Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Concentrations at Wood-Based Burnt Brick Sites in Selected Local Government Areas of Benue State, Nigeria (Published)
This study evaluated the concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, CH4 and NH3 at sixteen wood-based burnt brick sites selected from eight purposively sampled Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benue State. The six greenhouse gases were monitored for two years, from 2012 to 2013, using CROWCON Gasman Digital Gas Meters. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in analyzing collected data. Results indicate that the concentrations of each of the greenhouse gases were significantly much higher during the dry season compared to their wet season concentrations (p<.0.5). There were also significant differences in the inter-local government concentrations of the assessed gases within the same period. The use of fuelwood to burn bricks is believed to have principally resulted in the observed significantly higher concentrations of the greenhouse gases during the dry season, from the months of November to March, and corresponds with the season of active wood-based burnt bricks production. The production of perforated bricks can reduce the volume of fuelwood used since the bricks are hollow and can be cured faster, and thus save energy cost as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Greener alternative energy sources (like solar, wind, liquefied hydrogen gas and hydro) should be used in firing bricks as this can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from burning wood at brick sites.
Implementation of Fuzzy Controller to Reduce Water Irrigation in Greenhouse Using LabVIEW (Published)
Plant cultivation in greenhouse is influenced by various factors, such as soil quality, water availability, and climatic conditions. Techniques have been developed either to adapt food crops to their environment or to adjust the environment to meet plant needs. In this paper, a fuzzy controller (FC) has been implemented for monitored drip irrigation duration to reduce water using as variables soil moisture degree and air temperature in greenhouse. Soil moisture degree can be detected by an electronic circuit based on a capacitive probe. The FC permits to irrigate at the right time, when the plant needs water and the soil water is insufficient. Sensors and actuators (pump and solenoid) are installed and connected to a PC via a data acquisition card NI PCI 6221. A graphical user interface was developed using LabVIEW to acquire data and monitor drip irrigation station.