An investigative study into the causes and effects of ethno-religious conflicts on women and children in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria, 1991 – 2020. (Published)
Conflict is a major problem in any given society and it is often inevitable. Since the re-introduction of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, Nigeria has become a permanent flashpoint of violent conflicts. These conflicts are political, ethnic, or religious in nature, and the consequences are devastating. Taraba State has not been an exception since its creation in 1991, witnessing incessant communal clashes across ethnic and religious lines. These ethno-religious conflicts have attendant debilitating consequences on life and property. The most disturbing aspect is their effects on women and children who are naturally the weaker proportion of any human population. The main thrust of this paper is therefore to isolate the effects of such conflicts on women and children for intense assessment. Thus, in order to do this, the article explores the ethno-religious conflicts in Southern Taraba State of Nigeria, particularly in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the article reveals that ethno-religious conflicts in the area of study have severe effects on women and children, causing not only deaths of husbands, children, siblings and loved ones, but destruction of their homes, amenities, social contracts, trusts and so on. The conflicts have also caused severe sufferings on the high number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), who are mostly women and children. However, the article suggests the need for restoration and sustenance of peace, not only in Wukari and Ibi LGAs, but Southern Taraba, the State and Nigeria at large, through some immediate and long term solutions.
The ultimate goal of Humanism is human flourishing; making life better for all humans, and as the most conscious species, also promoting concern for the welfare of other sentient beings and the planet as a whole. The focus is on doing good and living well in the here and now, and leaving the world a better place for those who come after. This paper aims at presenting Humanism and its policies if well applied as a way of not only curbing violence, terrorism, genocide and all forms of social ills associated with our contemporary and global world of today, but also a way to bring about the much needed peace, harmony and progress in this era that has been battered by these ills.
The contemporary novelist, Anita Brookner’s novels bring to light how the feminine self is also a patchwork of social injunctions as well as images inscribed in the literary canon. Her novels fictionalize the self in the process of rethinking and seeking its worth through a more meaningful identity than just the self-denying or sexually desirable conceptions of womanhood, reflected through cultural representations. Brookner’s novel, The Bay of Angels (2001) is an exploration of self-restraint, dignity and obligation within a tale of love and loneliness. Being orphaned and dejected by her flirtatious lover, Adam, she hopes to have a lifelong commitment characterized by certainty. Finally, Zoë happily accepts the present arrangement and considers her relationship with Dr. Balbi a precious one as it has involved no change of character, no effort to meet each other’s requirements. Zoë’s idea of love shows her broad vision as she does not want the man she loves for herself alone but is generous enough to let him share his affections with his helpless sister. This attitude of not wanting to be loved for oneself alone, in the broader sense, serves as the foundation for a healthy and harmonious society.
As a pianist, Franz Liszt plays an important role in the European music history. He made some open innovations in harmony, tonality and other aspects, which brought essential changes in his late piano works. He brought some new concepts of style and harmony to the music, giving music creators more inspirations. The article is to analyze the use of dissonant interval in harmony, scale and tonality in his late piano works to present the characteristics and the changes of his late music style