Phenotypic Diversity and Correlation Coefficient Analysis of Open Pollinated Maize Varieties in Uganda (Published)
Maize (Zea mays L.) is among the most important cereal crops grown and consumed in East Africa. Improved open pollinated maize varieties prevail popular among resource-poor farmers due to their low cost of production. Despite the advantages of OPVs in Uganda current trends show that open pollinated varieties are being continuously replaced by hybrids, and maize production is constrained by foliar diseases and abiotic (drought) factors. Therefore, it has become important to broaden the genetic pool of OPVs by characterising them using agronomic and diseases related traits. In this study, nineteen OPVs and five checks were phenotypically characterised at the National Crop Resources Research Center in α-lattice design. The results showed highly significant (P < 0.001) variations among the local and introduced OPVs in most of agronomic traits, except plant aspect, grey leaf spot and stem borer. An OPV SUWAN showed the highest grain yield (10.22 t ha-1) performance. The least number of days to anthesis, silking and stem lodging was observed on OPV SITUKA MI. Regarding correlation coefficient analysis, the result showed that positive significant (P < 0.001) correlations were observed between days to anthesis and silking (r = 0.99). The highest negative and significant (P < 0.001) correlation was observed between percentage of fuzarium ear rot and number of kennels per row (r = -0.67).
Two years Evaluation of Four contrasting organic wastes on soil productivity and maize yield in Ultisol at Igbariam soil south east Nigeria (Published)
Famers since history in agriculture use animal waste to conserve their soil and improve crop yield. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was set up to study the effect of four (4) contrasting animal wastes on soil productivity and maize grain yield for two consecutive years in Igbariam soil south east Nigeria. The waste comprising of cow dung (CD), pig dropping (PGD), poultry droppings (PD) and goat droppings (GD) were applied at rate of 24kg/plot (equivalent to 20 tha-1) in the first year and their residual effect tested in the second year cropping. Results showed that application of animal wastes significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the soil properties and yield parameters of maize tested, for the 2 years study. The immediate effect of animal wastes in improving the soil pH of the amended plots gave corresponding increases in the values recorded for the soil parameters tested with a reduction in bulk density relative to the control plot for two consecutive years of study. Maize grain yield showed highest value (3.54 tha-1) and plant height 163.9 cm in PD first year cropping but second year cropping result depicted PGD to record highest maize grain yield value (1.96 tha-1) among the other treatments. The findings from the study showed that the use of animal wastes in crop production system can improve the productivity of soil and increased crop yield.
Adaptability and genotype by environment interaction of maize commercial hybrid varieties from East African seed companies in Rwandan environments (Published)
Maize (Zea mays L.) has known an unprecedented development for the past six years in Rwanda. The major factor behind this great achievement was the Crop Intensification Program (CIP). However maize hybrid varieties had little impact on maize production increase because they were not available. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the adaptability of maize commercial varieties from East African seed companies in Rwanda and to identify those to be used to increase maize production. Fourteen commercial hybrids, four hybrid cultivars released in Rwanda and five Open Pollinated Varieties (OPVs) were evaluated in four sites of mi-altitudes (18 entries) and four sites of highlands (10 entries). Results showed that RHM104, PAN53, PAN67, WH507, WH505, WH403 and RHM101 in mid-altitudes and H629, SC719, SC637, PAN691 and WH504 in highlands were high yielding and stable across environments. They were recommended to be used in Rwanda.