Assessment and Control Measures of Flood Risk in Ajibode Area of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)
Flood is one of the major factors that prevent Africa’s population from escaping poverty level. The most hit by flood are usually urban poor who have less choice, but to end up living in flood prone areas. Ravaging flood events in Nigeria can be dated back to 1963 in Ibadan city, when Ogunpa River was over-flown causing loss of lives and properties. Many factors have been attributed as the resultant factors leading to floods in literature. This study thus assesses flood risk and its control measures in Ajibode area of Ibadan, Oyo state, while appropriate recommendations are made in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. In order to achieve this, questionnaires were administered through random systematic sampling technique to the household heads of 216 buildings from 720 buildings as the sampling frame of the study. Chi-square test reveals significant relationships between annual house rent and monthly income of the respondents with their vulnerability to flood with p-values of 0.00 and 0.04 respectively.
Risk Management Best Practices and Challenges Encountered In Implementing the Risk Reduction Strategies in Industries (Published)
The need to ‘mainstream’ disaster risk reduction into development is a call to address risks emanating from natural hazards. This, states Benson and Twigg in their guidance notes for use by development organizations, on tools for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction; is evidence of the challenging situation. This paper is an exploration of best practices that can be undertaken by industries to reduce risks. The paper also discusses some of the challenges encountered in implementing risk reduction strategies. The authors thus conducted a study in Eldoret Municipality in the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Purposive sampling was used to select the industries and simple random sampling to select the study units which included Managerial staff and operational workers as well as labor officers in the Ministry of labor (Public Health Officers), fire brigade officers, Kenya National Environment Management Authority (KNEMA) and the Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS) Regional officials. Interviews and questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics. Hazard identification, risk assessment, control and monitoring while bottom-up communication and consultation model provided an important best practice for risk reduction. This study will help employers develop emergency response plans for risk reduction.
The Impact of Flooding On the Livelihood of People Living In the Luhonono Area in the Zambezi Region, Namibia (Published)
This study examined the impact of floods on the livelihoods of the community of the Luhonono area (formally called Schuckmansburg) in the Kabbe constituency in the Zambezi Region of Namibia. The problem identified is the persistent flooding in the Luhonono area, giving rise to the need to look at the impact of floods on the livelihoods of the local community. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches, utilising both descriptive and exploratory designs. The target population for the study was all the heads of households, community leaders and a political councillor of government in Luhonono area. The study applied both purposive sampling and simple random sampling techniques. Structured questionnaires and an interview guide were used as research instruments to collect data from the sample. The data was used to measure the impact of floods on the livelihood of the people in the flood-prone area. The data collected were computed using the Excel computer program version 16.0 and the data were analysed by both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Chi Square tests were carried out to determine the association of villages and the severity of the flooding to the respondents. Hypotheses to test this association were examined using the Chi Square method. It was established that there is no association between the villages and the overall severity of the floods in the Luhonono area. This implies that all the villages were equally affected by the flood. There is a need for further studies to develop baseline data on the impact of flood that will help the Government of the Republic of Namibia in establishing strategies that will help the communities in flood prone areas to develop resilience against the impact of floods.
In this paper, Exponential distribution as the only continuous statistical distribution that exhibits the memoryless property is being explored by deriving another two-parameter model representing the sum of two independent exponentially distributed random variables, investigating its statistical properties and verifying the memoryless property of the resulting model.