Tag Archives: Growth

Heavy Metals in Fish: Bioaccumulation and Health (Published)

Heavy metals occur during natural processes and are also obtained during anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals include chromium, cadmium, arsenic, lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, selenium and copper hence their presence in the aquatic habitat are highly toxic to fishes and shell fishes. Heavy metals are found in the aquatic environment as a result from contamination by heavy metals from industrial, agricultural waste and by-products and domestic waste and by products. The increasing level of heavy metals in fish is alarming and has spurred scientists to make researches on the dangers caused by the heavy metals resulting to heavy metal accumulation and bioaccumulation of life cells. The aim of this study was to assess the possible sources of heavy metal in the aquatic environment, impact of heavy metals in the aquatic environment, its bioaccumulation in fish and human health impact. Several reports tell of the detrimental effect of heavy metals in fish (some of which include; poisonous effect in the blood such as anemia, eosinophilia, lymphocytosis, renal lesions, convulsions and ataxia, detachment of gills, fusion of secondary gill filaments, acute inflammation in the liver, amongst several others) and in man (some of which include, skin diseases, Irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, nephritis, lung cancer, liver and kidney damage, necrosis, neurological and behavioral disorders and death amongst others). In conclusion, the toxic effects of heavy metals in fish and the effect of bioaccumulation and bio-magnification have been reviewed in this paper. It is therefore recommended that the treatment of all forms of wastewaters, agricultural waste, sewage, industrial effluents be carried out before their discharge in to the environment. Also, the enforcement of all laws, legislations regarding the protection of aquatic life and environment should be enforced and sanctions meted out against defaulters.

Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Death, Growth, Health, Heavy Metals, Pollution

Effect of Tax Revenue Generation on Economic Growth in Nigeria (Published)

Citation: Confidence Joel Ihenyen  and  Tovie Annabel Stephen Ogbise (2022)  Effect of Tax Revenue Generation on Economic Growth in Nigeria, International Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.10, No.2, pp.44-53

Abstract: The contribution of taxation to all economies around the world cannot be exaggerated. Apart from the revenue function it performs for the government, it is also used to help the country achieve its macroeconomic goals in the areas of fiscal and monetary policy. While a significant portion of Nigeria’s income comes from taxes, it has long been observed that the role of taxation in stimulating economic activity and growth remains unrecognized especially in the area of infrastructure and basic equipment. Earlier documents have shown that tax revenues in developed countries have a significant impact on economic growth, which is clearly reflected in the services provided by these countries. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between Nigerian tax revenues and economic growth in Nigeria. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data using the Microsoft Excel package. As a result, petroleum profit tax, company income tax and value added tax have a positive impact on Nigeria’s economic growth, while custom excise and duties have a negative impact, but overall, between tax revenue and Nigeria’s economic growth, there is a significant correlation. The use of  generated tax revenue is a serious concern,  requires  special attention of policy makers, taxpayer violations of tax law are obstacles, and inefficient tax administration is a sufficient loophole for tax evasion. As a result, income is reduced. In particular, the Tax Administration is only responsible for qualified professionals and trusted persons, and it is advisable to thoroughly educate the importance of taxes for the entire population.

Keywords: : Generation, Economic, Growth, Revenue, Tax

Food and feeding biology of a Near Threatened freshwater ornamental fish Nobel Gourami, Ctenops nobilis McClelland, 1845 (Published)

Noble gourami, Ctenops nobilis McClelland, 1845 is one of the most valuable freshwater indigenous ornamental fish currently depends only on natural collection for its trade. In order to decline the population of fish, suppliers cannot meet the market demand so breeding and large scale seed production of C. nobilis is an urgent need. The knowledge of food and feeding habit of fish has been profitably utilised in culture operation. The gut content analysis showed the maximum amount of zooplankton with 31% and tiny crustacean with 27%. The length of alimentary canal and the RLG value (1.06-2.18) implies that the fish is carnivorous in nature. Seasonal changes in RLG and monthly changes in GaSI value recorded for the fish. The values of GaSI have been observed to become high during March to May with the peak being in March. Tubifex and Daphnia gave the higher rate growth with 1.63 FCR.

Keywords: Growth, Nobel gourami, alimentary canal, feeding habit

Growth Performance and Feed Utilization Efficiency of Juvenile Catfish Clarias Gariepinus Fed Heat Processed and Dehulled Jatropha Curcas Meal (Published)

The growth performance and feed utilization efficiency of juvenile Clarias gariepinus fed heat processed and dehulled Jatropha curcas kernel meal (JCKM) was investigated using 150 pieces of fish with an average weight of 8.9g which were randomly distributed into five experimental diets in replicates of ten (10) fish per tank for 42days. The processed JCKM used were: Sand roasted, Autoclaved, Boiled and Raw defatted meal in replacement of Soya-bean meal at 33.33% per diet. The diets were fed to C. gariepinus of juvenile at 5% body weight. The highest growth performance (170.07±11.12) and feed utilization efficiency (1.36±0.06) was recorded for fish fed with diet of no JCKM replacement followed by sand roasted JCKM based diet(45.03±10.30, 0.42±0.11). There was no significant difference between the two diets at p>0.05. The low fed utilization efficiency observed in fish fed boiled(0.05±0.03), autoclaved(-0.1±0.05) and raw defatted (0.04±0.03) JCKM leads to decrease in growth performance which can be due to high concentration of anti-nutritional factors such as Phorbol esters, Saponins and Curcin. Therefore, JCKM can be used to replace Soya beans at low quantity in the diet of freshwater fish when Sand-roasted.

Keywords: Clarias Gariepinus, Feed Utilization, Growth, Jatropha Curcas

Monetary Policy and Inclusive Growth in Nigeria (Published)

The objective of the study is to determine the impact of monetary policy on inclusive growth. The study employed multivariate regression model to establish the effect. Data was collected on PCI as proxy for inclusive growth, and exchange rate, interest rate and money supply as monetary policy tools. The OLS technique revealed a significant variation between money supply and inclusive growth which implies that it will be in the best interest of the populace if monetary policy measures are employed to effect changes in the economy.

Keywords: Growth, Monetary Policy, Nigeria, inclusive

Growth and Haematological Responses of Clarias gariepinus Juveniles fed diets containing varying digestible lipids of Plant origin (Published)

This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and hematological responses of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed diets containing different digestible lipids of plant origin. One hundred and eighty (180) juveniles (4.78±0.37g) were stocked using four treatments in three replicates. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Fish were fed at 5% body weight with four isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein), with control diet without lipid supplement (D1). Diets (D2-D4) contained Soya oil, palm kernel oil and groundnut oil respectively. Weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and specific growth rate (SGR) showed significant difference (p<0.05) among treatments. However, the highest WG was recorded in D4 (10.69±0.97g) and lowest in fish fed D1 (9.91±0.35g). FCR ranged between 1.69±0.17 in D2 and 1.52±0.67 in D4 respectively. Protein utilization showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in all treatments. There were significant differences (P<0.05) among hematological parameters analyzed such as PCV, WBC, RBC, Hb, MCHC, MCH, MCV. The highest cholesterol level was recorded in fish fed D4 (1.67±0.81), while the lowest value was recorded in D1 (1.10±0.80). Triglyceride was highest in D3 (1.40±0.45) while the lowest value was recorded in the control D1 (1.20±0.45) with no lipid inclusion. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the HDL and LDL value in all treatments. Hence, all hematological indices fall in the required range for Clarias gariepinus.

Keywords: Clarias Gariepinus, Growth, Juveniles, digestible lipids, haematological responses, plant origin.

Population dynamics and assessment of Golden Trevally, Gnathonodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775), in the Southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates (Published)

The population dynamics of Gnathonodon speciosus from the southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates was investigated based on direct and indirect methods to validate the age. The average growth parameters based on the methods were estimated as L=84.52cm TL, K=0.28 and to=-0.45years.  The fitted Von Bertalnaffy’s growth equation for G.speciosus was Lt=84.52*[1–exp-0.28*(t+0.45)]. The estimated growth performance index Ø was 3.30 while the estimated life spans close to 11.0 years. The instantaneous coefficient rates of total mortality Z estimated by length converted catch curve was 1.01yr-1. Natural mortality M estimated by pauly, Rikhter&Efanov and Hoeing methods were 0.62, 1.02 and 0.41yr-1 respectively with average 0.68yr-1 for further analysis. Peaks in spawning occurred during March, April and May. Yield per recruit Y/R and biomass per recruit B/R were estimated as 171.7&520.3g respectively at current F=0.33year-1 and Tc=1.59 year. Estimates of relative yield per recruit and relative biomass per recruit were E0.1=0.62, E0.5=0.35 and Emax=0.74 indicates the stock of G.speciosus is under-exploited.

Keywords: Gnathonodon speciosus, Growth, Mortality, spawning season, yield per recruit

Impact of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1990-2017) (Published)

The study examined the impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1990-2017. Secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study used Gross Domestic Product as proxy for economic growth and employed as the dependent variable; whereas, monetary policy rate, liquidity rate and Treasury Bills respectively were used as the explanatory variables to measure monetary policy. Hypotheses formulated were tested using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) techniques. The study revealed a significant impact of Treasury Bills on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Liquidity ratio had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Monetary policy rate had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicated that about 62% of the variations in private sector of the economy can be explained by changes in monetary policy variables. The study concluded that monetary policy had impacted significantly on private sector growth in Nigeria. The study recommended that policy makers should strong economic policies that will maintain and stabilize the economy. CBN should lay down strict prudential guidelines to stabilize and strengthen the economy. The CBN should review the Monetary Policy Rate downwards so as to reduce the cost of credit and increase the flow of investible funds to the economy.

Keywords: Economic, Growth, Nigeria, Policy, monetary

The Growth and Survival of Clarias Gariepinus Fry Fed Various Dry Feeds (Baker’s Yeast, Fishmeal, Egg Yolk, Artemia And Combination of Artemia And Fishmeal) With Cod Liver Oil as Supplement for Test Starter Diet (Published)

  1. gariepinus (0.02g) of 1 week old were subjected to five diets consisting of baker’s yeast, fishmeal, chicken egg yolk, Artemia and the combinations of Artemia and fishmeal with a drop of cod liver oil as supplement to each treatment. The fry were fed to satiation daily and the study lasted for 5 weeks. At the end of the study, the respective treatments were compared on the basis of percentage weight gain, body length, survival rate, and condition factor. Fry fed on Artemia and fishmeal with a drop of cod liver oil were significantly higher (5.01cm and 2.8g for length and weight respectively and 95% survival of the fish fry) than those fed on other diets. This present research recommends that at larval to fry age C. gariepinus requires the combinations of Artemia and fishmeal with a drop of cod liver oil.

Keywords: Diets, Growth, survival and Clarias gariepinus

Relationship Between International Trade and Economic Growth: A Case of Ho Chi Minh City (Published)

Economic growth has been gradually reduced depending on investment capital, increasing scientific and technical factors. Commercial sector of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) continued to grow, total retail sales of goods and service revenue increased higher than the same period. However, the context of 2019, HCMC has facing many problems such as the limitations of investment resources, human resource quality… This requires HCMC must improve the quality of economic growth. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the determinants affecting the economic growth of HCMC. The researchers surveyed 400 managers related to exporting enterprise in HCMC. They answered 15 questions and 395 samples processed. The data collected from August 2018 to April 2019 in HCM. Simple random sampling technique. The data analyzed Cronbach’s Alpha and the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which used for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. Managers’ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Finally, the findings of the paper have three factors affecting the economic growth of HCMC with significance level 0.01.

Keywords: Economic, Growth, International, trade and export

Population Dynamics and Assessment of Golden Trevally, Gnathonodon Speciosus (Forsskål, 1775), in the Southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates (Published)

The population dynamics of Gnathonodon speciosus from the southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates was investigated based on direct and indirect methods to validate the age. The average growth parameters based on the methods were estimated as L=84.52cm TL, K=0.28 and to=-0.45years.  The fitted Von Bertalnaffy’s growth equation for G.speciosus was Lt=84.52*[1–exp-0.28*(t+0.45)]. The estimated growth performance index Ø was 3.30 while the estimated life spans close to 11.0 years. The instantaneous coefficient rates of total mortality Z estimated by length converted catch curve was 1.01yr-1. Natural mortality M estimated by pauly, Rikhter&Efanov and Hoeing methods were 0.62, 1.02 and 0.41yr-1 respectively with average 0.68yr-1 for further analysis. Peaks in spawning occurred during March, April and May. Yield per recruit Y/R and biomass per recruit B/R were estimated as 171.7&520.3g respectively at current F=0.33year-1 and Tc=1.59 year. Estimates of relative yield per recruit and relative biomass per recruit were E0.1=0.62, E0.5=0.35 and Emax=0.74 indicates the stock of G.speciosus is under-exploited.

Keywords: Gnathonodon speciosus, Growth, Mortality, yield per recruit and spawning season

Effect of Organic (Cow Dung Slurry) and Inorganic (N: P: K 15:15:15) Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon Lycopersicum) in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria (Published)

A pot experiment was conducted in April 2018 in faculty of Agriculture, Kogi state university, Anyigba. The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments in four replications and results obtained were subjected to analysis using ANOVA and means were separated at 5% level of probability using Fisher Least Significant Difference Test. The treatment consisted of a control (T0), 2 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T1), 4 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T2), 6 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T3), 8 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T4).Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, number of branches, number of fruit per plant, and fruit diameter respectively. It was observed that the organic and inorganic manure used increased the soil physical-chemical properties as well as the performance parameters of the test crop (Tomato). Recommendation was made at the rate of 6t/ha of cow dung slurry +50kg of NPK 15:15:15 (T4) for optimum yield and performance of tomato.

Keywords: Cow dung slurry, Fertilizer, Growth, Inorganic, Organic, Tomato, Yield

Impact of Primary Mortgage Institutions’ Investments on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1995-2017) (Published)

The study examined the impact of primary mortgage institutions’ investments on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1995-2017. Secondary data were used and collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study employed Gross Domestic Product as proxy for Economic Growth and used as the dependent variable; whereas, Primary Mortgage Institutions Investment, Primary Mortgage Institution Deposit, Primary Mortgage Institutions’ Loan and used as the explanatory variables. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using Ordinary Least Square econometrics techniques.  Primary mortgage institutions’ investments had asignificant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Primary mortgage institutions’ deposithad a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Primary mortgage institutions’ loan had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicated that about 68% of the variations in economic growth can be explained by changes in primary mortgage institutions’ investments variables in Nigeria.The study concluded that primary mortgage institutions’investments had a significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria.The study recommended that the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria should relax some of the regulations guiding the operations of the PMIs and liberalize the subsector for more effective performance. The primary mortgage institutions should redirect major parts of their loan able funds to building and renovation of residential buildings instead of concentrating on commercial buildings and neglecting residential properties. Such redirection is expected to increase their impact on provision of housing and enhance their contributions to real estate development in Nigerian economy. Allocation under the Land Use Act of 1978 that has made land acquisition more difficult should be readdressed. The delay in getting Certificate of Occupancy is a major problem. Government should review or repeal the Act to enable easy land acquisition by individuals.

Keywords: Economic, Growth, Institutions, Investments, Nigeria, Primary Mortgage

Analysis of Interest Rate Determination and Its Effect on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1990-2017) (Published)

The study examined the analysis of interest rate determination and its effect on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1990-2017. Secondary data were used and sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study employed Gross Domestic Product as proxy for Economic Growth and used as the dependent variable; whereas, prime lending rate (interest rate), inflation and private domestic investment were used as explanatory variables to measure interest rate. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using Ordinary Least Square econometrics models.  Private domestic investment had a significant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Inflation had an insignificant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Interest rate had an inverse significant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicates that about 65% of the variations in economic growth can be explained by changes in commercial bank lending variables in Nigeria. The study concluded that interest rate had an insignificant effect on economic growth in Nigeria. The study recommended that Government and policy makers should focus on maintaining inflation at a low rate (single digit) and ensure that the rate is stable; this will take care of the problem of inflation on the economy. CBN should increase their surveillance on the commercial banks; in order to address the issue of arbitrarily increase of the lending rate. Government should provide healthy environment for the banks in the industry so as to render efficient financial services to the economy.

Keywords: Analysis, Determination, Economic, Growth, Interest Rate, Nigeria

Microfinance and Performance of Micro and Small Enterprises; Does Training Has an Impact (Published)

Access to finance is considered as very important for gaining high performance of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs). Yet it has been observed that despite the availability of access to finance the performance of several MSEs is poor, which is a major hurdle in the growth rate of MSEs. The purpose of this study was to find the difference in certain performance indicators of MSEs who owners have been given training against those whose owners have never been given any kind of training. In order to conduct study survey research has been conducted and a sample of 384 MSEs was selected on simple random basis. The findings revealed that all the performance indicators including sales increase, income increase, assets increase, employment increase, and meeting household expenses have shown a significant difference among the two groups. The findings of the study are very important for the policy makers and the people who are involved in microfinance industry.

Keywords: Growth, Microfinance, Performance, Training, micro and small enterprises

Analytical Review of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria (Published)

The primary purpose of business is the supply of goods and services to satisfy the societal needs. Wherever people live in conurbations, there is always the need for goods and services. These goods and services are supplied by institutions such as the family, the voluntary organization, the business firms, local, state and federal government. Also, the importance of credit facilities from both the bank and non-bank financial institutions cannot be overemphasized in enhancing the development of SMEs in the country. However, only the effect of initial capital (CAP) and non bank credit facilities (NBK) is significant and responsive towards the enhancement of performance of SMEs while credit facilities from banks are insignificant with respect to SMEs development. Lastly it concluded that government agencies such as the National Directorate of Employment should intensify efforts geared towards training programmes for SMEs.

Keywords: Enterprise, Entrepreneurship, Environment, Growth, SMEs

Phosphorus Adsorption Isotherms of Some Low Activity Clay Soils As Influenced By Soil Properties and Their Effect on Fertilizer P Recommendations and Yield of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merr.) In Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

The relationship between labile P sorbed to the soil surface and solution P can be described by a quantity-intensity relationship which shows P sorption or desorption as a function of P in the equilibrium solution. Twelve soils in Benue state representing Alfisols, Ultisols and Inceptisols were therefore used to examine the influence of soil properties on the shape and placement of their adsorption curves and yield of soybean. Sorption characteristics were determined in 0.01 M CaCl2 solutions of various P concentrations. For each soil, the amounts of P that gave 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.100, 0.125, 0.150, 0.175, 0.200, 0.225, 0.250 mg kg-1 solution concentrations were estimated from adsorption curves. In the greenhouse, 4 kg of soil from each location was placed in plastic pots. Amount of P estimated from sorption study was added as KH2PO4. The treatments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and soybean seed variety (TGx 1448-2E) was planted and growth and development observed to maturity. Optimum solution P concentration (SPC) was determined for each soil in relation to yield. At harvest, SPC that gave highest grain yield was evaluated for each soil and the quantity of P required (SPR) to achieve this concentration was calculated. Consequently, Odoba would require highest P fertilizer application (604.84 Kg P ha-1), (Tor-Donga 112.31, Abeda-Mbadyul 105.93) would require medium fertilization, (Utonkon 72.75, Katsina-Ala and Ofugo 67.64, Akoodo-Mbakor and Nor 61.26, Ogyoma 39.56, Otobi 33.18 and Abaji-Kpav 22.97 Kg P ha-1)would require low fertilization while Vanam (2.55 Kg P ha-1) would require the least.

Keywords: Adsorption, Fertilizer, Growth, Isotherms, Phosphorus, soils, soybean

The Impact of Outsourcing on the Growth of Hotels in Eldoret Town in Kenya (Published)

Hospitality Industry, which majorly consists of hotels and restaurant chains and related services, is one of the largest service industries in the world. Most countries in Africa have realized that the development of hospitality industries is also important for economic diversification. The study assessed the influence of strategic alliances on growth of hotel industry in Eldoret town, the headquarters of Uasin Gishu County in the North Rift region of Kenya. Based on the study this paper explores the effects of outsourcing on growth of hotel industry. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design with a target population of 220 in the hotel industry in Eldoret town. A sample of 112 respondents was drawn proportionately from four categories of hotels using stratified random sampling technique. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect the required data. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques with the aid of a computer software known as Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data.  The study found that outsourcing had contributed to increased hotel sales, profits, product/service quality and reduction of costs. It was therefore recommended that hotel managers need to understand the benefits as well as the challenges that come with outsourcing. The findings of the study will be of benefit to hotels with limited resources and exposed to growth opportunities as they will be able to appreciate the role of outsourcing in leveraging on large firms’ resources for profitability, growth and expansion.

Keywords: Eldoret Town, Growth, Hotels, Kenya, Outsourcing

Enhancing Effective Financial Planning Through a Robust Capacity Building Techniques for Entrepreneurial Growth in Nigeria (Published)

The study sets out to examine the extent to which capacity building creates awareness to the entrepreneurs in planning their business finance. It has been established that if the entrepreneurs are educational astute, they will take advantages of windows opening for them to tap. Expost-facto research design was applied in determining the population. The sample was obtained with the application of Taro Yamani principle. Ordinary least square technique was used in analyzing the data. Findings revealed that entrepreneurs are easily able to arrange their business finances when they acquire awareness through various techniques. It was concluded that a robust capacity building technique is sine-qua-non to entrepreneurial success in financial planning. It was recommended that the government and the private sector organizations should incorporate adequate skill training programmes for the benefit of small and medium scale business operators and that they in turn should develop passion to learn and apply the skills acquired to improve the ability in financial planning.

Keywords: Capacity building, Entrepreneurial success, Financial planning, Growth

Economic Transformation: Reliance to Small Businesses and Export Orientation (Published)

Uzbekistan as a low-middle-income country with a population of 30 million, has seen stable economic progress (with the growth of average 8 percent per year) since 2004 and extreme poverty has declined from 27 percent in 2000 to 15 percent in 2012. The government has set an ambitious goal for the country—to join the group of upper-middle-income countries by 2030. This study discusses the main challenges of the structural transformations that the economy will face to achieve this objective.

Keywords: Export, Growth, Small Business, Transformation, Uzbekistan, import