere. As a result, traditional religious discourse and values still dominate minds!! The purpose of this study is to discuss, analyze and explain why secularism has not become the culture and political ideology of the Arab peoples and governments. The researcher assumes that the reasons are due to: the neglect of the cultural factor by the Arab secularists, the marriage of Arab nationalism and religion, the emergence of political Islam’s movements, and the nature of Islamic religion that rejects reform. Therefore, the researcher recommends that, there is a pressing need for reproducing Arabs prevailing traditional culture by promoting, a civil culture that privatize religion and separates it from politics and state affairs
Today, it can be safely argued that Cross River State is noted more for its tourism enterprise than for anything else. Since 1999 to date, there have been sustained efforts by successive administrations to re-engineer and rebrand the State as a tourism spectacle and hub not just in the Cross River Region but in Nigeria and indeed, the West Africa Sub-region at large. This paper seeks to show that there is an organic and inescapable relationship between Cross River’s current tourism efforts and its history and environment. Put differently, we would attempt to demonstrate that the foundation of Cross River tourism is embedded in its history and environment and it is from these pristine bowels that the current initiatives can truly find rhythm, momentum and relevance.
The Artistic Functions and Symbolism in History: Reconfiguring History through Unconventional Sources of Artistic and Historical Works in Upper Ngemba, Bamenda Grasslands of Cameroon in the Pre-Colonial Era (Published)
The conventional sources of History include recorded data, tape-recorded information and oral tradition where information is handed down from one generation to the other by word of mouth. Historians in trying to constitute and reconstitute the colonial history of Africa have largely depended on these sources. Some scholars on African History have relied on intelligence and assessment reports that were left behind by the colonialists. One of the major contentions of this paper is that the artistic functions and symbolism have played an integral role in the re-configuring and recording African historical facts. The scarcity of indigenous sources of historical recordings made some European scholars to argue from a Eurocentric perspective that African history started with the coming of the Europeans to the Continent. This paper debunks this parochial contention and argues that African History existed long before European contact and that the people had alternative ways of recording their own history. History was transmitted through works of art which included carved objects, clay productions, weaved items, songs, legends and myths. All these are artistic and symbolic sources of historical facts. Recorded data also has a history and their history can be reconfigured through alternative sources like works of art that constitute an important way of recovering a people’s history. A typical example of this kind of society is upper Ngemba where their rich artistic background portrays a rich history
AGRICULTURAL COMMERCIALISATION, CONTRACT FARMING AND TOBACCO: A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF TOBACCO CULTIVATION ON EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN RURAL SIRISIA, BUNGOMA WEST DISTRICT, KENYA, 1975-2005 (Published)
Commercial production of tobacco in Kenya has been going on for about a century and since its introduction, its production and use have been issues of great controversy.Tobacco production in Kenya has created a class of growers that have long been ignored by historians. A growing number of scholarly works available on the theme have basically been of scientific and agronomical nature. In a wider context, a lot of literature on social relations on the recent agrarian intensification in Africa does exist, though lack of systematic studies on the relationship between tobacco production and socio-economic impact as well as employment on tobacco farms still remains a yawning gap in the historiography of Kenya. This paper is a focus on a historical examination of tobacco growing peasantry and its impact on employment trends in Sirisia, Bungoma West District of Kenya following concerted efforts by the British American Tobacco Kenya Limited (BAT) to commercialise agricultural production. The study used observation method and interviews in data collection. Archival and documentary sources were also used for secondary data. This study serves a purpose of informing key stakeholders in the government and non-government sectors about the relevant policies to improve rural livelihood in Sirisia and other tobacco producing areas. The study demonstrates the view that the peasant sector occupies a central role in African economic development.
HISTORY, EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVE (Published)
Various attempts have been made towards tracing the historical development of the discipline of Human Resource Management (HRM). However, these initiatives have largely been concentrated on certain specific periods of time and experiences of specific countries and regions such as Australia, the USA, the UK and Asia (Nankervis et.al, 2011; Kelly, 2003; Ogier, 2003). This paper attempts to document the entire history of the discipline of Human Resource Management from a holistic perspective. The evolution and development of HRM will be traced right from the pre-historic times through to the postmodern world. Major characteristics in the evolution and development of HRM will also be examined and documented.