Heavy Metals pH-Mediated Microbial-Remediation in Septic Tank Effluents (Published)
This paper studied the role of pH in the microbial remediation of heavy metals in septic tank effluents from three sample locations in the south-south region of Nigeria. The region is famous for agriculture, industrial and auto-mechanic activities leading to the uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metal contaminants through the food chain. Heavy metals concentrations, pH, and microbial analysis in effluent samples, were determined using standard methods. The material balance approach (see Supplementary Information) was adopted to account for analytes remediation and speciation in the system according to the Law of Conservation of Mass (Matter). The pH of the study area ranged from 6.5 to 7.7. The pH conditions in location A was alkaline, while locations B and C were slightly acidic. Iron was the most abundant metal with a concentration range of 0.01 to 0 9.41 mg/L. The order of magnitude of heavy metals in the septic tanks in the study area is Fe > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cd > Mn > Cu > Ni > V. Metal removal mechanism followed the metal-microbes adsorption and precipitation processes dictated by the in situ pH of the system. Total heterotrophic bacteria were the most dominant in the septic tanks. A removal coefficient of ≤ 0.33 (i.e, 0 < x ≤ 0.33 (where x ≠ 0)) was considered optimum. The percentage metal ion removal was inversely proportional to the removal coefficient and vice versa. Acidic conditions favoured the sequestration of more heavy metals from the effluent and the attainment of the 67.0 % and 0.33 removal efficiency thresholds. Finally, the heavy metals concentrations were indicative of bioaccumulation. Secondly, the pH conditions are not ideal enough to cause the efficient remediation of heavy metals from effluents. Further treatment of the sludge component before disposal is seriously advocated.
Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination of Soil in E-Waste Dumpsite in Atan, Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)
Environmental problem tends to be growing globally especially in developing countries due to the advancement in technology via indiscriminate disposal of electronic wastes, this has continued to pose serious threat to human health. The present study aimed at determining the level of heavy metals in e-waste dumpsite and evaluates the ecological and human health risk of soil contaminated with heavy metals in Atan e-waste dumpsite. The results of the analysis revealed that the concentrations of Cd ranged from 64.20 to 207.99 mg/kg, Cr; 414.83 to 470.47 mg/kg, Pb; 1036.89 to7362.36 mg/kg, Cu; 2963.8 to 3993.78 mg/kg, As from 149.12 to 250.03 mg/kg, and Zn; 21034.74 to 25119.61 mg/kg. The mean concentrations occurred in the order of; Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > As > Cd. Zn had the highest concentration of 2098.45 mg/kg while Cd had the lowest concentration, 64.20 mg/kg. The values of all the metals determined in the soil were higher than the control and the tolerable limits recommended by World Health Organization. The ecological risk index of all the metals in the e-wastes soil indicated a high risk. Hence, heavy metals in soil around e-wastes dumpsite in Atan, Ogun State present serious health risk whilst urgent measures are required.
An appraisal of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil and Selected Subterranean Animals in Olusosun Landfill, Ojota, Lagos State (Published)
As a result of the global industrial activities, contamination of the ecosystem by heavy metals has given rise to one of the most important ecological and organismic challenges. An experimental study was performed to ascertain the levels of heavy metals in soil and selected subterranean animals in dumpsites in Lagos State. One (1) kg each of four composite soil samples at a depth of 0 -15cm from the soil surface within the landfill were collected using an auger. The level of parameters such as soil pH, temperature and soil moisture content were determined. Earthworm, Maggot and Spider from each sampled soil were washed in distill water to remove soil particles. The heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) were then analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The result of the study showed that Pb and Cd had higher mean concentration (0.75mg/kg and 0.1mg/kg respectively) for the landfill soil sample compared to the control soil sample and subterranean animals. The result also showed that Maggot and Earthworm had higher means concentration of Zn (0.31mg/kg and 0.14mg/kg respectively) compared to the soil samples (landfill and control) and spider. The result was not statistically significant comparing the mean concentration of heavy metals on the landfill soil and the subterranean animals. Chromium (Cr) was not detected in the study. The study concluded that there is high anthropogenic influence and persistence of the heavy metals which accumulated in the environment and pose serious ecological and health challenges.
Citation: Iheanacho, J.N., Ejike-Okongwu, C., Idowu, S.A., Kabantiyok, D., Mkpuma, N.N, & Bala, N.M. (2022) An appraisal of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil and Selected Subterranean Animals in Olusosun Landfill, Ojota, Lagos State, International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, Vol.10, No.1 pp.20-27
Heavy Metals in Fish: Bioaccumulation and Health (Published)
Heavy metals occur during natural processes and are also obtained during anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals include chromium, cadmium, arsenic, lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, selenium and copper hence their presence in the aquatic habitat are highly toxic to fishes and shell fishes. Heavy metals are found in the aquatic environment as a result from contamination by heavy metals from industrial, agricultural waste and by-products and domestic waste and by products. The increasing level of heavy metals in fish is alarming and has spurred scientists to make researches on the dangers caused by the heavy metals resulting to heavy metal accumulation and bioaccumulation of life cells. The aim of this study was to assess the possible sources of heavy metal in the aquatic environment, impact of heavy metals in the aquatic environment, its bioaccumulation in fish and human health impact. Several reports tell of the detrimental effect of heavy metals in fish (some of which include; poisonous effect in the blood such as anemia, eosinophilia, lymphocytosis, renal lesions, convulsions and ataxia, detachment of gills, fusion of secondary gill filaments, acute inflammation in the liver, amongst several others) and in man (some of which include, skin diseases, Irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, nephritis, lung cancer, liver and kidney damage, necrosis, neurological and behavioral disorders and death amongst others). In conclusion, the toxic effects of heavy metals in fish and the effect of bioaccumulation and bio-magnification have been reviewed in this paper. It is therefore recommended that the treatment of all forms of wastewaters, agricultural waste, sewage, industrial effluents be carried out before their discharge in to the environment. Also, the enforcement of all laws, legislations regarding the protection of aquatic life and environment should be enforced and sanctions meted out against defaulters.
Heavy Metal Concentration in Selected River Tributaries in an Urban Settlement in Akure, Nigeria (Published)
Heavy metals can impact human health and continuous exposure to heavy metals in water can lead to a variety of health issues. Water from surface water bodies such as streams and rivers help to alleviate the problem of water scarcity especially in developing countries. In this study, the heavy metal content of stream water samples was analyzed. Four (4) heavy metals namely Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd) and Manganese (Mn) were analyzed in the laboratory and the results obtained were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standard for potable water. The results revealed that none of the water samples analyzed met WHO standard for Cr in potable water while only 40% of the water samples analyzed conformed to WHO standard for Cd in potable water. Findings of this study revealed that Cr and Cd are heavy metals of concern in the study area. Periodic evaluation of the heavy metal content of surface water in the study area is necessary in order to monitor deterioration in the quality of the water and also to recommend adequate treatment for the water before human consumption.
Citation: Ochuko Mary Ojo (2022) Heavy Metal Concentration in Selected River Tributaries in an Urban Settlement in Akure, Nigeria, British Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 25-31
Some selected blood tonics obtained from two geographical locations were analyzed for their levels of heavy metals: iron, lead, manganese, chromium, nickel, cobalt, arsenic, copper and zinc. The blood tonics usually in the liquid form were first digested before analyzed The analyses were performed using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (VARIAN AA240 FS) nuclear reactor at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) at Kwabenya. The levels of the toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, chromium and cadmium were found to be low in the selected blood tonics.
Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste and its Potential Impacts on Ground Water of Two Communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
This study was undertaken to investigate characterization of municipal solid waste and its potential impacts of ground water of two communities (Choba and Rumuosi) in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. Two commercial borehole close to the dumpsites of each community were analysed for both physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals concentration in water. The result values showed that bottles contributed the highest percentage composition of 29.87% in Rumuosi followed by Cow bones 21.77%, Plastic waste 10.94% while Snail shell and Vegetables had the least percentage composition of 0%. Cow bones, ceramics and bottles had percentage composition of 13.82%, 12.20% and 12.17% in Choba while foil had the least Composition of 0.83%. The results further showed that Choba had the highest total composition of M.S.W generated in (weight kg) 7.007 than that of Rumuosi (3.409kg). The results of physico-chemical parameters showed that Conductivity had the highest mean value of 79.5500(µs), followed by TDS (39.9000mg/L), Temp (27.3500°C), pH (7.15), DO (5.3500), ORP (-11.000mg/L) and Salinity (.0400) all in Choba while in Rumuosi, Conductivity had the highest mean value of 189.1500(µs) followed by TDS (94.1000mg/L), Temp (27.6000°C), pH (7.200), DO (5.6500mg/L), ORP (-10.2750mg/L) and Salinity (.0900‰). The concentrations of heavy metals in Choba borehole water showed that Mercury (Hg) ranges from 0.0017 – 0.0024mg/L, followed by lead (Pb) 0.008 – 0.015mg/L and Copper (Cu) 0.001 – 0.001mg/L while in Rumuosi borehole water, lead (Pb) ranges from 0.012 – 0.009mg/L followed by Mercury (Hg) 0.014 – 0.0016mg/L and Copper (Cu) 0.001 – 0.002mg/L. The data analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the Composition of waste in the two communities at p < 0.05. The characterization study has revealed the make-up of the waste stream of the two communities hence the responsibility of proper management of solid waste should not be left for the government alone or to some certain group of individuals.
Citation: Woke, G.N. and Anyanwu, B.O (2021) Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste and its Potential Impacts on Ground Water of Two Communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria, International Journal of Animal and Livestock Production Research, Vol. 5, No.1, pp.36-46
Sequential Analysis, Mobility Factor and Geochemistry of Heavy Metals in Ayetoro Coastal Sediments, Southwestern Nigeria (Published)
Previous geochemical investigation of Ayetoro area discovered that its coastal sediments are enriched with sulphide mineralization. However, in order to determine the geochemical phases of the heavy metals in the coastal sediments, random sampling method was utilized across 10 locations, at a depth of 40cm using Van grab sampler at a sampling density of 200m interval. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) Buck Scientific Model 205A was used to analyze nine (9) heavy metal concentrations namely Ni, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb, Cr, Cd and Cu in the coastal sediments, followed by sequential extraction of the metals, using five fractional phases. The results revealed that the geochemical concentration of the heavy metals as follows: Ni (5.89ppm – 16.82ppm), Zn (2.59ppm – 115.65ppm.), Co (1.22ppm – 22.77ppm), Mn (30.95ppm – 186.49ppm), Fe (6.632ppm – 1925.96ppm), Pb (5.17ppm – 55.96ppm), Cr (0.26ppm – 28.06ppm), Cd (0.13ppm -22.23ppm), and Cu (2.26ppm – 41.94ppm) and showed the concentration order as Residual>Reducible>Organic>Exchangeable>Carbonate. Most of the heavy metals in carbonate and exchangeable phase have low concentration except for Cd. This implied that Cd is of low mobility and bioavailability which is very dangerous as its intake by man leads to kidney diseases and causes bones to become weaker. Also, Mobility factor of Cd stood out because of its high concentration in the exchangeable phase compared to other four non-residual phases. The mobility and bioavailability of the heavy metals are in this order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>Cr>Mn>Cu>Zn>Fe respectively. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the heavy metals are significantly different in all the phases based on their accumulation index in the sediments while majority of the heavy metals lacked the ability to remobilize but can be released into the environment under reducing and oxidizing conditions
Determination of the Presence and Level of Heavy Metals in Soils of Automobile Workshops in Awka, Anambra State (Published)
This study determined the presence and levels of heavy metals in automobile workshop soils in Awka Anambra state. Soil samples were collected from four automobile workshops. The soil samples were analysed for heavy metal contents; Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Mercury (Hg), and Iron (Fe). The soil samples were digested and the filtrate subjected to quantitative analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). One-way Anova, and one sample t-test, were used to test the hypotheses postulated. The results indicated the presence of all the metals under consideration in the soil samples. The concentrations of the metals in the soils of the automobile workshops were compared with NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency) standard and the result showed that Cu in sample A was greater than the standard while others were below it; Cr in sample D was lower than the standard while others were above it; metal contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, and Ni in all samples were below the standard while Fe and Mn limits were not specified by NESREA. The study concluded that the activities of automobile workshops contaminate soil with heavy metals which automatically have direct and indirect effect man as it can be transported through the food chain. It is hence recommended that: regulatory bodies be set up to monitor the activities of automobile workshops and policies be enacted whereby automobile workshops should be located very far from residential areas. Further research should be carried out to ascertain the effects of those heavy metals on plants, groundwater, and human health.
Study on Heavy Metals Levels and Some Physicochemical Parameters of a Polluted Creek along the Tin Can Island In Lagos (Published)
The study was carried out to assess the level of selected metals and physico-chemical parameters of a polluted creek along the Tin Can Island in Lagos. Metals such as Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, and Cr were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Correlations analysis was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of the metals. From the results, it was evident that accumulation of heavy metals was within the internationally acceptable standards as reported by WHO and EPA. There was significant difference (p<0.05) between the physicochemical parameter across the different stations and months. Although conductivity (11060.5±6.4), TDS (2328.33±3.04) and BOD (107±52.0) were higher than the recommended limit of these metals by WHO which could be attributed to large amount of deposited and sewage floating at the banks of the creek. However, if these levels are not checked, they may increase the potential of bioaccumulation in the aquatic organisms and inhabitants that depends on the creek for survival. Therefore, there is need for policies to conduct regular monitoring of this creek to avoid future deterioration of the creek.
Variation of the Physico-Chemical Parameters, Nutrients and Some Selected Heavy Metals Around the Waters of the Tincan Island in Lagos, Nigeria (Published)
This study assessed the physico-chemical characteristics, concentration of heavy metals and nutrients composition of the surface water of Badagry and Tincan Island creeks adjoining the Lagos Lagoon. Sanplind was done once in a month between May and September 2019. The pH, Temperature, Salinity, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Sulphate, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrate, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Cadmium, Manganese, Chromium and Nickel were determined usuing statndard methods. there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the different parameters recocorded in the stations and the months. The DO (0.36 mg/L- 5.47mg/L) was lower than the WHO recommended 5mg/L for water quality assessment with a significant difference (p<0.05) recorded across the stations and months. The BOD values varied significantly across all the stations and the months with up to 211mg/L in station 1 in September thus depicting a severe deterioration of the creek. The concentrations of the heavy metals in the water samples were within the safe limit but posits potential human and fisheries health implications from continuous usage.
Seasonal Chemical Speciation and Potential Mobility of Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil of some Poultry Farm Establishments of Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria (Published)
This work examined the presence, availableness and mobility of metals in chosen poultry farm soils areas samples from Osun State. Metals in the stratified soil samples taken in both seasons were in sequence extracted into five phases and content of the extracted metals was conducted utilizing Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Quality control measures involved blank test, spike recovery test and calibration of standards. Descriptive and inferential statistics were adopted for data analyses The range of metals extracted from each of the five soil geochemical phases in mean percentages for both seasons are in this manner: carbonate bound (0.84-19.94), exchangeable (8.43-18.84), Fe-Mn oxide (13.95-21.18), organic matter (21.43-34.14) and residual (15.45-41.48). Potential metals in the examined soils (mgkg-1) varies between 3.56-1181.62, 0.05-2.98, 10.72-75.06, 40.38-640.52, 3.32-96.69 and 9.80-219.12 for arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead and zinc, while mean % mobility factors of all the metals in both seasons examined were ranged between 30.54-33.04, 33.29-34.49, 37.11-38.74, 15.37-17.58, 35.02-35.31 and 24.48-27.02 for As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn. In the poultry agro-ecological agriculture, values of metals in available forms do not vary statistically in both seasons. Nevertheless, bulk of the sampled metals have high abundance in residual and organic matter phases and for this reason, may not present ecological threat inasmuch as their overall fairly minor availableness and MFs of the metals in the examined soil.
Assessment of Copper and Zinc contamination through vehicular emission on vegetables growing near road side (Published)
Vegetables are important sources of many nutrient, including vitamins, dietary fibre, folate (folic acid), and minerals and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Heavy metals like Cu and Zn can easily enter in our body through consumption of vegetables contaminated with such metals. The toxic levels of the Zinc and Copper in leafy vegetables growing near road side fields were highly dependent on vehicular exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. Industrial emissions and the frequency of brake use and vehicles coming to a complete stop were additional factors that affected the contamination levels of Zn and Cu in leafy vegetables. The concrete highway also had higher contamination levels of such heavy metals than the asphalt highway. Vehicle speed was also a Major factor contributing to the contamination of higher level of Cu and Zn in road side vegetation of heavy traffic areas. The significant level of Cu in vegetables growing in road sides areas may be due to high rate of brake abrasion from the vehicles and the levels of zinc in vegetables is due to tyre abrasion from vehicles as zinc oxide is used as a vulcanizing agent in making tyre rubber. The main aim of this review article is to determine the level of Cu and Zn in leafy vegetables collected from road side (heavy traffic) areas.
Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Produced Water from Ndx 011 in Niger-Delta Oil Field (Published)
Oil and gas production is usually accompanied by water (brine), which is referred to as produced water. As oil and gas production declines, the quantity of water production from same reservoir increases. These produced waters have many components, which mostly have adverse environmental impacts. One of such components are the heavy metals which are numerous. Produced water sample from Niger Delta crude oil was investigated for five (5) heavy metals. The analysis was carried out using an Ultraviolet Visible Spectrophotometer. The analysis was carried out (in line with industry standard) on the produced water sample in order to determine the concentrations of the heavy metals present. The results obtained from this analysis showed that the concentrations of one out of the five heavy metals investigated (Arsenic (As)) was more than the allowable limits set by regulatory bodies. Arsenic (As), Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), Tin (Sn), and Barium (Ba) have concentrations of 0.9599mg/L, 0.0955mg/L, 0.000433mg/L, 0.31730mg/L, and 0.0019mg/L respectively compared with maximum limits set by the regulatory bodies as 0.3mg/L Arsenic, 5mg/L Boron, 0.004mg/L Manganese, 10mg/L Tin and 1.3mg/L Barium. This showed that the produced water from oil and gas activities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria should be tested and treated for Arsenic and other present heavy metals that may have concentrations higher than standard limits set by regulatory bodies before disposal and/or re-use.
Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Tissues of Crustaceans (Callinectes Amnicola and Macrobrachium Vollenhovenii) From a Tropical Ecosystem in Nigeria (Published)
Levels of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury were assessed in tissues of Callinectes amnicola and Macrobrachium vollenhovenii sampled for twelve months from the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria with the aim of evaluating their potential ecological risk. Results of analysis with Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometry showed that for C. amnicola, Pb ranged from 0.02-0.19µg/g, Cd 0.01-0.049µg/g and Hg 0.01-0.071µg/g; for M. vollenhovenii, Pb ranged from 0.019-0.098µg/g, Cd 0.0085-0.04µg/g and Hg 0.01-0.058µg/g. Paired t-test showed no significant seasonal disparity (P>0.05) for both crustaceans. Observed linear relationships were expressed as y = 0.4825x 0.0137, y = 0.5661x+0.0053 and y = 0.6111x+0.0059 for Pb, Cd and Hg respectively. Also, the correlation coefficient of Pb (r= 0.87), Cd (r=0.78) and Hg (r=0.803) showed significant concentration relationship between the two studied crustaceans. Although the results of this study show minimal toxicity of shellfish in Cross River estuary, continuous surveillance and assessment were recommended for sustainable ecosystem management.
Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination of Surface Water and Sediment of a Tropical Manmade Lake Southwestern Nigeria (Published)
Developing countries including Nigeria are faced with increase generation of domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes that enter into the surrounding water bodies; and pollutants settle on the sediment (the ultimate sink of contaminant in aquatic environment). These large amount of chemical substances (including heavy metals) released into aquatic environments has put it at risk which could inadvertently pose serious public health hazard. This study assessed the heavy metal concentrations of the surface water and sediments of Dandaru Reservoir, in Ibadan, Nigeria. The level of contamination of lake water and sediment were use to determine the degree of pollution and its potential effects on the environment and public health. Physical and chemical parameters and heavy metals were determined in the lake water using standard methods from April, 2015 to March, 2016 at five different sites of human activities. The physico-chemical parameters determined were within the limits specified by NESREA and WHO. All metals that were assessed were present in water and sediments (except nickel which was not determined in sediment). Metal concentration in the water followed the following trend Mn,>Fe>Pb>Ni>Zn>Cu>Co>Cd>Cr. Also, metal accumulation in sediments was Fe>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cu>Co>Cd>Cr. The average Igeo class for the sediments in all the stations was 0-2 indicating uncontaminated to moderately contaminated levels. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn in water exceeded the NESREA AND WHO standards for domestic water use and aquatic life. These could have adverse effects on the environment and health of people that utilize the water and fish of the Dandaru Reservoir. Effective monitoring of the livelihood activities and discharges into the reservoir are recommended to prevent further deterioration of the reservoir.
Physico-Chemical, Heavy Metal and Microbiological Concentrations in Soil and Water Samples around Veritas University Campus, Obehie, Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
This study aims at evaluating the physico-chemical, heavy and microbiological concentrations in soil and water samples around Veritas University, Obehie, Abia State, Nigeria to prevent the risk on the public health. Standard sampling and analytical methods were employed during the study. Results of the study revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water samples were low (mostly < 0.001), and hydrocarbon were also below detection limit in all borehole samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were also low, ranging from < 0.001 mg/l in some cases, with the highest single value being 0.165mg/l for iron. Total hydrocarbon content was also below detection levels in surface water showing unpolluted conditions. Heterotrophic bacteria densities were high in soil samples, ranging from 1.0 x 104 to 3.5 x 105 cfu/g soil. Densities of heterotrophic fungi were high in some locations, ranging from 1.0 x 103 to 1.5 x 105 cfu/g. Counts of petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were generally high. Percentage petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were greater than 1 % in all samples, except at one location. Microbial populations of soils particularly high in petroleum degraders (> 1 %) show that the soils have been exposed to contamination from petroleum products. High counts in some of the samples indicate normal microbial growth and activities. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi contribute to good quality soil in terms of fertility. The quality of the borehole and surface water quality is fairly good hence, regular monitoring of water quality in the area is very necessary.
Assessment of the Excretion Levels of Heavy Metals Through the Litters of Chickens Fed Varying Prepared Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Their Feeds (Published)
Studies were carried out to assess the excretion levels of selected heavy metals (Pb, As, and Cd) through the litters when varied prepared concentrations (10ppm, 20ppm, 30ppm) of the metals were administered to the poultry chickens ( Broilers and Layers) for eight weeks period. The poultry litter samples were digested accordingly and spectrometric analysis was followed. The analysis indicated that heavy metals once ingested into the system are not easily excreted. This bio-accumulative capability of the heavy metals in the specific organs in the body system underpines their reactivity and toxicity. The mean excretion level of the selected heavy metals in the litters was in the following decreasing order: As> Pb> Cd. Finally, the study observed that increased exposure of poultry chickens to heavy metals in the environment also increases the risk of its bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the system.
Recreational use of water is often given inadequate consideration and care. This is of particular concern as the recreational use of water is becoming popular in Nigeria . Many of these are increasingly contaminated by domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study is therefore relevant in assessing the environmental impact of microbes on ecotourism in Awba dam. A total of nine water (n=9) and soil (n= 9) samples were collected at entry, middle and the end of the Awba dam for heavy metal analysis and microbial assay. Samples were assessed for heavy metals using an official procedure and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total aerobic plate count, Isolation and characterization of strains was done using standard methods. For enumeration of E. coliO157:H7, colonies were characterized using standard methods. The direct slide agglutination technique was utilized for serology. The presumptive E. coli isolates were subjected to agglutination tests with specific E. coli O157:H7 . For the antibiotic sensitivity test, the Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion method was used to test the sensitivity of the isolates. Statistical analysis of ANOVA was used and Duncan multiple range test was used to separate the means. All the values obtained for the total aerobic count and total coliform count for soil and water were higher than EPA recommended value for recreational waters. For the antibiotic Sensitivity Profile, isolates from Awba dam showed the highest sensitivity (16.17mm) to ciprofloxacin while lowest was with Augmentine (8.25mm).Furthermore the isolate from the control point showed highest sensitivity to CPR and NIT ( 14mm) and least for AUG (5mm) Generally, E.coliO157:H7 isolates were highly sensitive to Oflatoxin and Ciproflaxin(93.3%) while the isolate was completely resistant to Ampicilin and Cefuroxime. The presence of E.coliO157:H7 in the dam can make the dam unfit for recreational activities and also for the community household chores, if not well treated . The University management should device means of controlling waste water that enters into the dam by providing alternate channels of discharge .This will reduce the growth and spread of the microbes in the soil and water of the dam.
Water samples were collected from seven different locations along the Aba River close to various human, industrial, commercial and domestic activities. The heavy metals were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The result revealed that the concentration of some heavy metals like Iron, Copper, Manganese and Chromium are above the WHO and FMEnv Standard limits for surface water. These high values could be attributed to indiscriminate disposal of wastes into the river. The various parameters of the water samples from the control site (Okpu-Umuobu) were significantly different from those of locations close to the major industrial/commercial activities. This confirms the impact of human activities on the quality of the Aba River. The impacts of dredging and sand mining in and along the river bank were obvious. These activities have an adverse effect on the environment and ecology, speeding up flow and potentially increasing the risk of flooding downstream. This also has the potential to damage ecology by directly affecting its physical habitat, disrupting riverine processes and reduced connectivity with the floodplain. It is therefore recommended that effluent treatment plants be installed to treat waste generated before they are discharged into the stream as well as regular monitoring of the River should be encouraged by the regulatory bodies.