Tag Archives: Groundwater

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Ground Water Sources in Agona District in the Central Region of Ghana. (Published)

This study was done to determine the concentration of trace metals in groundwaters in the Agona East district of the Central region of Ghana. Ground water samples were collected from 3 hand dug wells and 15 boreholes in the study area. All samples were analyzed for seven trace metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al) using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentrations of the trace metals from the various areas range from 0.824 to 0.1.122 mg/L for Cu; 0.116 to 0.312 mg/L for Zn; <0.002 to 0.364 mg/L for Cr; <0.006 to 0.065 mg/L for Mn; 0.156 to 1.236 mg/L for Fe; <0.002 to 0.028 mg/L for Cd and 1.44 to 3.188 mg/L for Al. Four of the trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cd) had their concentrations within the WHO standards for drinking water. Aluminium, Iron and chromium had their values above the WHO limits at most of the sampling sites.

Keywords: Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), Concentration, Groundwater, Toxicity, Trace Metals

Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on the Quality of Shallow Groundwater of the Chad Basin in Maiduguri, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the effects of anthropogenic activities on the quality of shallow groundwater of the Chad Basin in Maiduguri, Nigeria by analyzing samples from 46 boreholes with a range of 40 m – 115 m, and an average depth of 60.54 m. The result of the analysis showed groundwater to be polluted in many boreholes. The pollution results from increased anthropogenic activities such as waste disposal, pit latrines and agricultural activities. About 22% of the sampled boreholes complied with the separation distances stipulated by the Federal Ministry of Water Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency leaving a whopping 78% in contravention of the minimum separation distance. Major point pollution sources identified include soakaways, pit latrines, solid and liquid wastes, plant and animal waste products and mechanical workshops. Turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn and PO4 are physicochemical parameters found to have exceeded the standard set by the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Seven wells had exceeded turbidity and TDS standards, 11 and 34 wells had exceeded the standards for Fe, Mn and PO4, and Cr and Cu respectively. Densely populated parts of the city have high TDS and turbidity values. To improve groundwater quality in the study area, the paper suggests enforcement of the minimum standard spacing for boreholes and pit latrines. Also, it suggests environmental education that will make the public to be aware of the necessity of ensuring environmental health which will ensure quality of groundwater and proper disposal of solid wastes.

Keywords: Anthropogenic Activities, Chad Basin, Groundwater, Quality of Shallow

Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Groundwater in Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)

This study evaluates the physico-chemical properties of groundwater in Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.  Standard field and laboratory methods were followed. The results of the study revealed that the pH value ranges from 6.4 to 7.1 with an average of 6.86 indicating a slightly acidic condition. The concentration level of iron in the study area ranges from 0.1mg/l to 4.2mg/l with a mean value of 1.89mg/l. 13.3% of iron in sampled locations satisfy the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) highest desirable level of 0.3mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranges between 3.0mg/l to 13.1mg/l, with a mean value of 8.83mg/l, while magnesium concentration was from 1.8mg/l to 9.0mg/l, with a mean value of 5.6mg/l. The concentration level of phosphate in the study area ranges from 0.02mg/l to 0.19mg/l, with a mean value of 0.12mg/l.  Chloride concentration level in the sampled locations was between 10mg/l to 39mg/l, with a mean of value of 23.8mg/l, all the values recorded were within the permissible WHO and NSDWQ standard of 250mg/l.  The low concentration level of chloride in the area indicates that there is no salt water intrusion, hence all the locations have freshwater. The cations were in order of abundance as Na+ > Ca 2+ > Mg 2+ > Fe 2+ > Mn 2+, while anions were in the order of abundance as SO4 > Cl > NO3 > F > NH3 > PO4. Piper Trilinear Diagram for the study area showed that there were mixtures of two types of water with variable concentrations of major ions. These were sodium-chloride type and sodium- sulphate type of water, an indication that the water was from a marine source. Based on the result from this study, there is the need for regular ground water quality monitoring and effective management strategies in the area.

Keywords: Contamination, Freshwater, Groundwater, Ogbia, Water Quality, major ions

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Ground Water Sources in Agona District in the Central Region of Ghana (Published)

This study was done to determine the concentration of trace metals in groundwaters in the Agona East district of the Central region of Ghana. Ground water samples were collected from 3 hand dug wells and 15 boreholes in the study area. All samples were analyzed for seven trace metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al) using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentrations of the trace metals from the various areas range from 0.824 to 0.1.122 mg/L for Cu; 0.116 to 0.312 mg/L for Zn; <0.002 to 0.364 mg/L for Cr; <0.006 to 0.065 mg/L for Mn; 0.156 to 1.236 mg/L for Fe; <0.002 to 0.028 mg/L for Cd and 1.44 to 3.188 mg/L for Al. Four of the trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cd) had their concentrations within the WHO standards for drinking water. Aluminium, Iron and chromium had their values above the WHO limits at most of the sampling sites.

Keywords: Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), Concentration, Groundwater, Toxicity, Trace Metals

Creation of an Exceptional Natural Phenomenon of Chains of Dunes and Lagoons through a Rare Balance of Five Key Elements in the National Park Lençóis Maranhenses in the Northeast of Brazil: Sand, Rain, Wind, River and Vegetation – An Artistic Approach (Published)

During our travels in the State of Maranhão in the northeast of Brazil, we explored the region of the National Park Lençóis Maranhenses in 2012 and 2013 before crossing the park during 5 days in September 2013 with the aim to produce nature art photography and organize subsequent itinerant exhibition throughout the country and abroad. We could confirm in loco the creation and constant modification of an exceptional natural phenomenon of chains of dunes and lagoons through a rare balance of five key elements in the park: sand, rain, wind, river and vegetation. Questions were raised and answers need to be found. Where is the sand coming from? What are the roles of the tides? How is the wind transforming the dunes? What are the natural lagoons or water ponds that exist in the middle of the dunes? What is the role of the vegetation? The dunes are in constant movement, what is their annual rate of dislocation? Is the balance of the five key elements to recreate the phenomenon threatened at present time or in the future, for instant due to ongoing, negative climate changes? A special approach was taken, as the production of nature photography of the dunes and lagoons in the park allowed us to know and observe the vast park area very closely. For the consecution of the aim of the research, we collected data based on bibliographic research, extents field studies in the area of the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park in 2012 and 2013, while conducting interviews with the habitants of the three communities living in the middle of the park and realizing artistic productions of nature photography and itinerant exhibitions to accompany the process of creation of dunes and lagoons in the park. We concluded that the balance of the five key elements to recreate the phenomenon depends on some fundamental factors such as, for instant, the same direction of the steady winds throughout the year, the elevation of the groundwater level due to rainfall during the month of January until July and the drying out of the water ponds during the month of July to December. We could distinguish the existence of free dunes inside the park and the fixed dunes on the Southern borders of the park and near to the village Atins. An important role plays the vegetation, that are fixing the dunes and delimitating the area of the park as further crowing of dunes is inhibited beyond theses areas due to the fixation of the dunes by vegetation. Furthermore, vegetation can deviate the direction of the winds, which might result in some cases in accumulation of a great amount of sand where vegetation was able to fix itself on the surface of a dune (the so called shadow dunes). In the first six months, due to rainfall, elevated groundwater level causing the creation of lagoons or water ponds, the free dunes in the park are almost not migrating, whereas during the months between July and December, with the drying out of the lagoons, sinking of the groundwater level and the continuing steady winds, the free dunes are migrating and moving in average 20m per year. The change of the landscape is confirmed by members of the three families living in the middle of the park, the Paulos, the Britos and the habitants of Baixa Grande during interviews. In the dry period of the year without rainfall, algae and vegetation can be found on the bottom of the lagoons and serve as food for domestic animals as pigs, horses and sheeps that are walking free inside the park. One scenario in the future is that the crossing of the park might be prohibit by the park administration alleging environmental prejudice to the balance of the park, as well as dust left behind while camping inside the park. Based on our experience, this kind of alternative tourism is not threatening the environment, as, for instant, we did not see any remains, and nothing was left behind by ourselves during the crossing and due to the fact that only few people are entering the park by food.  As the results of our research show, the exceptional natural phenomenon of chains of dunes and lagoons through a rare balance of five key elements in the park: sand, rain, wind, river and vegetation continuous to be intact and is not threatened, even not due to climate changes that occurred in this area. In recent years, it could be observed that, due to a dryer year with less rain occurrence during the month of January to July, the lagoons dried out in the subsequence months very quickly. Some lagoons contain fish. Even drying out (in the case of the not perennial water ponds) in the second half of the year and located in the middle of the park with no other water source visible next to it, the fish reappears in the following rainy season at the beginning of the year. One explanation is the possible ability of the fish to adapt to the situation by digging themselves into the sand into ground water layers where they are able to survive. Future research needs to be carried out to accompany closely the recreation and constant modification of an exceptional natural phenomenon of chains of dunes and lagoons through a rare balance of the five key elements needed.   

Keywords: Balance, Brazil, Groundwater, Lençóis Maranhenses, Rainfall, Vegetation, Wind, dunes, key elements, lagoons, river

Irrigation Water Quality Assessment of Shallow Quaternary Alluvial Aquifer Systems in Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)

Study of groundwater quality has been undertaken in Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria to assess the suitability of groundwater for irrigation. Knowledge of the effect of irrigation water on soil properties is very important in the area in order to maintain good soil productivity. This study therefore is aimed at determining whether the groundwater in the study area can be used for agricultural purposes. The research was based on the result obtained from the calculated Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). The SAR is the most useful parameter used in the determination of the suitability of the groundwater of any area for agricultural purposes. The calculated SAR for groundwater ranges from 3I.06 to 65.23mg/l, indicating that the groundwater samples, showed low salinity and very high sodium water for irrigation purposes for most soils and crops with danger of development of exchange sodium and salinity. This shows that the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation. High SAR values (>I0) could cause sodium to replace adsorbed calcium or magnesium, thereby damaging the soil structure.

Keywords: Coastal aquifer, Groundwater, Irrigation Water, Salinity, Sodium Absorption Ratio

Physico-Chemical Studies On Treatment Of Some Divalent Elements In Ground Water (Published)

Underground drinking water treatment is one of the hardest types of treatment that because of the difficulty of control on water source , who is an underground water source, as well as due to the high salt content of solid dissolved and that arrive in Egypt to approximately 1000 parts per million .Iron  and manganese of the most famous elements of bilateral parity in drinking underground water . we show in this study physic chemical ways for treatment of iron and manganese in ground water 

Keywords: Aeration, Chlorination, Groundwater, Iron and Manganese Treatment, KMnO4

Modelling of the Effect of Critical Seepage Force on the Aquifer Soil Medium of a Borehole (Published)

There have been records of failures and quicksand conditions in boreholes in recent times impeding the performance and operation of boreholes which may have resulted from various factors ranging from construction problems, drilling inaccuracies, fitting and installation problems, some chemical effects within the aquifer medium etc, but it has been ignored that the beneficial factor to the operation of water boreholes; seepage force could get to a considerable value that it becomes unsafe for the well operation thereby causing dislodgement of sand particles and sandstones from the wall of the borehole and the flow paths to the extent that sandstones experience boiling. The scouring of the particles collected at the wall of the transport pipe could damage the installations which is a huge financial loss to the owners of these facilities. Moreover, when soil particles flow, it makes the yield a poor one hence this research works to investigate the contribution of seepage force to the failure of boreholes. A mathematical/laboratory model was used and an expression for calculating the critical hydraulic head causing critical seepage deduced as  =. Tables 2 and 3 and Figures 4, 5 and 6  have shown that there is strong agreement between the mathematical model and the laboratory check with closest agreement at the flow distance of 1.8m flow distance and a correlation analysis has shown a perfect correlation of 1.00975. It was also established that the well pump of 760watts power could be operated safely at 220volts beyond which the hydraulic head get more critical. Finally, irrespective of the fact that an increase in hydraulic head increases discharge, the system should be operated at a head safe for the performance of the well.

Keywords: Borehole, Failure, Groundwater, Modelling, Seepage Force

CHEMICAL PREDICTION OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN PARTS OF OWERRI IMO STATE IN SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA (Published)

The Chemical prediction of groundwater quality in parts of Owerri in Imo State was carried out. The chemical parameters of groundwater samples from Nekede, Ihiagwa, Eziobodo, Obinze and Avu were subjected to chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques . In the study, an equation was formulated that will predict the chemical concentrations of contaminants of the groundwater aquifer at any given distance in Owerri in Imo State. A total of three replicates of fifteen different borehole water samples were collected based on distances from closest potential sources of contamination. All parameters were detected up to 60m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. The results for concentration of Mn, Zn, Mg, and Hardness decreased as distance increases while further increase in distance may decrease or increase the values of Cu. Results also showed that most of the boreholes were polluted and not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from septic tanks, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

Keywords: Chemical., Distance, Groundwater, Owerri West

Chemical Prediction of Groundwater Quality in parts of Owerri Imo state in South Eastern Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

The Chemical prediction of groundwater quality in parts of  Owerri  in  Imo State was carried  out. The chemical parameters of groundwater samples from  Nekede, Ihiagwa, Eziobodo, Obinze  and Avu  were  subjected to chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques  . In the study, an equation was formulated that will predict  the chemical concentrations of contaminants of the groundwater aquifer at any given distance in  Owerri   in Imo State.  A total of three replicates of fifteen different borehole water samples were collected based on distances from closest potential sources of contamination.All parameters were detected up to 60m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the periods, pointing to infiltrations  from   storm water. The results for concentration of  Mn, Zn, Mg, and Hardness decreased as distance increases while further  increase in distance may decrease or increase the values of Cu. Results also showed that most of the boreholes were polluted and not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment.

This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting  of  wells from septic tanks, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended

Keywords: Chemical., Distance, Groundwater, Owerri West

AZIMUTHAL SQUARE ARRAY RESISTIVITY SOUNDING OF SHALLOW SUBSURFACE FRACTURE DISTRIBUTION IN PARTS OF THE EASTERN BASEMENT COMPLEX OF NIGERIA (Published)

Azimuthal square array resistivity sounding method was carried out at twelve (12) locations within Parts of the Eastern Basement Complex of Nigeria. The field data were collected using ABEM Terrameter with other accessories. For square – array, the location of measurement point is the centre point of the square and array size of 28m and 42m, 56m and 70m were used and each square was rotated in 150 increments about the centre point for a total of 3600.Data were analyzed using Origin pro. 8.0 Software. The results of the study showed the presence of fracture zones and seven (7) of the fracture zones were oriented in the NE – SW direction, while six (6) were oriented in the NW – SE direction indicating that the study area is has good potentials for ground water development.

Keywords: Abem Terrameter, Basement, Fracture, Groundwater, Resistivity, Square Array