Growth Performance of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Juveniles Fed Diet Containing Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal (Published)
A 90 day feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera on the growth of Clarias gariepinus. A total of 80 juveniles of C. gariepinus were stocked in four concrete tanks measuring 9x4x2m3 with each tank containing 20 experimental fish arranged in duplicates. There was also another set of tank known as control where fish therein where fed diets containing fish meal. Plant based diet was formulated with Moringa oleifera leaves extract, unripe plantain powder, soybean meal and palm kernel cake. The experimental fish were fed twice daily at 5% body weight. Proximate composition of experimental diet included crude protein (35.68%), moisture (5.24%), crude lipid (15.64%), ash (4.92%), nitrogen free extract (24.83) and fibre (13.69%). Results of growth performance revealed the following: weight gain (7.51±1.22g), food conversion ratio (5.09±1.14gg-1), specific growth rate (0.28±0.02%), and condition factor (0.91±0.02). The present study shows that the growth of C. gariepinus fed diets containing M. oleifera have compared favourably (P>0.05) with those fed diets containing fish meal. The use of plant-based ingredients such as M. oleifera in fish diets can reduce the cost of feed production leading to increase fish production.
Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Graded Levels of Melon Shell as Replacement for Maize (Published)
This study to evaluate effect of replacing maize with graded levels of melon shell on growth of Clarias gariepinus fingerling was conducted for 16 weeks in the teaching and research farm of department of Fisheries, faculty of Agriculture Delta state university. Pearson square formula was used to formulate five different Diet with crude protein value of 40%. The Diets had 0%, 25%, 50%75% and 100% melon shell inclusion respectively. Four hundred and fifty fingerlings were randomly distributed into fifteen tanks (1mx1mx1m) and grouped in threes to form five treatments (D1a-c – D5a-c). Fishes in each tank was fed 3% body weight of diet corresponding to tank number twice daily. Weight of fish were taken fortnightly. Data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Result obtained showed significant difference (P<0.05) in Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR). However there was no significant different (P>0.05) in Specific Growth Rate (SGR). Fish fed diet two with 25% melon shell inclusion had the best FCR and highest Mean weight gain among treatments.
Effects of salinity and hardness on the growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Northern Punjab region of Pakistan. (Published)
The tolerance of salinity and hardness was checked on the growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in National Agriculture Research Council (NARC) Islamabad. Fry of the Tilapia measuring between 2.5cm to 2.9cm in total length and weighing between 0.435g to 0.603g (Body Weight BW) were used for the salinity and hardness treatment. Different levels of salinity from 0-15ppt were developed for the three months. 100 % survival rate was observed in 0-7.5ppt while in 12.5ppt and 15ppt all the fish died. Salinities between 0-10ppt were endured by the fish however the most appropriate salinity level was 5ppt on which maximum growth was recorded. For hardness treatment different concentrations of 350mg/lit, 450mg/lit, 550mg/lit and 650mg/lit of CaCl2 were used. No mortality was observed in this case and the most preferred concentration on which the fish showed maximum growth was 550 mg/lit.
Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Gonad Maturation of Mullet (Liza Ramada) (Published)
This study was conducted to evaluate four different diets (fish oil FO, Palm oil PO, sunflower oil SO and mixed diet of three oils as 2% FO : 2%PO : 2%SO) on growth performance, body composition and gonad maturation of Liza ramada with an initial weight of 5.31±0.31g. Hundred fish were randomly distributed in twelve cement ponds with a volume of 2m3 each and fed for 120 days at a rate of 3% live body weight (BW) twice daily. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) between diets. The highest growth performance, feed utilization and hepatosomatic index were obtained with the fish fed fish oil (FO) and Mixed diets, without significance difference between them. However, the fish fed palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO) recorded less growth performance. Differences in certain fatty acid composition were detected but levels of saturated, mono-saturated and n-3 fatty acids recorded increased in each FO and mixed diets without significant differences between them. On the other hand, n-6 showed significantly increased in both palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO) groups. The essential fatty acids (EFAs): arachidonic acid (ARA), ecosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were different across treatment groups suggesting that Liza ramada can affected with different oil sources. In the second trial the mixed diet was fed to the broodstock fish in earthen ponds. The broodstock fish showed an increased in growth performance, feed efficiency, heptosomatic and gonadsomatic indices of Liza ramada. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of oil type effects, diet costs and gonad histology of Liza ramada broodstock.
Dietary Sorghum Starch Influences Growth Performance, Apparent Digestibility Coefficient And Some Hepatic Enzyme Activities Of Carbohydrate Metabolism In Hybrid Red Tilapia (Oreochromis Mossambicus × O. Niloticus) Fingerlings (Published)
A 120-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sorghum starch on growth performance, feed utilization, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) and some hepatic enzyme activities regulating glycolytic and gluconeogenic metabolic pathways of fingerlings hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. niloticus) with initial body weight of 10.9±0.2 g. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing graded levels of sorghum starch (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35%) were formulated. The results demonstrated that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization (NPU) values increased with increasing dietary sorghum starch up to 30% . Hepatosomatic index, plasma glucose, triglycerides, liver glycogen and liver lipid concentration of fish significantly increased with increasing dietary sorghum starch level. ADC of starch decreased significantly with increasing sorghum starch level over 30%, However, whole body compositions, and ADC of protein and lipid showed no significant differences. Dietary sorghum starch supplements tended to enhance gluconokinase and pyruvate kinase activities of the liver, but insignificant differences were observed in activities of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver for all dietary treatments. Based on WG and FCR results, the appropriate dietary sorghum starch supplementations of fingerlings hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus × O.niloticus) can be incorporated up to 30% of diet.
EFFECT OF INTRA-ROW SPACING ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) AT THE EXPERIMENTAL SITE OF WOLLO UNIVERSITY, SOUTH WOLLO, ETHIOPIA (Published)
A field experiment was conducted at the experimental site of Wollo University, kelemeda during in 2013 cropping season. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of intra-row spacing on the growth performance of garlic. The experiment was conducted on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Only one local variety was used on the experiment. The result of the experiment revealed significant difference among treatments with regard to plant height at 56 days after emergence. Plant height was influenced by intra row spacing such that plant height increases when the intra row spacing of the plant decreases. A significance difference was also recorded in leaf width, leaf length and leaf number per plant as influenced by intra row spacing (P<0.05). The highest leaf width (1.99) was recorded in treatment five (planted with 20cm plant spacing). The wider the plant spacing the higher was the leaf number. However the results of the experiment did not include yield components. Thus, a similar research should be conducted so as to assure the results of this experiment and to include yield components.