Tag Archives: Gross Domestic Product

Insurance Business: A Panacea for Agricultural Sector Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

Insurance sector plays important role in the growth of Nigeria economy as well as agricultural sector. The study investigated the impact of insurance business on the growth of agricultural sector in Nigeria, using time series data for 18 years from 2000 to 2017, the data used were total insurance investment; total non-life insurance premium (Independent) and the agricultural sector output to Gross Domestic Product (Dependent) which was obtained from central bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin and also National insurance commission (NAICOM) statistical bulletin. OLS regression was conducted as well as Augmented Dickey Fuller unit root test which reveals that all the variables are stationary at the order of one, the test for cointegration shows that all the variables cointegrate when AGDP is the endogenous variable. The granger causality test reveals that there is a bidirectional relationship existing between AGDP and total non-life insurance premiums, while unidirectional relationship exists between AGDP and total life insurance premiums with no causal relationship existing between AGDP and total insurance investments. The regression result shows that all the variables have significant impact on agricultural output to gross domestic product and also there is a positive relationship between all the predictors and agricultural output to GDP. It was therefore concluded that insurance serve as a remedy to the sustainability of agricultural sector in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that insurance sector should provide adequate information particularly on the risk concerning agricultural sectors and also providing a maximum coverage for farmers and their products to reduce the risk which the farmers retained or being expose to in the sector.

Keywords: Agriculture, Gross Domestic Product, Insurance, Investment, Life Insurance, general insurance

The Role of Fiscal Policy in Achieving Economic Stability in Jordan (Published)

The present investigation inspected the effect of fiscal approach estimated by (Government use, Government incomes, inward open obligation, outside open obligation) notwithstanding fares and swelling factors on the Jordanian GDP development. Fiscal approach assumes a huge job in a monetary arrangement because of its capacity to acknowledge objectives went for by a national economy. Its instruments are viewed as one of the primary financial devices to accomplish monetary development and beat obstructions to monetary soundness. Notwithstanding its distributional and pro impacts, financial arrangement has steadiness initiating impacts, for example, government spending and expenses which impact total interest, along these lines influencing in general monetary factors and financial development. The significance of fiscal arrangement radiates from the way that open spending is viewed as the prime drive for financial movement of a nation by affecting the dimension of total interest and subsequently monetary development. Open incomes fill in as the principle wellspring of salary for a nation while open obligation is a piece of the administration’s spending, regardless of whether inside or outer. This paper introduces a utilization of a hypothetical model to survey the impacts of monetary arrangement on financial development.

Keywords: Economic Stability., Fiscal Policy, Gross Domestic Product, Jordanian economy., economic growth

Domestic Macroeconomic Drivers of Industrialization in Nigeria: Status and Prospects from the Manufacturing Sub-Sector (Published)

While most advanced economies are in the process of industrializing their economies, plots by successive governments to transform the economy Nigerian, from a commodity-driven to an industrialized one, has not yielded much fruits despite several industrial policies and reforms. Based on the United Nations/World Bank success yardsticks with theoretical framework rooted on the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis and the endogenous growth model, this study utilized K-class estimation procedure on Nigeria’s time series between 1990 and 2016. The result obtained indicates that infrastructural development, institutional framework, bank credit,foreign direct investment, electricity, stable exchange rate, low inflation and economic diversification are key drivers of industrialization. The findings also confirm that except the Nigerian economy achieves improved infrastructure delivery and institutional framework as well as stable domestic and currency prices, the efforts towards economic diversification agenda may be counterproductive. It is therefore expedient that Nigeria focuses on building strong macroeconomic fundamental that would accentuate its take-off to industrialization.

Keywords: Diversification, Gross Domestic Product, Industrialization, Macroeconomy, Manufacturing, Nigeria

Bank Fraud and Its Effect on Nigerian Economy- A Study of Selected Quoted Banks (Published)

This study assessed the effect of bank fraud on Nigerian economy  field survey research methods were employed in the study. Data were collected from the financial statements of the selected banks in Nigeria This study adopted both descriptive and inferential statistics to achieve the stated objective. The descriptive statistics used included measures of central tendency such as mean, maximum and minimum and measure of variability such as, variance and  standard deviation. The inferential statistics adopted was OLS Model –Multiple Linear Regression Analysis.  Customers’ deposits and Bank distress were regressed on the various explanatory variables to determine the impact of banking fraud on the Nigerian economy. The study established that the relationships are significant and that the models can be used for meaningful analysis and decision making. Again it was ascertained that  there is a great level of interaction between bank fraud and economic development of Nigeria. This research work has attempted to highlight the incidence and magnitude of fraud and some of its negative impact on the Nigeria economy. Fraud inflicts severe financial difficulty on banks and their customers. The study recommended that banks need to strengthen their internal control systems to be able to detect and prevent fraud and fraudulent activities and to protect its assets. The regulatory and supervisory bodies of banks in Nigeria need to improve their supervision using all tools at their disposal to appropriately check and curtain the incidence of fraud and fraudulent practices in the banking industry in Nigeria.

Keywords: Bank Distress, Bank Fraud, Gross Domestic Product, Per Capital Income

Influence of Trade Liberalization on the Growth of Nigerian Economy: Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach (Published)

This study examined the relationship between trade liberalization and economic growth proxied by gross domestic growth rate in Nigeria. The study specifically assessed whether there is a long run and short run causal relationship running from trade liberalization to economic growth in Nigeria. Trade liberalization was measured using trade openness, exchange rate, total import trade, total export trade and balance of trade. The data for the study were source from the CBN statistical bulletin for the period 1986 to 2014. The study used the Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) technique for data analysis. Findings from the analyses showed that trade liberalization has no long run causal relationship with gross domestic product growth rate in Nigeria. Also, trade openness and exchange rate have no short run causal relationship with gross domestic product growth rate in Nigeria. Lastly, total import trade, total export trade and balance of trade has short run causal relationship with gross domestic product growth rate in Nigeria. The study on the basis of these findings recommends the efficient use of total import trade, total export trade and balance of trade policy measures of trade liberalization in other to maximally benefit from trade liberalization.

Keywords: Exchange Rate, Gross Domestic Product, Trade Liberalization, trade openness

Economic Performance and Accrual Accounting Reform: OECD versus Non-OECD Countries (Published)

This paper examines whether economic performance indices of nations signals accrual accounting reform or whether they have random effect. The secondary analysis of accrual accounting data distilled from the report of the PWC global survey of accounting and financial reporting practices of 100 central governments was done using the logistic multiple regression model. Economic performance proxied by gross domestic product per capita positively signaled the likelihood of accrual accounting reform with OECD countries 10 times more likely to implement full accrual accounting than non-OECD countries. Growth rate of gross domestic product and debt as percentages of gross domestic product both negatively signaled the adoption accrual accounting reform while tax revenue as percentage of gross domestic product returned a mixed result. The results suggest that poorer non-OECD countries may be constrained by the cost of implementing accrual accounting reform and may therefore require assistance of multilateral development institutions. This study provides empirical evidence of some of the constraints militating against accrual accounting reform that have been canvassed in the literature.

Keywords: Gross Domestic Product, Public Debt, Public Finance, Public Sector Accounting, Tax Revenue, economic growth

Does Money Market Spur Economic Growth in Nigeria? Granger Causality Approach (Published)

This study examined the relationship between money market and economic growth in Nigeria. The study adopted money market instruments such as treasury bills (TBs), commercial papers (CPs) and bankers’ acceptances (BAs) as proxy for money market (independent variables), and gross domestic product (GDP) as proxy for economic growth (the dependent variable). Secondary time series data for the variables were collected from CBN Statistical Bulletin and the National Bureau of Statistics for the period 1989-2014. The study employed econometric techniques such as ADF, Unit Root Test, OLS, multiple regression and Granger Causality Test to analysed the study data; and found strong evidence that TBs, and CPs had positive and significant influence on GDP, while BAs had positive but insignificant influence on GDP in Nigeria. The granger causality test result revealed no directional causality relationship between TBs and GDP, meaning that TBs does not granger cause GDP and vice-versa. There was also no directional causality relationship between CPs and GDP, BAs and GDP. However, there exists bi-directional relationship running from CPs to TBs and BAs as it was established at 5 per cent level of significance. The study recommended among others that for the money market to influence meaningful economic growth and development in Nigeria, appropriate policies should be employed to strengthen and deepen the market.

Keywords: Bankers’ Acceptances, Commercial Papers, Gross Domestic Product, Money Market, Treasury Bills, economic growth

Does Money Market Spur Economic Growth In Nigeria? Granger Causality Approach (Published)

This study examined the relationship between money market and economic growth in Nigeria. The study adopted money market instruments such as treasury bills (TBs), commercial papers (CPs) and bankers’ acceptances (BAs) as proxy for money market (independent variables), and gross domestic product (GDP) as proxy for economic growth (the dependent variable). Secondary time series data for the variables were collected from CBN Statistical Bulletin and the National Bureau of Statistics for the period 1989-2014. The study employed econometric techniques such as ADF, Unit Root Test, OLS, multiple regression and Granger Causality Test to analysed the study data; and found strong evidence that TBs, and CPs had positive and significant influence on GDP, while BAs had positive but insignificant influence on GDP in Nigeria. The granger causality test result revealed no directional causality relationship between TBs and GDP, meaning that TBs does not granger cause GDP and vice-versa. There was also no directional causality relationship between CPs and GDP, BAs and GDP. However, there exists bi-directional relationship running from CPs to TBs and BAs as it was established at 5 per cent level of significance. The study recommended among others that for the money market to influence meaningful economic growth and development in Nigeria, appropriate policies should be employed to strengthen and deepen the market.

Keywords: Bankers’ Acceptances, Commercial Papers, Gross Domestic Product, Money Market, Treasury Bills, economic growth

The Convergence Analysis of the Economic Growth of Asean+3 Countries and its Influencing Factors (Published)

ASEAN  is a geo-political and economic organization which is established on August 8, 1967. The objectives of the establishment of ASEAN include accelerating the economic growth and the social progress of cultural and social in Southeast Asia area. it is known that the income of ASEAN + 3 member countries is still very unbalanced with the index rate of an average of 0.98 per year. However, when it is viewed from year to year during the estimation period, the value of the Williamson Index tends to decrease, although it is very low. This shows the tendency of the movement of economic growth is increasingly convergent with the decreasing inequality level. The results of the analysis through calculation of Williamson Index are also in accordance with the results of the analysis conducted by panel data method. The result of panel data analysis shows that there is conditional and unconditional convergence process of economic growth of ASEAN + 3 countries because the dependent variable lag coefficient of -0.1 and -0.2 is between -1 and 0.

Keywords: Developing Country, Gross Domestic Product, Income, economic growth

Effect of Petroleum Profit Tax on Economic Growth in Nigeria (Published)

The study examines the effect of petroleum profit tax on economic growth of Nigeria. Income from petroleum taxes is the proxy for PPT while economic growth was measured using Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The research adopted expos-facto research as secondary data were used for the analysis. Data were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the Federal Statistical Bureau. The study covered twelve year period (2004-2015). Time series data were analyzed using the simple linear regression.  The results reveals that  PPT had positive and significant effect on Nigerian GDP. The study recommends that the government should provide the necessary human and material infrastructures that are needed to support petroleum business so they can earn more income that will boost taxation.

Keywords: Gross Domestic Product, Nigeria, Petroleum Profit Tax, economic growth

An Assessment of the Casual Relationship between Economic Growth and Indirect Taxes in Nigeria (Published)

The study examines the causal relationship between economic growth and indirect taxes in Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was employed and time series data were sourced from Central Bank Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin of various years 1994-2014. Multiple regression inferential statistics was used for data analysis. The result reveals that VAT has a positive significance effect on GDP. This is because the computed t-statistic of 3.142 is greater than the critical value table value of 2.120. The result of the second hypothesis also showed that the computed t- statistic of 4.557 is greater than the critical table value of 2.120 thus, proving that CED actually has a positive significance effect on GDP. The study conclude and that VAT and CED as indirect taxes contributes to economic growth in Nigeria, hence government should intensify effort to ensure immediate response of payment by the general public as flow of fund will encourage faster economic growth.

Keywords: Custom and Excise duties, Gross Domestic Product, Value Added Tax, economic growth

Evaluation of the Contribution of Nigerian Stock Market on Economic Growth; Regression Approach (Published)

The paper evaluates the contribution of Nigerian Stock Market on Economic Growth. In order to achieve this, regression analysis and ordinary least square technique was employed. The result indicates a positive relationship between economic growth, all share index and market capitalization with a 99.1% R-square value and a 99%  adjusted  R-squared value implying that economic growth in Nigeria is adequately explained by the developed model. The result of this study which established positive links between the capital market and economic growth suggests that policies geared towards rapid development of the capital market should be initiated.

Keywords: All share index, Gross Domestic Product, Market Capitalization, Nigerian Stock Market, Regression Analysis, Value of Transaction, economic growth

Impact of Macroeconomic Variables on GDP: Evidence from Pakistan (Published)

This research examines the impact involving macroeconomic variables like inflation, real exchange rate and interest rate on GDP of Pakistan within the light involving 32 year time series data from 1980 to 2011. Research was a secondary data based, Descriptive statistics and multiple regression investigation was used to analyze the information. Econometric model used by analysis was comprised of GDP seeing that dependent variable even though the independent factors were interest rate, exchange rate and inflation rate. Data taken from intending for these variables through the website of the State Bank of Pakistan in addition to the World Bank. The individual significance of the variables, overall value and fairness of the econometric model analyzed. The study found that there’s a significant effect of inflation rate, interest rate and exchange rate of GDP. So far as the indicators of co-efficient are concerned, the inflation rate interest rate had a negative impact on GDP while exchange rate possessed positive relation to GDP. Based on the results and analysis it is suggested that the Government adopted tight monetary policy due to inflation because the results suggest that inflation provides significant effect but negative relation to GDP. In the case of developing countries like the Pakistan quality value of the exchange rate must be maintained since the results show that there’s a considerable and constructive impact involving exchange rate with GDP. Ceiling of interest rate should reduce to boost the economy.

Keywords: Gross Domestic Product, Inflation rate and Exchange rate., Interest Rate

Value Added Tax and Economic Development in Nigeria (Published)

This paper attempts to examine the relationship between Value added tax and Economic development: in Nigeria. It is expected that this study will be of immense use to both the Government and general public. The study covered 18years period between 1994 and 2012. Multiple regression was used to analyse the data gotten from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin of various years. The result of the multiple regression showed a negative significant relationship between value added tax revenue and Gross domestic product. Also, the result showed a positive significant relationship between Gross domestic product and Total consolidated revenue. We recommend that federal government should educate the general public more on the essential of VAT payments and also that machineries should be put in place to ensure that VAT revenue does reduce as this will help foster economic development. Also, VAT rate should be increased as it will account for more revenue to the government.

Keywords: Gross Domestic Product, Total Consolidated Revenue, Value Added Tax

External Debt and Economic Growth: The Nigeria Experience (Published)

This research work was aimed at ascertaining the impact of external debt on economic growth in Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. While data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), External Debt Stock and External Debt Service Payment were obtained from World Bank International Debt Statistics, Exchange Rate data were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, 2013. The period of study was 1980-2013. Model was formulated and data were analyzed using Ordinary Least Square. Diagnostic tests were conducted using Augmented Dick Fuller Unit Root Test, Co-integration and Error Correction Model. The independent variable was GDP, while the explanatory variables were External Debt Stock, External Debt Service Payment and Exchange Rate. We discovered that External Debt had a positive relationship with Gross Domestic Product at short run, but a negative relationship at long run. Also, while External Debt Service Payment had negative relationship with Gross Domestic Product, Exchange Rate had a positive relationship with it. The paper concluded that exchange rate fluctuation had positive impact on the Nigerian economy while external debt stock and debt service payment had negative impact on the same economy. The study recommended amongst others, that Debt Management Office should set mechanism in motion to ensure that loans were utilized for purposes for which they were acquired as well as set a ceiling for borrowing for states and federal governments based on well-defined criteria.

Keywords: Debt Stock, Exchange Rate, External Debt, External Debt Service Payment, Gross Domestic Product