Tag Archives: Health

Mobbing and Its Association with Quality Of Life in Health Professionals (Published)

Background and objectives: The impact of mobbing on the quality of life of Health Professionals (HP) has been studied to a limited extent in Greece. The purpose of this study is the effect of mobbing and the effect of demographic characteristics on the quality of life of health professionals. Materials and Methods: In the present cross-sectional study HP from 11 public Greek hospitals are involved. The sample was (N = 1536) HP, (A = 528) and (C = 1008), average age 39.2 years (SD = 10.3 years). A demographic data form and two tools were used anonymously, self-fulfilling. The World Health Organization questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) that measure the quality of life and the WPVB that measures violent psychological behaviour in workplaces. The two-sided level of statistical significance was set at 0.05, while the data analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22.0. Results: Women had lower scores in the Mental Health Scale and the quality life level of independence compared to men (p = 0.003). The tendency of individuals to declare that they had no health problem was associated with higher scores in the four domains of life quality (p <0.001). The tendency of individuals to declare that they have been subjected to mobbing in all domains (p <0.001) was associated with poor quality of life in all its factors (p <0.001). Married suffering mobbing reported better QOL (p = 0.003) and a healthier environment (p = 0.012) than married with children with poor QOL (p = 0.001), poor physical (p <0.001) and mental health (p = 0.009) and reduced social relationships (p = 0.001). The HP (doctors and nurses) with overall mobbing score, p = 0.001, had a better mental health and better social relations than those HP, who worked as Administrative and Technical Staff. Support by friends, relatives, family showed that they are associated with a better quality of life in all its factors. Health Professionals suffering any form of mobbing (p<0,001) have a poor quality of life (p<0,001), poor physical (p<0,001) and mental health (p<0,001) and poor social contacts (p<0,001). Conclusions: Taking into account the results of statistical controls on the effect of mobbing, demographic and other factors (sex, age, job, working years, etc.), it was found that mobbing negatively affects the QOL in general as the working environment is affected, their socio-demographic profile of both genders  and their physical, mental and social well-being. Further studies are needed to show the universality of these results.

Keywords: Health, Quality of life, Working Environment, health professionals, mobbing, occupational health

Impact of Disaggregated Public Expenditure on Economic Growth of Selected African Countries: A Panel VECM (Published)

The study investigated the long-run and short-run equilibrium relationship between economic growth and disaggregated public expenditure in selected West African Countries with panel data spanning 1990-2017. The study employed panel co-integration based on Pedroni and Panel Vector Error Correction Model (PVECM) with Engle and Granger´s procedure for empirical analysis. The findings revealed that expenditure on infrastructure, health and education have positive impact on economic growth at about 2%, 6% and 2% respectively, but only expenditure on infrastructure is significant. Defence expenditures and education expenditures at both lags have indirect and insignificant influence on economic growth while health expenditure has direct and insignificant impact on economic growth at all lags. The study recommends policy makers to focus on developing health, infrastructure and education sectors which has not contributed significantly enough to economic growth in the selected African countries

Keywords: Defence, Education, Health, Infrastructure, PVECM, economic growth

Determination of the Effects of Building Constructions on the Health of Site Workers in Minna, Nigeria (Published)

Building construction activities and accidents on construction sites are significantly rated high in Nigeria. To reduce this problem, various building construction sites in Minna metropolis were studied and the aim was to determine the extent in which the health of workers are being affected by the construction activities by taking into considerations, the sources of responsible hazards, in order to generate guidelines to reduce hazards in construction sites in Nigeria. 10 different areas in Minna metropolis were used for this research. In each of these areas, data were collected from two building construction sites. The types of buildings that were studied are residential, commercial and institutional buildings. Primary data were obtained through interviews and structured checklist. In each of the building construction site, five workers were interviewed. Secondary data were obtained from the reviews of relevant academic materials to this research. Tables and content analysis technique were used to present the data.  Among the findings are: the majority of workers have no protective clothing and the frequency of this loop hole is significantly rated very high in all the building construction sites; some workers do not have boots to protect their feet in all the building construction sites that were studied; Among the recommended guidelines are: it must be ensured by the building engineers or the project managers that all the workers should have protective clothing, in order to minimise injuries during the construction activities on the building construction sites; it must also be ensured by the building engineers or the project managers that all the workers should have boots to protect their feet, in order to minimise injuries during the construction activities on the building construction sites.

 

Keywords: Hazards, Health, building construction, injuries, workers

Determination of the Effects of Building Constructions on the Health of Site Workers in Minna, Nigeria (Published)

Building construction activities and accidents on construction sites are significantly rated high in Nigeria. To reduce this problem, various building construction sites in Minna metropolis were studied and the aim was to determine the extent in which the health of workers are being affected by the construction activities by taking into considerations, the sources of responsible hazards, in order to generate guidelines to reduce hazards in construction sites in Nigeria. 10 different areas in Minna metropolis were used for this research. In each of these areas, data were collected from two building construction sites. The types of buildings that were studied are residential, commercial and institutional buildings. Primary data were obtained through interviews and structured checklist. In each of the building construction site, five workers were interviewed. Secondary data were obtained from the reviews of relevant academic materials to this research. Tables and content analysis technique were used to present the data.  Among the findings are: the majority of workers have no protective clothing and the frequency of this loop hole is significantly rated very high in all the building construction sites; some workers do not have boots to protect their feet in all the building construction sites that were studied; Among the recommended guidelines are: it must be ensured by the building engineers or the project managers that all the workers should have protective clothing, in order to minimise injuries during the construction activities on the building construction sites; it must also be ensured by the building engineers or the project managers that all the workers should have boots to protect their feet, in order to minimise injuries during the construction activities on the building construction sites.

 

Keywords: Hazards, Health, building construction, injuries, workers

The Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water on Pig’s Spleen DNA Treated with Zinc Sulphate and Glutathione (Published)

Background and Aim: Disinfection of surface waters is often done to destroy pathogenic organisms present in water bodies in order to render water safe for consumption, but chlorination of drinking waters has been debated as being toxic to experimental animals including man. The aim of this work was to investigate using biochemical techniques whether disinfection of drinking water by chlorination is harmful or not. Materials and Methods: The materials used were water, calcium hypochlorite, Pig’s spleen, zinc sulphate and reduced glutathione. The water sample was obtained from river Jama’are in Bauchi state, and its quality assessed by estimation of temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, Cl, SO32-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents. The water sample was chlorinated using calcium hypochlorite (65-70% Cl2). DNA was isolated from Pig’s spleen and used as a model to test the direct effect of the chlorinated water sample on animal health. The effect was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of the chlorinated water sample on the biomolecule was also studied in the presence of zinc sulphate and glutathione (GSH). This was compared with that of a control experiment. Results: The results revealed that the chlorinated water sample altered the native structure of the isolated DNA. But in the presence of 0.1mM zinc sulphate and varied concentrations of GSH (0.1mM, 0.2mM and 0.3mM respectively) the chlorinated sample was found to have no noticeable effect on the isolated biomolecule; a pointer that Zn and GSH may have conjugated with chlorinated water products and detoxified them. Conclusion: It is suggested that drinking of chlorinated water is not harmful to health.

 

Keywords: Chlorination, DNA, Glutathione, Health, Pig, Water, Zinc

Comparative Analysis of Budgetary Allocation to Education and Life Expectancy in Nigeria, 1980 – 2015 (Published)

The study investigated the Comparative Analysis of Budgetary Allocation to Education and Life Expectancy in Nigerian from 1980-2015. The objective of the study was to comparatively analyze the relative impact of federal government actual budgetary allocation to education alongside UNESCO 26% recommended budgetary allocation to education. In respect to the above, relevant theoretical and empirical literature were reviewed. The researcher formulated the relevant objective research question hypothesis to guide the study. In the course of the study, relevant data relating to the variables needed by the researcher were extracted from various document analysis such as Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Statistical Bulletin. The Classical Linear Regression Model was employed in modelling the relationship between poverty and the budgetary allocation variables. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) equation technique was used in analyzing the data. The unit root analysis revealed that all the variables were not stationary at levels. But at first difference, all the variables became stationary. The Johansen cointegration analysis revealed that the variables were cointegrated and had a valid error correction mechanism. The analysis of the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) showed that the impact on poverty was wrongly signed and insignificant. On comparative analysis, the researcher observed that the UNESCO’s 26% recommended budgetary allocation to education criteria had more impact on Life Expectancy. It was therefore, recommended that Budgetary allocation to the educational sector in Nigeria should be implemented based on the UNESCO 26% recommended principle. Greater percentage of the budgetary allocation to education should be spent on capital project in the education sector. This is because such expenditure will impact positively on the educational sector and in turn have a multiplier effect on the general performance of the economy at the long run.

Keywords: Budgetary Allocation, Comparative Analysis, Education, Health, UNESCO 26%, life expectancy

Assessment of Built Environment Quality in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

The interactions between man and environment determine both the quality of environment and as well as the quality of life that man lives. The feedback mechanisms of the interactions between man and environment are directly proportional. The increase in the number of urban dwellers is no more novel as over 50% of the world population resides in urban centers. This continuous and accidental increase in the number of urban dwellers with respect to their actions in the environment has played significant roles in the depletion of the quality of the environment. Since human health or wellbeing depends on the quality of his immediate environment, the focus on environmental quality emerged as a key area for research in urban and regional planning. This paper appraises the quality of the built environment in a steadily urbanizing traditional settlement in Ogbomoso North Local Government, Nigeria using selected environmental quality indicators while necessary recommendations are put forward to rejuvenate sickening built environment.

Keywords: Built, Depletion, Environment, Health, Human, Nigeria, Quality, Urban

Influence of Mass Media Campaigns on Breast Cancer Knowledge among Women in Enugu State (Published)

Breast cancer remains a major killer of women globally. Medical literature suggests that early detection could led to complete cure. Owing to the fact that early detection is dependent on women’s levels of awareness and knowledge, several media campaigns have been lunched. However, one wonders the effectiveness of these campaigns on the knowledge and behaviour of women in Enugu State. This study, therefore, set out to ascertain the contributions of mass media to breast cancer knowledge among women in Enugu State. Survey research method was employed with questionnaire and interview guide as the measuring instruments. Cochran sampling technique was used to determine the sample size which stood at 384 based on a population of 1,671,795 women in Enugu State. The sample was randomly selected while Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data collected. The findings showed a positive relationship between level of education and information seeking from the mass media about breast cancer. Radio was found to be the most predominant medium used by the women.  In this study, it is recommended that government should intensify media messages on breast cancer in the state, especially in the rural communities where most of the non-literate women reside. Future studies should focus on expanding the scope of this study to South – Eastern parts of Nigeria

Keywords: Breast cancer, Health, Knowledge, Media Campaigns, awareness

The Metalanguage of Corruption in Cameroon- Part I1: The Registers of Health, Judiciary and Finance (Published)

Across the world, corruption has become almost endemic in many countries. Although very few people admit to be involved in it, no continent is exempted from the ill practice. This paper, which is the second of a series of two, examines the coded language used to ask for / give bribe in three sectors in Cameroon. Health, judiciary and finance, which are the domains concerned, count among the most corrupt sectors of the country according to the National Anti Corruption Commission 2010 Report. The data analysed was obtained through questionnaires administered to some state agents of the three domains (N=150). Like in the previous sectors already studied (Safotso 2015), the findings reveal that, in addition to the general coded expressions used to ask for / give bribe in all the administrations in Cameroon, there are many specialised words and expressions that Cameroonians use in Cameroon English, Cameroon Pidgin English and Cameroon French when they indulge in corrupt practices in the sectors of health, judiciary and finance

Keywords: Bribery, Coded Language, Corrupt, Finance, Health, Judiciary

Public Sector Expenditure and the Economic Development in Nigeria (1999-2015) (Published)

The study examined the interaction of public sector expenditure and economic development from 1999 – 2015.  The specific objective was to assess the extent to which GDP affects EDU, HLT, DFS, AGR and PDS.  Secondary data employed were from the CBN bulletin published in 2016. Multiple regression analysis and t-test were the statistical tools applied, with the use of SPSS for both data analysis and to test the hypotheses formulated for the study at 5% level of significance.  The result revealed that GDP does not significantly affect EDU, HLT and AGR and as a result they do not have impact on economic growth.  On the contrary, GDP significantly affects the DFS and PDS which do not have effect on economic development.  The result shows that government spending on defense, security and public debt servicing has not brought about economic development.  Therefore, there is need for change of orientation.  The government should concentrate on investing in provision of proper education and adequate health facilities for the citizenry.  More attention should also be given to agriculture for the purpose of sufficient food supply.  All these measures could provide solution to insurgency and militancy which the government has spent so much to no avail.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economic Development, Education, Health, Public sector expenditure, defense and security, public debt servicing

Implications on Female Genital Cutting and Promotional Strategies by the Pokot Community in the Context of FGC (Published)

According to FORWARD (2005), data presented in  a Female Genital Fact Sheet indicated that Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is traditionally carried out by elderly women ‘specialized’ in this task and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) – usually without anaesthetics and with crude instruments such as razor blades, knives and broken shards of glass.  This paper looks into the health implications of female genital cutting in west Pokot community and further identifies the promotional health strategies adopted by the community during the process. The study was carried out in Sook location of West Pokot District of West Pokot County. This area was randomly selected out of the four locations in the District. A descriptive cross-sectional, qualitative research design was used for the study. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. The study considered 63 participants for interviews, all above 18 years, 9 key informants and 54 members of 7 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with between 6-10 participants of each group.  The study identified demerits of the FGC practice as predisposition of  girls to infections like HIV/AIDS, bleeding, though most participants said this could result from other reasons like witchcraft. Incompletion of education was also said to be one of the demerits of the FGC. Affirmation of community identity and promotion of positive aspects of culture which boosts self esteem in the community while preventing physical and psychological harm to women and girls should be advocated for through alternative rituals and Cultural day initiatives.

Keywords: Detrimental, Female Genital Cutting (FGC), Health, Implications, Promotion, Strategies.

The Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water on Pig’s Spleen DNA Treated with Zinc Sulphate and Glutathione (Published)

Background and Aim: Disinfection of surface waters is often done to destroy pathogenic organisms present in water bodies in order to render water safe for consumption. But chlorination of drinking waters has been debated as being toxic to experimental animals including man. The aim of this work was to investigate using biochemical techniques whether disinfection of drinking water by chlorination is harmful or not. Materials and Methods: The materials used were water, calcium hypochlorite, Pig’s spleen, zinc sulphate and reduced glutathione. The water sample was obtained from river Jama’are in Bauchi state, and its quality assessed by estimation of temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, Cl-, SO32-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents. The water sample was chlorinated using calcium hypochlorite (65-70% Cl2). DNA was isolated from Pig’s spleen and used as a model to test the direct effect of the chlorinated water sample on animal health. The effect was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of the chlorinated water sample on the biomolecule was also studied in the presence of zinc sulphate and glutathione (GSH). This was compared with that of a control experiment. Results: The results revealed that the chlorinated water sample altered the native structure of the isolated DNA. But in the presence of 0.1mM zinc sulphate and varied concentrations of GSH (0.1mM, 0.2mM and 0.3mM respectively) the chlorinated sample was found to have no noticeable effect on the isolated biomolecule; a pointer that Zn and GSH may have conjugated with chlorinated water products and detoxified them. Conclusion: It is suggested that drinking of chlorinated water is not harmful to health.

Keywords: Chlorination, DNA, Glutathione, Health, Pig, Water, Zinc

Importance of Nutrition Education in Catering and Fast Food Business (Case Study of Sweet Savour Eatery and Royal Birds Motel, Akure Ondo State, Nigeria). (Published)

This paper examined the importance of Nutrition Education in Catering and Fast Food Businesses. People prefer eat out day –by-day as they have taken it to be a part of life. Everyone is getting busier in order to find means for survival and so hardly have time to prepare nutritious meals with appropriate calories. Secondary sources of data collection were employed to get relevant information. The result revealed that many live on fast food and catering products, hence the need for Nutrition Education, to help in the dietary intake. Various recommendations on how to achieve the objective of this research work were also highlighted.

Keywords: Catering, Education, Food, Health, Nigeria, Nutrition Education

Implications on Female Genital Cutting and Promotional Strategies by the Pokot Community in the Context of FGC (Published)

According to FORWARD (2005), data presented in a Female Genital Fact Sheet indicated that Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is traditionally carried out by elderly women ‘specialized’ in this task and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) – usually without anaesthetics and with crude instruments such as razor blades, knives and broken shards of glass. This paper looks into the health implications of female genital cutting in west Pokot community and further identifies the promotional health strategies adopted by the community during the process. The study was carried out in Sook location of West Pokot District of West Pokot County. This area was randomly selected out of the four locations in the District. A descriptive cross-sectional, qualitative research design was used for the study. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. The study considered 63 participants for interviews, all above 18 years, 9 key informants and 54 members of 7 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with between 6-10 participants of each group. The study identified demerits of the FGC practice as predisposition of girls to infections like HIV/AIDS, bleeding, though most participants said this could result from other reasons like witchcraft. Incompletion of education was also said to be one of the demerits of the FGC. Affirmation of community identity and promotion of positive aspects of culture which boosts self-esteem in the community while preventing physical and psychological harm to women and girls should be advocated for through alternative rituals and Cultural day initiatives.

Keywords: Detrimental, Female Genital Cutting (FGC), Health, Implications, Promotion, Strategies.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRISTIAN SPIRITUALITY AND HEALTH: AN EXPLORATION OF THE VIEWS OF CHRISTIAN STUDENTS IN GHANA. (Published)

Spirituality and health have overtime been very influential to humans and in the life of every student; good health is an essential aspect in order to have a successful academic life. Being healthy is not anymore about absence of diseases or illness. It requires being in a state of complete physical, psychological, spiritual and social well-being. The article aims at examining the various views that Christian students hold concerning spirituality and health and to find out the effects that both (spirituality and health) have on the lives of students. The research was conducted among Christian students in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, using questionnaires and interviews to seek views of students on the impact of the relationship between spirituality and health. From the findings, most of the respondents expressed a strong desire to find meaning in their lives and well-being. It was, however, observed that some students were reluctant to patronize clinical treatment when needed as a result of their staunch spirituality. Also, the paper identifies some Christian beliefs and practices which respondents considered as elements that promote good health as well as other spiritual practices that have adversely affected students’ health. It is, therefore, suggested that, for the wellbeing of students to be achieved, there should always be a balance between the two approaches, and resort to any of them when appropriate.

Keywords: Christian Spirituality, Health, Relationship, Student’ Well-being and Exploration

TRANSPORT COST AND THE USE OF FAMILY PLANNING AS A PREVENTIVE AND PROMOTION HEALTH CARE STRATEGIES IN RURAL AKWA IBOM STATE OF NIGERIA (Published)

The study was designed to ascertain the effects of transport cost on the use and continuous use of family planning services in rural Akwa Ibom State. To achieve the purpose, two hypotheses were formulated. Data were collected from a representative sample size of 952 respondents who were women aged 15-49 years. Simple percentages were used in data analysis while Chi-square (X2) and Phi-Coefficient (ɸ) were used in testing the research hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results show that there were significant relationships between transport cost and use and continuous use of family planning services in the study area. The implications of the findings were discussed and strategies for combating the effects of transport cost on utilization of family planning services in rural Nigeria in general and the study area in particular were suggested.

Keywords: Cost, Health, Preventive, Promotive, Rural, Transport, Utilization

THE CONTRIBUTION OF TRANSPORT (ROAD) IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY “A CASE STUDY OF MANKRANSO DISTRICT HOSPITAL IN THE AHAFO ANO SOUTH DISTRICT OF ASHANTI REGION” (Published)

This project seeks to link the contribution of transport to health care delivery. The main objective of the study was to conduct a Strategic analysis on the role of transport in quality health care delivery. A variety of qualitative and quantitative instruments were employed to gather data to respond to the study research questions. The primary data for the study were collected from the respondents through questionnaire administration and interview conducted by the researcher. The study’s findings confirmed the existence of healthcare transport as a supportive service in quality health care delivery but due to the poor road network, few health facilities and high transport cost most household do not access medical treatment. It is also difficult for health workers to embark on outreach programs and be at work on time because of transport infrastructure and services. These have tended to negatively impact on the delivery of healthcare commodities and services for Ahafo-Ano residents. A strand of thought that filters through the discussion is the establishment of a good road network, increase medical outreach and mobile health clinics

Keywords: Ambulance, Emergence, Health, Hospital, Infrastructure, Transport