Toxicopathological Investigation of the Effects of Ethanol Corm Extract of Zygotritonia Crocea on the Liver of Wistar Albino Rats (Published)
Toxicity and histopathological effects of ethanol corm extract of Zygotritonia crocea traditionally used for treatment of intestinal disorder associated with typhoid, diarrhoea and dysentery in South-west, Nigeria was studied on the liver of Wistar albino rats. Rats were randomly distributed into groups A, B and C (n=7). Groups B and C received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight extract respectively per day through oral cannula for 21 days while group A (control) received 0.3 ml normal saline for the same period. Then, the liver was collected for histopathological examinations. The mortality rate of treated rats was 42.86% for both doses on the 7th and 14th day while 57.14% was recorded on the 21st day for rats treated with 200 mg/kg compared with the untreated rats (control). Histopathatological findings showed that the liver sections of the treated rats have clear evidence of degenerative changes and cyto-architectural distortions of the hepatic parenchyma which was more severe with the higher dose. These findings show that Z. crocea is toxic at the doses investigated and therefore, will need some caution in its consumption.
Toxicity Impacts Of Silk Dye Waste on Sperm Parameters and Histopathology of Testis of Swiss Albino Male Mice Mus Musculus and Its Mitigation by Using Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract (Published)
The environmental toxicology studies the effect of environmental toxicant on the health of organisms and on the different compartments of the environments. Different scientific studies have been carried out over the years on the toxic effect of the silk dyes waste effluents on organisms. But current study has been premeditated to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaf extract on albino male mice Mus musculas which is subjected to silk dye waste. The sperm profile and histopathology of testis have been taken on accounts. Five sets of animals i.e. Group I (Control), Group II (fed with 50% silk dye), Group III (fed with 100% silk dye), Group IV (mice fed with 50% dye treated with M. oleifera leaves powder), Group V (mice fed with 100% dye treated with M. oleifera leaves powder) have been taken for experiment. The dose of silk dye was 2ml/day to both groups II and III and M. oleifera leaf is given as per the standard dose (300mg/kg b.w) to both animals of group IV and V. The results show that the M. oleifera leaf extract when fed to Gr IV and V mice, demonstrated the regeneration of germinal epithelial cells and basement membrane, significant mitigation of spermatogenesis in different stage of testis when compared with mice of Gr- II and III. Then the M. Oleifera leaf increased significantly number of sperm count and % of sperm motility but decrease the % of sperm mortality of mice when compared with Gr-II and III at 5% and 10% level of probability. This study suggested that the extract may have beneficial effect on histological sections of testis and sperm count, mortality and motility.
Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Watermelon Seeds On Salt and Paracetamol-Induced Liver Damage in Female White Rats (Published)
Paracetamol is the commonest over the counter drug for the treatment of body pains. However, an overdose of this drug has detrimental effects on the liver and other internal organs such as the kidneys. This experiment was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective and regenerative effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of watermelon seeds on the liver of rats given overdose of common salt and paracetamol. Thirty five (35) female albino rats were used for this experiment and the rats were randomly distributed into seven groups with each group containing five (5) rats. The rats in group A were given only vital feed (40% of the body weights of the rats) without any extract. This was the normal group. The rats in groups B, D and E were given physiological saline at the dosage of 10g/kg body weight once orally. In addition, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (body weight) of aqueous extract of watermelon seed were given to rats in groups D and E orally twice daily respectively. The rats in groups C, F and G were given paracetamol at dosage of 3g/kg body weight once orally at the beginning of the experiment. In addition, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (body weight) of methanolic extracts of watermelon were given to rats in groups F and G orally twice daily respectively. These experiments were monitored for 28 days. The results of the histopathological analyses showed that overdose of salt and paracetamol damaged the liver cells of the rats. However, treatments of the rats with aqueous and methanolic extracts of the seeds of watermelon have hepatoprotective and regenerative properties.
The study consist of two groups, untreated control of twenty male rats feed on normal diets while treated young and adult 40 male rats feed solely on vegetable oil for six months during treatment. Some animals diet especially young ones. Grossly, macroscopically and microscopically studies were done, treated male rats showed rough greasy hair macroscopically in larged pale yellow liver discoloration. Microscopically, varying degree of vacuolation in hepatocyte associated with renal pathological lesion. Also showed thinning of epiderms reduce hair follicals and atrophic sepaceous gland in the skin, and atrophy of skeletal muscle associated with interstatial odema, and showed vacuolation in stomach (glandular region), small intestine and testis. also showed congestion and thickening bronchiolar epithelium.