Soft landscape elements play key roles in the built environment. It is usually a combination of hedges, trees, shrubs plantings and turfs that set the tone of the soft landscape and defines the outdoor living space. A study conducted by Palmer (1989) and Smardon (1988) in Syracuse, NY, USA, to assess the preference of a simulated front yard landscaping alternatives with combination of trees, turf, flower beds, shrubs and hedges along the front foot path showed that hedges were the most preferred. (Kendal et. al, 2008). Kumasi as an urban center is made up of several tropical ornamental trees. However, very few hedges have been explored from these trees. With Kumasi as the main setting, this research project therefore sought to explore the selection of candidate tropical ornamental trees for use as hedges. Twenty (20) sample questionnaires were sent out to commercial nurserymen within the metropolis to ascertain trees species available on sale, and hedge plants that were highly patronized. Responses from 15 nurseries concluded that Ixora was the highly patronized hedge plant. An observational study of West-Nhyiaeso, a high-class residential area in the Kumasi Metropolis, also provided names of different tropical trees. A comparative study of the tropical ornamental trees and the physical characteristics of Ixora such as leaf size, crown density, top-down cover, leaf colour, light requirement and drought resistance was then conducted. This was hence used as a selection criterion from which hedges could be chosen. Ten (10) tropical ornamental trees were explored as potential trees for use as hedges as these had similar physical characteristics to that of Ixora. It was recommended that the selected trees be tested as hedges.
A Pragmatic Study of Weather Forecasting Reports (Published)
Weather forecasting is an application for predicting the condition of the atmosphere for a given location; such predictions are based on scientific resources and measurements i.e. factual information. However, these predictions are still assumptions, or forecasting, and therefore changeable. Hence, weather forecasters use different strategies to control the certainty of these predictions and mitigate the accuracy of their forecasting. In spite of the importance of this genre and the type of language exploited in it, it has not received enough research work attention, particularly from a pragmatic point of view. This has prompted this study to carry out such a kind of research work in an attempt to shed light on the main pragmatic aspects utilized in weather forecasting reports. Precisely, the study attempts to answer the question: what are the pragmatic aspects that characterize weather forecasting reports? In other words, the current study aims at finding out the pragmatic aspects exploited by weather forecasters and how these aspects help them control the accuracy of their reports. In accordance with these aims, it is hypothesized that weather forecasting reports, though based on scientific measurements are still changeable assumptions about the future (i.e. predictions). This entails that the forecasters use certain pragmatic techniques to avoid being committed to the accuracy of these predictions. In order to achieve the aims and verifying or rejecting the hypothesis, a model is developed for the analysis of data under scrutiny. Additionally, a statistical analysis is conducted via means of the percentage equation to quantitative support the findings of the pragmatic analysis. The most important findings yielded by those analyses reveal that the main pragmatic aspects utilized in weather forecasting reports are speech acts, presupposition, scalar implicature and hedging, and that predictions are global speech acts in weather forecasting.