Tag Archives: Growth

Food and feeding biology of a Near Threatened freshwater ornamental fish Nobel Gourami, Ctenops nobilis McClelland, 1845 (Published)

Noble gourami, Ctenops nobilis McClelland, 1845 is one of the most valuable freshwater indigenous ornamental fish currently depends only on natural collection for its trade. In order to decline the population of fish, suppliers cannot meet the market demand so breeding and large scale seed production of C. nobilis is an urgent need. The knowledge of food and feeding habit of fish has been profitably utilised in culture operation. The gut content analysis showed the maximum amount of zooplankton with 31% and tiny crustacean with 27%. The length of alimentary canal and the RLG value (1.06-2.18) implies that the fish is carnivorous in nature. Seasonal changes in RLG and monthly changes in GaSI value recorded for the fish. The values of GaSI have been observed to become high during March to May with the peak being in March. Tubifex and Daphnia gave the higher rate growth with 1.63 FCR.

Keywords: Growth, Nobel gourami, alimentary canal, feeding habit

Growth Performance and Feed Utilization Efficiency of Juvenile Catfish Clarias Gariepinus Fed Heat Processed and Dehulled Jatropha Curcas Meal (Published)

The growth performance and feed utilization efficiency of juvenile Clarias gariepinus fed heat processed and dehulled Jatropha curcas kernel meal (JCKM) was investigated using 150 pieces of fish with an average weight of 8.9g which were randomly distributed into five experimental diets in replicates of ten (10) fish per tank for 42days. The processed JCKM used were: Sand roasted, Autoclaved, Boiled and Raw defatted meal in replacement of Soya-bean meal at 33.33% per diet. The diets were fed to C. gariepinus of juvenile at 5% body weight. The highest growth performance (170.07±11.12) and feed utilization efficiency (1.36±0.06) was recorded for fish fed with diet of no JCKM replacement followed by sand roasted JCKM based diet(45.03±10.30, 0.42±0.11). There was no significant difference between the two diets at p>0.05. The low fed utilization efficiency observed in fish fed boiled(0.05±0.03), autoclaved(-0.1±0.05) and raw defatted (0.04±0.03) JCKM leads to decrease in growth performance which can be due to high concentration of anti-nutritional factors such as Phorbol esters, Saponins and Curcin. Therefore, JCKM can be used to replace Soya beans at low quantity in the diet of freshwater fish when Sand-roasted.

Keywords: Clarias Gariepinus, Feed Utilization, Growth, Jatropha Curcas

Monetary Policy and Inclusive Growth in Nigeria (Published)

The objective of the study is to determine the impact of monetary policy on inclusive growth. The study employed multivariate regression model to establish the effect. Data was collected on PCI as proxy for inclusive growth, and exchange rate, interest rate and money supply as monetary policy tools. The OLS technique revealed a significant variation between money supply and inclusive growth which implies that it will be in the best interest of the populace if monetary policy measures are employed to effect changes in the economy.

Keywords: Growth, Monetary Policy, Nigeria, inclusive

Growth and Haematological Responses of Clarias gariepinus Juveniles fed diets containing varying digestible lipids of Plant origin (Published)

This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and hematological responses of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed diets containing different digestible lipids of plant origin. One hundred and eighty (180) juveniles (4.78±0.37g) were stocked using four treatments in three replicates. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Fish were fed at 5% body weight with four isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein), with control diet without lipid supplement (D1). Diets (D2-D4) contained Soya oil, palm kernel oil and groundnut oil respectively. Weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and specific growth rate (SGR) showed significant difference (p<0.05) among treatments. However, the highest WG was recorded in D4 (10.69±0.97g) and lowest in fish fed D1 (9.91±0.35g). FCR ranged between 1.69±0.17 in D2 and 1.52±0.67 in D4 respectively. Protein utilization showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in all treatments. There were significant differences (P<0.05) among hematological parameters analyzed such as PCV, WBC, RBC, Hb, MCHC, MCH, MCV. The highest cholesterol level was recorded in fish fed D4 (1.67±0.81), while the lowest value was recorded in D1 (1.10±0.80). Triglyceride was highest in D3 (1.40±0.45) while the lowest value was recorded in the control D1 (1.20±0.45) with no lipid inclusion. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the HDL and LDL value in all treatments. Hence, all hematological indices fall in the required range for Clarias gariepinus.

Keywords: Clarias Gariepinus, Growth, Juveniles, digestible lipids, haematological responses, plant origin.

Population dynamics and assessment of Golden Trevally, Gnathonodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775), in the Southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates (Published)

The population dynamics of Gnathonodon speciosus from the southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates was investigated based on direct and indirect methods to validate the age. The average growth parameters based on the methods were estimated as L=84.52cm TL, K=0.28 and to=-0.45years.  The fitted Von Bertalnaffy’s growth equation for G.speciosus was Lt=84.52*[1–exp-0.28*(t+0.45)]. The estimated growth performance index Ø was 3.30 while the estimated life spans close to 11.0 years. The instantaneous coefficient rates of total mortality Z estimated by length converted catch curve was 1.01yr-1. Natural mortality M estimated by pauly, Rikhter&Efanov and Hoeing methods were 0.62, 1.02 and 0.41yr-1 respectively with average 0.68yr-1 for further analysis. Peaks in spawning occurred during March, April and May. Yield per recruit Y/R and biomass per recruit B/R were estimated as 171.7&520.3g respectively at current F=0.33year-1 and Tc=1.59 year. Estimates of relative yield per recruit and relative biomass per recruit were E0.1=0.62, E0.5=0.35 and Emax=0.74 indicates the stock of G.speciosus is under-exploited.

Keywords: Gnathonodon speciosus, Growth, Mortality, spawning season, yield per recruit

Impact of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1990-2017) (Published)

The study examined the impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1990-2017. Secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study used Gross Domestic Product as proxy for economic growth and employed as the dependent variable; whereas, monetary policy rate, liquidity rate and Treasury Bills respectively were used as the explanatory variables to measure monetary policy. Hypotheses formulated were tested using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) techniques. The study revealed a significant impact of Treasury Bills on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Liquidity ratio had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Monetary policy rate had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicated that about 62% of the variations in private sector of the economy can be explained by changes in monetary policy variables. The study concluded that monetary policy had impacted significantly on private sector growth in Nigeria. The study recommended that policy makers should strong economic policies that will maintain and stabilize the economy. CBN should lay down strict prudential guidelines to stabilize and strengthen the economy. The CBN should review the Monetary Policy Rate downwards so as to reduce the cost of credit and increase the flow of investible funds to the economy.

Keywords: Economic, Growth, Nigeria, Policy, monetary

The Growth and Survival of Clarias Gariepinus Fry Fed Various Dry Feeds (Baker’s Yeast, Fishmeal, Egg Yolk, Artemia And Combination of Artemia And Fishmeal) With Cod Liver Oil as Supplement for Test Starter Diet (Published)

  1. gariepinus (0.02g) of 1 week old were subjected to five diets consisting of baker’s yeast, fishmeal, chicken egg yolk, Artemia and the combinations of Artemia and fishmeal with a drop of cod liver oil as supplement to each treatment. The fry were fed to satiation daily and the study lasted for 5 weeks. At the end of the study, the respective treatments were compared on the basis of percentage weight gain, body length, survival rate, and condition factor. Fry fed on Artemia and fishmeal with a drop of cod liver oil were significantly higher (5.01cm and 2.8g for length and weight respectively and 95% survival of the fish fry) than those fed on other diets. This present research recommends that at larval to fry age C. gariepinus requires the combinations of Artemia and fishmeal with a drop of cod liver oil.

Keywords: Diets, Growth, survival and Clarias gariepinus

Relationship Between International Trade and Economic Growth: A Case of Ho Chi Minh City (Published)

Economic growth has been gradually reduced depending on investment capital, increasing scientific and technical factors. Commercial sector of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) continued to grow, total retail sales of goods and service revenue increased higher than the same period. However, the context of 2019, HCMC has facing many problems such as the limitations of investment resources, human resource quality… This requires HCMC must improve the quality of economic growth. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the determinants affecting the economic growth of HCMC. The researchers surveyed 400 managers related to exporting enterprise in HCMC. They answered 15 questions and 395 samples processed. The data collected from August 2018 to April 2019 in HCM. Simple random sampling technique. The data analyzed Cronbach’s Alpha and the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which used for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. Managers’ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Finally, the findings of the paper have three factors affecting the economic growth of HCMC with significance level 0.01.

Keywords: Economic, Growth, International, trade and export

Population Dynamics and Assessment of Golden Trevally, Gnathonodon Speciosus (Forsskål, 1775), in the Southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates (Published)

The population dynamics of Gnathonodon speciosus from the southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates was investigated based on direct and indirect methods to validate the age. The average growth parameters based on the methods were estimated as L=84.52cm TL, K=0.28 and to=-0.45years.  The fitted Von Bertalnaffy’s growth equation for G.speciosus was Lt=84.52*[1–exp-0.28*(t+0.45)]. The estimated growth performance index Ø was 3.30 while the estimated life spans close to 11.0 years. The instantaneous coefficient rates of total mortality Z estimated by length converted catch curve was 1.01yr-1. Natural mortality M estimated by pauly, Rikhter&Efanov and Hoeing methods were 0.62, 1.02 and 0.41yr-1 respectively with average 0.68yr-1 for further analysis. Peaks in spawning occurred during March, April and May. Yield per recruit Y/R and biomass per recruit B/R were estimated as 171.7&520.3g respectively at current F=0.33year-1 and Tc=1.59 year. Estimates of relative yield per recruit and relative biomass per recruit were E0.1=0.62, E0.5=0.35 and Emax=0.74 indicates the stock of G.speciosus is under-exploited.

Keywords: Gnathonodon speciosus, Growth, Mortality, yield per recruit and spawning season

Effect of Organic (Cow Dung Slurry) and Inorganic (N: P: K 15:15:15) Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon Lycopersicum) in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria (Published)

A pot experiment was conducted in April 2018 in faculty of Agriculture, Kogi state university, Anyigba. The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments in four replications and results obtained were subjected to analysis using ANOVA and means were separated at 5% level of probability using Fisher Least Significant Difference Test. The treatment consisted of a control (T0), 2 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T1), 4 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T2), 6 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T3), 8 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T4).Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, number of branches, number of fruit per plant, and fruit diameter respectively. It was observed that the organic and inorganic manure used increased the soil physical-chemical properties as well as the performance parameters of the test crop (Tomato). Recommendation was made at the rate of 6t/ha of cow dung slurry +50kg of NPK 15:15:15 (T4) for optimum yield and performance of tomato.

Keywords: Cow dung slurry, Fertilizer, Growth, Inorganic, Organic, Tomato, Yield

Impact of Primary Mortgage Institutions’ Investments on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1995-2017) (Published)

The study examined the impact of primary mortgage institutions’ investments on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1995-2017. Secondary data were used and collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study employed Gross Domestic Product as proxy for Economic Growth and used as the dependent variable; whereas, Primary Mortgage Institutions Investment, Primary Mortgage Institution Deposit, Primary Mortgage Institutions’ Loan and used as the explanatory variables. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using Ordinary Least Square econometrics techniques.  Primary mortgage institutions’ investments had asignificant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Primary mortgage institutions’ deposithad a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Primary mortgage institutions’ loan had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicated that about 68% of the variations in economic growth can be explained by changes in primary mortgage institutions’ investments variables in Nigeria.The study concluded that primary mortgage institutions’investments had a significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria.The study recommended that the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria should relax some of the regulations guiding the operations of the PMIs and liberalize the subsector for more effective performance. The primary mortgage institutions should redirect major parts of their loan able funds to building and renovation of residential buildings instead of concentrating on commercial buildings and neglecting residential properties. Such redirection is expected to increase their impact on provision of housing and enhance their contributions to real estate development in Nigerian economy. Allocation under the Land Use Act of 1978 that has made land acquisition more difficult should be readdressed. The delay in getting Certificate of Occupancy is a major problem. Government should review or repeal the Act to enable easy land acquisition by individuals.

Keywords: Economic, Growth, Institutions, Investments, Nigeria, Primary Mortgage

Analysis of Interest Rate Determination and Its Effect on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1990-2017) (Published)

The study examined the analysis of interest rate determination and its effect on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1990-2017. Secondary data were used and sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study employed Gross Domestic Product as proxy for Economic Growth and used as the dependent variable; whereas, prime lending rate (interest rate), inflation and private domestic investment were used as explanatory variables to measure interest rate. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using Ordinary Least Square econometrics models.  Private domestic investment had a significant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Inflation had an insignificant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Interest rate had an inverse significant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicates that about 65% of the variations in economic growth can be explained by changes in commercial bank lending variables in Nigeria. The study concluded that interest rate had an insignificant effect on economic growth in Nigeria. The study recommended that Government and policy makers should focus on maintaining inflation at a low rate (single digit) and ensure that the rate is stable; this will take care of the problem of inflation on the economy. CBN should increase their surveillance on the commercial banks; in order to address the issue of arbitrarily increase of the lending rate. Government should provide healthy environment for the banks in the industry so as to render efficient financial services to the economy.

Keywords: Analysis, Determination, Economic, Growth, Interest Rate, Nigeria

Microfinance and Performance of Micro and Small Enterprises; Does Training Has an Impact (Published)

Access to finance is considered as very important for gaining high performance of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs). Yet it has been observed that despite the availability of access to finance the performance of several MSEs is poor, which is a major hurdle in the growth rate of MSEs. The purpose of this study was to find the difference in certain performance indicators of MSEs who owners have been given training against those whose owners have never been given any kind of training. In order to conduct study survey research has been conducted and a sample of 384 MSEs was selected on simple random basis. The findings revealed that all the performance indicators including sales increase, income increase, assets increase, employment increase, and meeting household expenses have shown a significant difference among the two groups. The findings of the study are very important for the policy makers and the people who are involved in microfinance industry.

Keywords: Growth, Microfinance, Performance, Training, micro and small enterprises

Analytical Review of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria (Published)

The primary purpose of business is the supply of goods and services to satisfy the societal needs. Wherever people live in conurbations, there is always the need for goods and services. These goods and services are supplied by institutions such as the family, the voluntary organization, the business firms, local, state and federal government. Also, the importance of credit facilities from both the bank and non-bank financial institutions cannot be overemphasized in enhancing the development of SMEs in the country. However, only the effect of initial capital (CAP) and non bank credit facilities (NBK) is significant and responsive towards the enhancement of performance of SMEs while credit facilities from banks are insignificant with respect to SMEs development. Lastly it concluded that government agencies such as the National Directorate of Employment should intensify efforts geared towards training programmes for SMEs.

Keywords: Enterprise, Entrepreneurship, Environment, Growth, SMEs

Phosphorus Adsorption Isotherms of Some Low Activity Clay Soils As Influenced By Soil Properties and Their Effect on Fertilizer P Recommendations and Yield of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merr.) In Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

The relationship between labile P sorbed to the soil surface and solution P can be described by a quantity-intensity relationship which shows P sorption or desorption as a function of P in the equilibrium solution. Twelve soils in Benue state representing Alfisols, Ultisols and Inceptisols were therefore used to examine the influence of soil properties on the shape and placement of their adsorption curves and yield of soybean. Sorption characteristics were determined in 0.01 M CaCl2 solutions of various P concentrations. For each soil, the amounts of P that gave 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.100, 0.125, 0.150, 0.175, 0.200, 0.225, 0.250 mg kg-1 solution concentrations were estimated from adsorption curves. In the greenhouse, 4 kg of soil from each location was placed in plastic pots. Amount of P estimated from sorption study was added as KH2PO4. The treatments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and soybean seed variety (TGx 1448-2E) was planted and growth and development observed to maturity. Optimum solution P concentration (SPC) was determined for each soil in relation to yield. At harvest, SPC that gave highest grain yield was evaluated for each soil and the quantity of P required (SPR) to achieve this concentration was calculated. Consequently, Odoba would require highest P fertilizer application (604.84 Kg P ha-1), (Tor-Donga 112.31, Abeda-Mbadyul 105.93) would require medium fertilization, (Utonkon 72.75, Katsina-Ala and Ofugo 67.64, Akoodo-Mbakor and Nor 61.26, Ogyoma 39.56, Otobi 33.18 and Abaji-Kpav 22.97 Kg P ha-1)would require low fertilization while Vanam (2.55 Kg P ha-1) would require the least.

Keywords: Adsorption, Fertilizer, Growth, Isotherms, Phosphorus, soils, soybean

The Impact of Outsourcing on the Growth of Hotels in Eldoret Town in Kenya (Published)

Hospitality Industry, which majorly consists of hotels and restaurant chains and related services, is one of the largest service industries in the world. Most countries in Africa have realized that the development of hospitality industries is also important for economic diversification. The study assessed the influence of strategic alliances on growth of hotel industry in Eldoret town, the headquarters of Uasin Gishu County in the North Rift region of Kenya. Based on the study this paper explores the effects of outsourcing on growth of hotel industry. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design with a target population of 220 in the hotel industry in Eldoret town. A sample of 112 respondents was drawn proportionately from four categories of hotels using stratified random sampling technique. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect the required data. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques with the aid of a computer software known as Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data.  The study found that outsourcing had contributed to increased hotel sales, profits, product/service quality and reduction of costs. It was therefore recommended that hotel managers need to understand the benefits as well as the challenges that come with outsourcing. The findings of the study will be of benefit to hotels with limited resources and exposed to growth opportunities as they will be able to appreciate the role of outsourcing in leveraging on large firms’ resources for profitability, growth and expansion.

Keywords: Eldoret Town, Growth, Hotels, Kenya, Outsourcing

Enhancing Effective Financial Planning Through a Robust Capacity Building Techniques for Entrepreneurial Growth in Nigeria (Published)

The study sets out to examine the extent to which capacity building creates awareness to the entrepreneurs in planning their business finance. It has been established that if the entrepreneurs are educational astute, they will take advantages of windows opening for them to tap. Expost-facto research design was applied in determining the population. The sample was obtained with the application of Taro Yamani principle. Ordinary least square technique was used in analyzing the data. Findings revealed that entrepreneurs are easily able to arrange their business finances when they acquire awareness through various techniques. It was concluded that a robust capacity building technique is sine-qua-non to entrepreneurial success in financial planning. It was recommended that the government and the private sector organizations should incorporate adequate skill training programmes for the benefit of small and medium scale business operators and that they in turn should develop passion to learn and apply the skills acquired to improve the ability in financial planning.

Keywords: Capacity building, Entrepreneurial success, Financial planning, Growth

Economic Transformation: Reliance to Small Businesses and Export Orientation (Published)

Uzbekistan as a low-middle-income country with a population of 30 million, has seen stable economic progress (with the growth of average 8 percent per year) since 2004 and extreme poverty has declined from 27 percent in 2000 to 15 percent in 2012. The government has set an ambitious goal for the country—to join the group of upper-middle-income countries by 2030. This study discusses the main challenges of the structural transformations that the economy will face to achieve this objective.

Keywords: Export, Growth, Small Business, Transformation, Uzbekistan, import

An Assessment of the Effect of Distribution Alliance on Growth of Hotels in Eldoret Town, Kenya (Published)

Strategic alliance enables firms to remain competitive and thus survive, grow and prosper. In order for enterprises to survive in a rapidly changing business environment, they are increasingly forming strategic alliances with other firms. This paper assesses the influence of distribution alliances on growth of hotel industry in Eldoret town. The paper is based on a study that sought to evaluate the influence of strategic alliances on the growth of the hotel industry in Eldoret town in North Rift region of Kenya. The study applied the Resource Dependency theory and the Resource Based theory and adopted a descriptive survey research design on a target population of 220 respondents involved in the hotel industry in Eldoret town. A sample of 112 respondents was drawn proportionately from four categories of hotels using stratified random sampling technique. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents to collect the required data. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multiple regression analysis was also used to analyze the data. The study established that distribution alliance had increased the hotel sales, profits, product/service quality and reduction of costs. Further, strategic alliance had increased market share and enabled hotel businesses to gain competitive advantage. The study also established that the hotels have improved proximity to customers and faster and easier market penetration due to strategic alliance. Based on the research findings and conclusion in the study, it is recommended that hotels need to come up with governance structure that governs strategic alliance. This will help reduce problems encountered in strategic alliance.

Keywords: Distribution Alliance, Eldoret, Growth, Hotels, Kenya

Student and Staff Perception on the Growth and Administration of Parallel Degree Programmes in Kenya (Published)

The introduction of parallel degree programmes into public universities in Kenya initially triggered off stiff resistance from regular students as well as education experts who argued that quality would be sacrificed in pursuit of additional funds by the universities to address their deficit.  Public universities shifted from the public-good paradigm to a market model in which generation of funds for the survival of the institution takes center stage. This paper examines the growth of Privately Sponsored Student Programmes (PSSP) in Kenya and the perception of staff and students on its management by the institutions. The descriptive study adopted ex-post facto research design. A sample of 460 privately sponsored students from all schools and campuses of Moi University and 140 teaching and non-teaching staff was used. Stratified random sampling procedure was used to identify the schools and the students while purposive sampling was used on the staff. Data was collected using questionnaires for students and staff while interview guides were used on administrators of schools and satellite campuses. The PSSP students at Moi University feel the University is not providing the quality education they had hoped to get. The staff has a more positive attitude towards PSSP and asserts that they are willing to put in more effort to ensure that PSSP achieves its objectives. However, the students think that there is little chance of any of them getting first class honours degree because of inadequate teaching, shortage of supporting infrastructure and favouritism

Keywords: Growth, PSSP Administration, Parallel Programmes, Perception